more attention was paid to the role of translation, while the role of listening and speaking as well as the communicative function of language were neglected. This explains why grammar and translation skills were sought after in the early stage of English teaching. After the reform, China’s communication with the world has become more and more frequent. People have begun to realize the importance of improving English through learning. In English teaching, they have begun to attach importance to the cultivation of students’ listening and speaking skills. With the development of society, people pay more attention to the cultivation of students’ comprehension ability in English. They must be able to read, write, listen and speak. Therefore, the eclectic method has been promoted. In view of this, the change in the values of English language is the main factor that promotes the transformation of English teaching methods  .
College English is a required course for every student in colleges or universities in mainland China. The purpose of College English teaching in mainland China is to develop students’ English language proficiency, especially in listening and speaking skills, so that they can use English to communicate effectively in the future study, work and social interactions, while enhancing their self-learning ability and cultural awareness to adapt to the development of our society and to meet the need for international exchanges. 90 non-English-majored under- graduate students in Yangtze University participated in this study for one-year experiment to investigate effects of CBI English teaching with IBLL support. Results in this study showed that 1) compared with the control group (CG), both CBI English teaching and CBI English teaching with IBLL support could improve the level of English learning motivation of non-English-majored undergraduate students in their English learning, and CBI English teaching with IBLL support is better in enhancing the level of English learning motivation; 2) compared with the control group (CG), both CBI English teaching and CBI English teaching with IBLL support could im- prove the level of English language applied ability of non-English-majored undergraduate students in their Eng- lish learning, and CBI English teaching with IBLL support is better in enhancing the level of English language applied ability; 3) both CBI English teaching and CBI English teaching with IBLL support are limited for some non-English-majored undergraduate students with poor foreign language (English) basis.
Multimedia has been widely used in teaching, such as PPT, slide, hu- man-computer dialogue, network courses and so on. First of all, the multimedia courseware is applied in college English teaching. Through the tasks which are reasonable designed and of strong pertinence and operability, the sound, images and symbols are used in the classroom teaching to increase the amount of in- formation, combining with the environment, and achieving the best teaching ef- fect. Using a fixed template to make PPT through multimedia, you can paste or link the text, picture, audio and video according to your own needs. Teachers can design courseware freely and independently according to their own willing- ness, and can also update them in a timely manner and continue to apply the latest information and research results in teaching. Second, teachers should ac- tively use the internet and multimedia equipments, and collect extensively re- lated teaching content of the real scene images, audio and video materials with pure tone and positive attitude, in order to give college students direct feelings, and fully mobilize all the senses of theirs.
As it was mentioned in the review of literature, role-playing, TBLT, motivation, and psychomotor activities, as focal issues, have been fully studied in the field. Each of these issues has been seen from different perspectives. Role-playing is said to be an excellent way for students to learn in a nontraditional fashion where it motivates them to be active their own learning. Role-playing is repeatedly recommended as a technique to be used in the classroom and a great way to make connection between the outside world and the classroom. TBLT, as a recent outcome of communicative approach, attracted the practitioners’ attention. Nunan defines a communicative task as ‘ a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form’. Motivation is also praised to be a driving force for the whole learning process, although, some doubt the research on it. However, no teaching method has ever taken all these useful factors with the domination of role-playing in the form of simulators at workshop. ETS attempts to do this by making a serious innovation to keep the learner aroused by being active on the scene. The results of this study showed that the integration of all these elements in the system of ETS would make better language learners.
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The evaluation of instructional activities consists of three parts: the evaluation of instructional objectives, the evaluation of instructional process and the evalua- tion of instructional results. From Instructional Ob- jectives, Teachers can grasp key points and difficul- ties in the textbook and give learners clear and detail objectives according to instructional plan, textbook and learner. From Instructional Process, in percep- tive teaching, teachers should give learners enough time for them to comprehend language knowledge that learners are expected to acquire in the classroom. Per- ceptive teaching should also focus on learners’ affec- tive factors. Teachers are supposed to stimulate learn- ers’ interests, attitudes, or motivation to learn English. The learning atmosphere should be harmonious and democratic. From Instructional Results, Teachers and learners should accomplish the instructional ob- jectives and tasks. Learners’ language skills can be improved greatly. Their cognitive structures will change. English learners show great interests in learn- ing English. Their attitudes, values, or beliefs will change, too. Above all, learners’ learning methods can be more adapt for them.
