# Teaching of Statistics

## Top PDF Teaching of Statistics:

### Cultivation of College Students’ Digital Economic Honesty in the Teaching of Statistics

3.3. Developing the Behavioral Habit of “Maintaining Integrity” The formation of credit requires a process of accumulation. It is necessary to build a good credit image through continuous accumulation. The establishment of statistical credit requires the efforts of the vast number of statisticians through hard work, so that every teacher and every student can do their best to maintain statistical integrity. In this way, there is hope in the establishment of integrity. In the traditional statistical classroom, however, the students mainly listen to the teacher’s analysis and observe their operation, while rarely do their own hands to verify and question the teacher’s point of view. To develop the behavior of “maintaining integrity” in the statistical classroom, students need to participate in all aspects. They should experience every aspect of teaching, from the class- room scene, on-machine experiments and on-campus and off-campus research to experience the formation of theory, data, results, so as to expand their ability to apply statistical knowledge, and cultivate their digital economic integrity ha- bits.

### Creating artificial data for teaching of statistics

For the purpose of teaching statistics, lecturers often rely on data from real studies, text book examples or painstakingly created datasets. The process of creating a dataset can be made easier with the utilization of PASW Statistics to generate random values. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the creation of data which are measured on continuous scale, using PASW Statistics menus and syntax.

### XLR: A Free Excel Add In for Introductory Business Statistics

other statistical software to improve students’ learning curve. However, in endorsement of the Mathematical Association of America Guidelines for Programs and Departments in Undergraduate Mathematical Sciences [4], the American Statistical Association commented that “Generic packages such as Excel are not sufficient even for the teaching of statistics, let alone for research and consulting.” Numerous studies have highlighted the defi- ciencies and dangers of using Excel as a statistical pack- age for teaching and research. Reference [5-9] performs extensive studies to reveal that several statistical algo- rithms used in Excel yield erroneous results. Reference [10] demonstrates the danger of using Excel to perform regression analysis that involves correlated independent variables. Reference [11,12] discuss additional problems in using Excel while [13] recommends researchers against using Excel for any scientific purpose.

### Environmental Interfaces in Teaching Economic Statistics

Mainly developed since the 1990s, Statistics Education was conceived in an unease context, trying to question and reflect over problems related with the teaching and learning of this discipline. This educational perspective was ignited by the difficulties that students have in thinking or reasoning statistically even when they show calculation skills. Seeking to differentiate the pedagogical problems presented by Statistics from those presented by the teaching of Mathematics, several authors, such as Gal, Chance, Garfield and Ben-Zvi, among others, converged on the idea that the teaching of Statistics should focus on the development of three specific skills: statistical thinking, statistical reasoning, and statistical literacy.

### Teaching statistics to engineering students – an Australian experience of using educational technologies

The survey revealed consistent opinions regarding the two main directions for the future statistics module of the course. The majority of the students think that the course allowed less than sufficient time to teach statistics. They felt that the duration of 4 weeks is not enough to learn the statistical content of the course. Interestingly, most of the students suggested a stand-alone statistics course for Engineering. Some students were surprised that this was the only statistical component that they had seen in the whole engineering program. Many of the USQ students are of mature age and have long industrial experience and value statistical knowledge more than the fresh graduates who enter university directly from the colleges do. Giving due weight to statistics within the engineering curriculum would benefit the profession enormously, including augmenting the employability of our new graduates. Statistical methods are becoming an indispensable part of many scientific disciplines and engineering is no different. The views of the teaching team and the survey outcomes reinforce the need for increased formal teaching of statistics for engineering students. Therefore, this emphasizes the necessity of offering statistics as a stand-alone course and to include it as a learning outcome for the program. The idea is to include statistical concepts and methods in as many engineering courses as possible within the program, including setting and conducting experiments and hands-on analysis of experimental data using computing software and group projects to solve real engineering problems. Active participation of students and interaction among fellow colleagues [8] are essential to enhance students’ learning, and ensure hands-on statistical support in the process of teaching statistics to help solving diverse engineering problems.