After the reform and opening up, with the upgrading of China’s comprehensive strength, the road of social- ism with Chinese characteristics and target has an initial completion, which accelerates the pace of de- velopment in various industries. In today’s pluralistic society, due to the nature of the industry, the rapid increase in the demand for English results in more and more English learners. Later, with the rise of various educational systems and institutions, China’s English education industry becomes very complicated, but generally without a good practical benefit. Therefore, China should highlight the practical English educa- tion, and the reform of its status quo is very necessary. This paper will carry out the relevant research on the direction of the transition of China’s practical English education, and find out the future reform strategies of China’s practical English education.
more than 70 partners almost all the well-known universities in the United States. The edX slogan is the spread of the world's top universities of the outstanding courses. It can be said, MOOCs provide high quality educational resources for all overlapping courses have a huge impact, of course, college English teaching has also formed a huge challenge. For example, when a college student to learn English writing this course, he from the international MOOCs platform optional Mu class is University of Reading St-eve Thomas Professor A Beginner's Writing in English forUniversity Study, Duke University Denise Comer taught Eng-lish composition I: Achieving Expertise, University of California, Berkeley Maggie Sokolik taught College Writing Principles of Written English and so on.  Can the English writing course (even if it is an online course) offered by the school retain its attractiveness to students when it comes to access to such a large number of high quality resources? And the teachers who take up these courses are undoubtedly faced with being The teacher to do a great deal of pressure.
taking place. This in turn requires the change of the college English teaching strategies with time. Therefore, to understand the teaching strategies used by college English teachers in China and to help them optimize them are not only inevitable in today’s society but also an objective requirement to improve the Chinese college students’ English proficiency. However, relevant research shows that in college English teaching many Chinese teachers still stick to the traditional teaching strategies, resulting in the unsatisfactory teaching effects. Then, what teach- ing strategies should the present college English teachers adopt? Do different types of college English teachers choose different teaching strategies? And how can their teaching strategies be optimized? In this article, we will review the present college English teachers’ teaching strategies in China, classify the college English teachers into different types from two dimensions of the length of teaching and the professional titles, compare the ad- vantages and disadvantages of the teaching strategies used by different types of teachers, and then put forward the path to optimize their teaching strategies.
Course bibliography refers to books, articles, official documents, web pages, etc., that students read or consult for class. As Grosse (1991) indicates, reading materials “either reflect the knowledge base for the subject or establish it” (p. 38). The course bibliography in the Chilean syllabi is divided into primary readings and supplementary readings. Between the two, there were 466 resources listed in the 46 syllabi, with an average of 10.13 (range: 2-21) resources listed in each syllabus. There were 200 different titles listed, the majority of which are books. Only six courses at four universities list web pages as resources and only five universities included Ministry of Education documents, such as the National Curriculum and the English plans and programs by grade level. One university included two academic articles in their methodology course bibliography, and only one university listed a journal as a reference, the English Teaching Forum, a publication distributed by the U.S. State Department.
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Teaching of English is a growing field in the training education of Asian students. The vitality of English teaching for Asian students with regards to achievement of goals set by organizational as well as licensed credentials has been discussed and is often linked to the learning outcome of the students. In developing countries like China and India, national level recognized organizations struggle to implement common, open and accurate accreditation models, which has been a problem of English teaching for bright students. Finding the chances of bilateral acceptance and migration of students would assist for international recognition. So, English teachers and researchers should meet with new orientations and teach English differently. Technology students trained well with professional usage of English in schools can be a specialist in technology.
English teaching, it mainly elaborated multimedia aided teaching that has gradually become the modern teaching means, compared with traditional English teaching, it had great advantages that can effectively promote the English teaching reform; Wang Yuzhen’s modern multimedia in the application of English teaching was mainly aimed at middle school English education analysis of the use of multimedia to create learning situation, the media can be understood as a tool means in teaching, and had the important tool of traditional teaching thought; Wu Yang wrote the university English listening, speaking and teaching based on multimedia resources, which emphasized on the use of multimedia technology for the positive impact on college English listening, speaking and teaching, it was reform and the innovation of English listening, speaking and teaching[3,4]. It can make the university English unity that had positive effect on English listening, speaking and teaching, to offer extremely advantageous new teaching direction.