### Teaching statistics to medical students using problem-based learning: the Australian experience

I visited the following universities with medical schools: the University of Western Australia, Perth, Flinders Uni- versity, Adelaide, Monash University, Melbourne, the University of Melbourne, the Australian National Univer- sity, Canberra (medical school about to commence), the University of Sydney, the University of Newcastle, and the University of Queensland, Brisbane. I omitted the Univer- sity of Adelaide, the University of New South Wales, and James Cook University, Townsville, but was able to get information from them by email. I identified potential informants from the university website and emailed them as follows: 'I am interested in the teaching of statistics to medical students. Last year I visited several medical schools in Australia, but unfortunately I did not manage to visit [your university] on this trip, a serious omission. I have written a report on my experiences, which is availa- ble on one of my websites at http:// www.mbland.sghms.ac.uk/ozpbl.htm. I am particularly interested in how statistics is taught in problem-based learning programmes. I am presenting this material at the forthcoming International Biometrics Conference in Cairns and preparing a paper for possible publication. I would be very interested to learn how these matters are ordered in [your university] . . . Are you the right person to ask? If not, could you suggest someone who would be?' I obtained helpful replies from all three universities. Results

### Teaching statistics to medical students using problem-based learning: the Australian experience

I visited the following universities with medical schools: the University of Western Australia, Perth, Flinders Uni- versity, Adelaide, Monash University, Melbourne, the University of Melbourne, the Australian National Univer- sity, Canberra (medical school about to commence), the University of Sydney, the University of Newcastle, and the University of Queensland, Brisbane. I omitted the Univer- sity of Adelaide, the University of New South Wales, and James Cook University, Townsville, but was able to get information from them by email. I identified potential informants from the university website and emailed them as follows: 'I am interested in the teaching of statistics to medical students. Last year I visited several medical schools in Australia, but unfortunately I did not manage to visit [your university] on this trip, a serious omission. I have written a report on my experiences, which is availa- ble on one of my websites at http:// www.mbland.sghms.ac.uk/ozpbl.htm. I am particularly interested in how statistics is taught in problem-based learning programmes. I am presenting this material at the forthcoming International Biometrics Conference in Cairns and preparing a paper for possible publication. I would be very interested to learn how these matters are ordered in [your university] . . . Are you the right person to ask? If not, could you suggest someone who would be?' I obtained helpful replies from all three universities. Results

### Vulva Lesions In A Tertiary Institution In Nigeria

The vulva is the area adjacent to the vagina in female reproductive region. This area is laden with both neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. This is a retrospective study of the entire female genital tract specimen received at the Department of Pathology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar over a period of 10 years. A total of 6779 samples were received during the study period and 1602 were gynaecological lesions, out of which 175 were malignant. 13 malignant vulva tumors were seen with predominant squamous cell carcinoma (10 out of 13) and the rest were choriocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma which were one case each. Adenomyoma was the predominant benign lesion seen with 26 cases seen out of 33 benign lesions seen in the vulva.

### A study of the effectiveness of the contextual lab activity in the teaching and learning engineering statistics at the Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)

The conceptual framework of this research was adapted from [3]. The dependent variable of this study was the achievement test. The researchers investigated whether the use of the contextual concept in the lab activities influenced the students’ achievement in the statistics test as compared to the use of the non-contextual concept in the lab activities. Both groups were taught by the same lecturer to eliminate the extraneous variable.

### Making Sense of Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania: Emerging Issues and Implications for Future Practice

The government introduced the education policy in 2014 with the aim to improve teaching and learning facilities, including the availability of textbooks, laboratories and technological devices such as computers [5]. In achieving this objective, the Tanzanian government has ensured that one third of the required books are available in primary schools [16]. There has been an increase in enrolment since the declaration of fee free basic education without a clear correspondence to the availability of the textbooks. In the most recent statistics, primary school enrolment of pupils in Standard I-VII has increased by 8.5% from 9,317,791 pupils in the year 2017 to pupils 10,111,671 in the year 2018. In 2017 the average Pupils Book Ratio (PBR) ranged from 1: 5 and 1:6 while in 2018 there was a critical shortage of textbooks for history 1:6, ‘Najifunza Afya na mazingira’ 1:5 and ‘Najifunza Kuendeleza Sanaa na Michezo’ 1:5, [19]. It is possible to conclude that the prevalence of high PBR is attributed to the introduction of the fee free education policy. On the other hand, it is possible to agree that the PBR is affected by an increase of pupils’ enrolment but there has been a concern from educational stakeholders on the quality of the text-books. The major concern is on the textbooks whose content lack proper connection with the curriculum [27]. It is noted with concerns that the language used in English primary school textbooks is complex, in the sense that the majority of pupils could not read [28]. One would say, although there must be a significant PBR, still the need to maintain quality is inevitable. Reflecting on the SDG number four, it states that by 2030, member states should build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non