will probably die while the plant will grow well when it is with another plant. The symbiotic effect shows the greatness of co- operation. As college English teaching is a kind of micro-eco- system, cooperation is indispensable in the process of ecologi- cal college English teaching. First, cooperation is important among English teachers. Colleges and related sectors should advocate the spirit of teamwork and cultivate college English teachers’ win-win thought. Teaching seminars, teaching con- tests, and teaching meetings should be organized to improve college English teachers teaching abilities. On the other hand, cooperation is also necessary among college students according to the ecological theory of “Niche” which conveys that differ- ent individuals will compete with each other and as a conse- quence each individual’s adaptability gets improved. Consider- ing this, college teachers can design different cooperative ac- tivities according to different teaching contents. For example, when dealing with some language points, the teachers can make two students cooperate with each other to strengthen their mem- ory. While coming to discuss the theme of a text, 3 - 4 students’ cooperation is better. The last but not the least, cooperation between the teachers and the students is absolutely essential. The relationship between the teachers and students is not only teaching and learning. More important, they must cooperate with each other. In the process of ecological college English teaching, the teachers and the students depend on each other and benefit from each other, that is to say, the existence of one part is the condition of the other part and the change of one part influence the other part directly or indirectly. So on the basis of the cooperation among the college English teachers, the stu- dents and the cooperation between the teachers and the students, the efficiency of the college English teaching is certain to be improved.
Among the four skills of studying English, listening which is the most im- portant way to obtain language information and improve the other three skills comes the first. However, it is very difficult for most English learners to improve their listening ability. There are many factors that contribute to this phenomenon: one is that students didn’t get systematical listening training in high school; the other is that the monotonous teaching model makes stu- dents lose interest in listening to English. This study aims to change the tra- ditional English teaching method by applying the Negotiated Teaching Mode to English listening teaching. English majors from two classes of a university were selected as the subjects. The research lasted for eighteen weeks. The results showed that compared with the control class, English lis- tening performance of the experimental class was significantly improved. Students from the experimental class had more positive changes in their in- terests and listening abilities, which indicated that this teaching mode was feasible.
Vocabulary teaching is very important in college English teaching. Although traditional vocabulary teaching costs a lot of time and effort, the actual teaching effect is not so good. The so-called asso- ciative teaching is to deepen grammar and cultural connotation from the perspective of form, sound and meaning in its essence. This article has analyzed the problems exist in college English vocabulary teaching and proposed the application countermeasures of associative teaching strat- egy in college English vocabulary teaching starting from the mode and importance of associative teaching strategy, which has laid foundation for improving the efficiency of college English voca- bulary teaching.
Considering the importance of teaching English, many curriculum reforms took place targeting the improvement of English teaching and learning scenario in Bangladesh. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)-based curriculum was introduced at the sec- ondary level of education in 1996 with a desire to bring positive changes in English lan- guage teaching and learning. Later in 2001, the first CLT-based SSC English examination took place countrywide. Regarding this, it should be noted that public examination or high stakes examinations have commonly been used to implement the curriculum in many other countries too (Cheng, 1998, 2002, 2005). But “ the nature of high-stakes-test-induced curricular control is highly dependent on the structures of the tests themselves” (Au, 2007, p. 258). So, it is necessary to examine the examination itself to understand if it is adequate to serve the purpose. However, no scholarly research article has been published so far aiming at examining the SSC English examination from a schol- arly standpoint. The primary aim of this article, henceforth, is to review the characteristics of the SSC English examination from a critical perspective and describe them as it is from scholarly perspectives.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) has probably be- come a prominent methodology and a guide for syllabus design in various EFL contexts. It has been recognized that CLT is an advanced methodology with strengths in developing communi- cative competence and enhancing learner autonomy (e.g., Lit- tlewood, 1981; Li, 1984; Bax, 2003). With regard to the Chi- nese context, there is a view that CLT should be adopted to promote language teaching for the following two reasons (Li, 1984). First, the “perceived” Chinese teaching methods men- tioned in some literature (e.g., Harvey, 1985; Anderson, 1993), such as grammar-translation method, have been criticized for their weakness in developing students’ oral communicative skills in actual language use (Li, 1984). Second, with more and more politically and economically prosperous development of China, such as the events of the Olympics in 2008 and World Expo in 2010, English is gaining more importance. Chinese language teaching has undergone a series of innovations in terms of modernizing teaching methodology and revising the teaching objectives of which communicative competence should be given more importance. In 2003, the Chinese ministry of Education proposed new College English Curriculum Standards. This has stimulated innovations in English teaching in 180 key universities. Take Suzhou University as an example: it requires that all the graduates must pass an oral English test as well as a written test in order to get a degree. From the above discussion, it seems both Chinese researchers and teachers are inclined to adopt CLT as the “right” approach for China. However, it should be highlighted that CLT is based on Western settings; it is still arguable how culturally appropriate it is regarding Chi- nese culture of teaching and learning. This article will set out to explore this question.
and intercultural communication to include many aspects that are not covered by a narrow definition of culture as the way of life, attitudes and opinions, foods, fairs, and folklores of a nation’s citizens. If culture is now seen as encompassing much larger historical processes - the memories and aspirations of people who identify themselves not necessarily by their nationality, but by their language variety, their gender, race, ethnicity, age, or occupation - then culture, thus understood, is likely to affect the way speakers of English use the English language. In this case, the Chinese learner of English who thought he could learn culture by consulting the internet (see above) might wonder why, when conversing with a native speaker, he still does not understand what the native speaker is saying, even though he can comprehend every word, nor why he seems to have offended his interlocutor, even though his grammar was perfect. Indeed, what he can get from the internet is the WHAT of culture: the facts, information, explanations, and expert advice on things to say or not to say. What he cannot get from the internet is the WHY: Why are people offended by what I have said? Why did they get so upset by what I have done? Why do they attach so much importance to particular things, people or events? It is not enough to understand people’s words, opinions and feelings - one has to understand their intensity.
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Teaching English vocabulary to children‟s is challenging. Teacher needs some creativity in teaching learning process. Allen and Vallete (1983:116-117) state that teaching vocabulary can be meaning full if the teacher can conduct the teaching process by combining the available technique of teaching. It‟s hoped that a good technique will be more enjoyable, interesting and motivating. So, that the student will not be bored in the teaching learning process. It will help them to get the material stay longer. It means that the teacher has to be aware with the kinds of teaching technique that she or he will use to come to her goal.
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If we look at the history of English language teaching in Nepal in the respect of government aided schools almost 20 years back, teaching and learning of it used to be from grade 4. But later the trend has got changed, it started to be taught from Nursery level or grade 1. There was no concept of technology- enhanced language learning. There was higher influence of grammar translation in the beginning in Nepal. After that the trend of ELT moved to direct method in it. Then structural language teaching and audio-lingual methods existed. The communicative approach has dominated English language teaching, it has firmly established itself on a worldwide basis and there are good historical reasons for this with purpose of language is communicative competence, and that communicative functions and notions set in situations are an integral aspect of the equation. Language is no longer seen as abstract grammatical rules, but of having applications in social contexts and as such it is not just about ‘grammar’ but also about functions and notions. More recently Kumaravadivelu’s work (2001) attempts a shift in ELT by identifying limitations associated with CLT methodology and arguing for a focus on particularity, practicality and possibility within a post-method paradigm. This has influenced the English language teaching in Nepal also. The concept of teaching English for specific purposes has got initiation in Nepalese ELT context. Teaching English for academic purposes has also influenced the scenario of ELT in Nepal. The concept of multilingualism is heard. The concept of English as a foreign language is changed as English as an international language. The concept of critical applied linguistics is being started in the pedagogy for dealing with problems emerging in the Nepalese ELT.
requisite to international ESL jobs and was the basic requirement, along with a teaching degree, to employment in primary and high schools in Brunei Darussalam, where I was employed by the Centre of British Teachers (CfBT). The second level of certification is the Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults (DELTA), which is a post- experience course requiring participants to have taught ESL full-time for at least 2 years. The course can be taken full-time (8-10 weeks), in-service (8-10 months) or via the internet as a distance learning (DL) online PD course of 10 months duration. Although the course is designed for teaching English to adults, the qualification is still recognised as appropriate for teaching at high school level as there is no equivalent children‟s teaching course. The Distance DELTA was designed and is run by the British Council and International House, London, and is proving to be very popular as participants are able to follow the course in-service in any worldwide location. Participants are supported by a local tutor who is responsible for lesson observations, tutorials, seminars and examination preparation. I acted as a local tutor for the Online DELTA for over 4 years and was impressed by the effectiveness of the internet as a tool for supporting and supervising a DL course. I feel strongly that, with material suitably adapted to their needs, a similar online system can be utilised to provide international EL teachers at high school level with a valuable distance learning professional development course in English language teaching.
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