### Vol 15, No 2 (2016)

students who exit out of introductory statistics and enter their classes to use statistics. Therefore, a symbiotic relationship exists between statistics departments and client disciplines whereby statistics courses prepare students to be successful in their major area of study. Faculty attitudes and perceptions are an important area of research, particularly outside of mathematics and statistics departments, since statistics is widely taught and utilized by faculty across many client disciplines (Sterling, Rosenbaum, & Weinkam, 1995; Carlson, 2002; Switzer & Horton, 2007; Doehler, Taylor, & Smith, 2013). Indeed, Eichler (2010) states that future research should ―investigate the teachers’ attitudes towards statistics in more countries involving more representative samples of ordinary teachers‖ (p. 4). The research presented here considers individuals teaching statistics within many other disciplines. Therefore, it helps to fill a gap in the literature. Since statistics is utilized and taught by faculty in a large number of disciplines, it is imperative to also consider how faculty perceive statistics. If instructors have a poor attitude towards statistics and its usefulness, they could prevent statistics from being a positive experience for their students. Garfield, Hogg, Schau, and Whittinghill (2002) state that ―our courses should attempt to build strong positive attitudes towards statistics […] to increase their chances of using statistics after they leave our courses‖ (p. 3). It seems logical that if this is a goal, then instructors and other individuals who influence students should also have ―strong positive attitudes towards statistics.‖ Zieffler et al. (2008) recognize the need for instructors to help students have a positive learning experience when studying statistics. They also state that learning of statistics could increase if students’ attitudes toward the discipline improved. Therefore, student learning of statistics may increase when positive attitudes towards the discipline are displayed by faculty. Although this likely applies more so to faculty teaching statistics within any discipline, this may also apply to faculty who do not actually teach statistics. For example, if a student taking an introductory statistics class overhears a professor in another discipline saying that doing statistics is too hard for him/her, this could negatively impact the student’s learning.

### Teaching medical statistics to undergraduate medical students: what is taught and what is really useful for a medical professional? A report of the Education Committee of the Italian Society of Medical Statistics and Clinical Epidemiology (SISMEC)

institutional representatives of the academic medical world: the Presidents ‘pro tempore’ of the 50 academic medical disciplines and 56 Deans for Education of the medical courses. Six main domains were investigated: (1) epidemiology and demography, (2) biostatistics, (3) prognosis, (4) diagnosis, (5) efficacy, and (6) EBM. We chose to use a simpler form with a reduced number of more general topics in the hope to increase compliance. For every topic, the sole question was ‘How much is this skill useful for a medical professional’, allowing an answer on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from ‘not at all’ to ‘essential’. Further to every topic addressed in the questionnaire, we associated one or more appropriate elementary teaching units of the core curriculum defined by the Conference of Deans for Education of medical courses, in order to suggest the medical framework for which it could be applicable (http://presidenti-medicina.it/core- curriculum/). The English translation of the questionnaire is reported in supplementary Table S2.

### The Preparedness of Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers to Teach Statistics: A Cross-Institutional Mixed Method Study.

A teacher’s preparedness not only relies on cognitive aspects, but also affective constructs such as beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy (e.g., Ball et al., 2008). Teachers’ beliefs play a crucial role in the pedagogical approaches they use, the time spent on a subject, and impact students’ learning (e.g., Wilkins, 2008). However there is a lack of research on secondary teachers’ beliefs in regards to statistics and teaching statistics (Batanero et al., 2011). This study focuses on PSMTs’ self-efficacy for teaching high school students the statistical standards in CCSSM. Bandura (1986) defines self-efficacy as “people’s judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performance” (p.391). Judgments of one’s own self-efficacy are task-specific and change over time (Bandura, 1997; Pajares, 1997). A teacher has two types of self-efficacy for each content area they teach: self-efficacy to know the content themselves, and self-efficacy to teach the topic to students, known as teaching efficacy.

### The effect of explicit teaching of discourse markers on Iranian efl learners’ pragmatic fluency

4.53333, respectively and the significance level is 0.001; thus, the participants in the experimental group who were exposed to the treatment (explicit teaching of discourse markers) in contrast of control group in post-test had better performance. Also based on Figure 4.2 the frequency of using DMs among the experimental group was more than control group. The findings of this investigation were in line with Hays (1992) have a great investigation in DMs in classroom oral discourse. He asserted that discourse markers had a great influence on students' oral interaction. The results also were in agreement withPierrehumbert and Hirschberg (1986; 1990), Redeker (1991), Fraser (1998), Schiffrin (1987), and others findings about the impact of implicit teaching of discourse markers on learners' achievements. The findings reviled that the participants in the experimental group who received explicit instruction on discourse markers made more frequent use of them in their oral production, in contrast the learners who were in the control group and received implicit instruction did not use discourse markers frequently in their aural production.

### Teaching Practices and the Management of Student Motivation, Effort and Achievement

Teaching Practices and the Management of Student Motivation, Effort and Achievement Gunnes, Trude and Donze, Jocelyn Statistics Norway, Strasbourg University and Toulouse School of Econo[r]

### Collaborating to Teach Research Methods in Education

describes the challenge of teaching research methods to a diverse and multi-disciplinary group of students, who may or may not conduct scholarly research in practice. Through this collaboration in both teaching and writing, we were able to address for ourselves some of the paradigmatic differences between qualitative and quantitative research, and offer evidence for our students that perhaps this dichotomy is not always a useful one. In addition, we have documented an example of simple collaboration at the post-secondary level from which we hope other instructors might benefit. We feel that, based upon our own experiences and a (albeit non-random) sampling of comments made by students at the end of the classes, that we were successful in these areas. We believe that through our collaboration, students were supported in and confident enough to pursue their unique research agendas (as either consumers or producers of research), even when these agendas were outside of each author’s individual comfort zone. The diversity of student needs was manageable when the authors worked together. Collaboration within the context of a research methods class allows both the teachers and students the opportunity to better understand the variety of tools available to answer questions which pertain to educational problems and issues. If not for this collaboration we believe we would have had a lesser experience, as would the students. When we return to our initial question, what can a statistician and an arts-based researcher learn from one another? the answer is, indeed, plenty.

### (Game Based) Student Response Systems Engage Students with Research Teaching Nexus Activities and Support Their Skills Development

Research-teaching nexus framework assists teachers to support activities which are focused on the current research in the disciplines promoting dis- cussions and skills development. The challenges for teachers are related to student research skills development, knowledge application across contexts and student experience on statistics. The aim of this investigation was to compare student views following two approaches: one which integrated technology and one which did not into the teaching delivery process. Forty first-year Psychology students were split into two groups (A and B) and fol- lowed both teaching approaches in a different attending order (one approach without the use of technology and another one with technology or vice versa). (Game-based) student response systems (PollEveryWhere and Kahoot) were integrated into the teaching process, whilst the learning content was the same for both cases. Students evaluated the two approaches by completing two on- line surveys with items relating to research-teaching nexus activities and skills development. The integration of (game-based) student response systems into teaching process increased student engagement in learning, improved the in- teractions between students and teachers and allowed them to develop the re- levant research skills. Students received the technology intervention as a way to work on a creative learning environment which allowed them to develop skills and knowledge/experience around research methods and statistics. Al- though this investigation took place in a Psychology School, the design of a research methods and statistics module based on the combination of colla- borative problem-based learning with the use of (game-based) student re- sponse systems can be applied in other disciplines.

### Theory of Statistics - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

began writing text around the bullets, and I put the notes on the class website. Later I decided that a single document with a fairly extensive subject index (see pages ?? through ??) would be useful to serve as a companion for the study of mathematical statistics. The other big deal about this document is the internal links, which of course is not something that can be done with a hardcopy book. (One thing I must warn you about is that there is a (known) bug in the L A TEX package hyperref; if the referenced point happens to occur