This research study was designed to gauge K-5 GE teachers’ perceptions of self- efficacy when teachingstudents with autism in an inclusive setting. Bandura (1997) first described the concept of “self-efficacy” as “the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments” (Messemer, 2010, p. 7). When referring to educators, Messemer (2010) believed those faced with daily struggles of teachingstudents with academic and behavior issues, “often develop a faltering sense of self-efficacy” (p. 7). Messemer also noted that low perceptions of self- efficacy cause a “lower level of instruction and commitment on the part of the teacher, ultimately leading to continued student non-achievement and disruptive behavior” (p. 7). In the same respect, teachers with positive perceptions of self-efficacy create positive results and “maintain a positive atmosphere for learning and promote further self-efficacy for themselves and their students” (Messemer, 2010, pp. 7-8; Bandura, 1997).
The U.S. Congress (1986) created a mandate for providing services for infants and toddlers with disabilities, referred to as early intervention centers. Early intervention can result in better diagnoses, including improvements in the child’s speech and social interactions, increasing his or her chance for success. Exkorn (2006) asserted that parents need to be aware of two key words when getting a child treatment: early intervention. Early intervention means parents become proactive in seeking treatment for children. Harris and Handleman (2000) suggested that early intervention provided before the age of 3 has a greater impact than intervention provided after age 5. Children diagnosed earlier have better academic, communication, and social outcomes. Rogers (1998) found children with autism diagnosed at an earlier age achieved greater success than children with autism who received the same service at an older age. Wiseman (2006) stated early intervention for children with autism can be difficult, but is worth the effort because it works. Children with autism who receive intensive, early intervention enter school with higher IQs without the need for special education classes.
A small body of research is emerging that uses VSM as a method of support for paraprofessionals. Ryan, Hughes, Katsiyannis, McDaniel, and Sprinkle (2011) applied video instruction as a portion if the training manual. The following training series of steps were administered (a) verbal instructions in a presentation format, (b) videotaped instruction, (c) role-playing, and (d) in-vivo training (Arco, 1998 as cited in Ryan et al). As for DTI, responses were tagged and functioning as defined previously (a) distraction- free, (b) materials, (c) attending, (d) verbal direction, (e) voice tones, (f) wait, (g) praise statement, (h) contingent reinforces, (i) prompting and correction procedure, (j) pause for inter-trial interval, (k) incidental or additional teaching responses, and (l) data recorder (Ryan et al.). During home-based early intervention teaching session with ASD students’ systematic measurement of the discrete trial target were acquired. This study evaluated the effects of a detailed training packet outlines to turn out high-levels of precise teaching responses through the practice of performance criteria. Further all four instructors in this study who participated performed at high mean levels. In consideration the data from the normative sample were tremendously lower than those instructors from this study. Results of this study suggest that training procedures were beneficial in training instructors and other paraprofessionals to verify and continue DTI skills.
Students on the autism spectrum study in all fields, but they participate in STEM in significantly higher percentages than the general population, with 34% of college students on the spectrum enrolling in STEM versus 22% of the general population (Wei et al., 2013). Learners with autism also participate in STEM education at higher rates than individuals in 10 other disability categories, although their overall participation in postsecondary education is third lowest among this group (Wei et al., 2013). A higher rate of autism has been found in college students studying mathematics (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Burtenshaw, & Hobson, 2007), and this linkage has influenced the development of the empathizing–systematizing (E-S) theory of autism. The E-S theory explains autism as a combination of both a lower level of social functioning and average or superior level of systemizing ability, defined as “the drive to analyze or construct systems” (Baron-Cohen, 2009, p. 71). This theory has been used to hypothesize that persons with autism have mathematical talent.
Humphrey and Symes’ (2013) used an adapted version of the questionnaire included in the study by McGregor and Campbell (2001) to examine the experience, attitudes and knowledge of school staff in relation to inclusive education for pupils with ASD in mainstream secondary schools in the United Kingdom. Comparisons were made between senior managers (n= 21) including special education coordinators and general education subject area teachers (n= 32). Unlike McGregor and Campbell’s (2001) study, all of the participants in this investigation were given the same questionnaire. The only noted adaption made to the questionnaire was the list of autism behaviors against which participants were asked to rate their ability to cope. This new list of behaviors was based on the recommendations of a steering group comprised of a Special Educational Needs Coordinator, an Educational Psychologist, a professor in Special Educational Needs, and a representative from the National Autistic Society. All but one of the items (‘high levels of anxiety”) were replaced by the following items: need for rigid routine; poor motor skills; special interests/high levels of understanding in mathematics; rigid literal thinking; lack of social understanding; lack of eye contact; poor turn-taking skills; preference for working/playing alone; and displaying inappropriate emotions. Similar to McGregor and Campbell’s (2001) study, no specific tasks affiliated with the question regarding
On our last day observing we met with the principal of the school to discuss our thoughts about what we had observed in our classrooms. The topic of bribing the students to do what was asked of them was brought up in the conversation. The head teacher clarified that bribery is a set of consequences and rewards which is the primary method to teachingstudents with autism. In other words, bribery is the tool used when getting a student to behave appropriately or getting the student to learn an academic skill. In order to bribe students the teacher must find every child’s motivator and use it to persuade them into behaving or learning. As unorthodox as this sounds, recall that many of the strategies such as direct instruction, goal structure, and self-regulation use bribery in the form of verbal feedback from the teacher or rewarding students for accurate
There are a variety of educational programs providing Direct Instruction (DI) for students who have disabilities or are identi- fied as struggling readers and is a prominent approach to teachingstudents with ASD reading skills and comprehension. Flores and Ganz (2009) conducted a study with four students identified as having ASD or a Developmental Disability and focused on im- proving their reading comprehension using a scripted, DI reading model. The implementation of the DI was proven to be effective in these students not only by the DI data collection, but also using curriculum based assessments, and running records to measure stu- dent progress. Results of their study revealed “a functional relation …between Direct Instruction and reading comprehension skills… all students met criterion across the picture analogies, deductions, inductions, and opposites conditions” (p. 50). DI, also referred to as explicit teaching, may prove to be beneficial to students with ASD because they struggle with maintaining attention. Sustaining focus can be frustrating at times, according to Klein and O’Connor (2004) because, “many students with autism appear to have dif- ficulty integrating information” (p. 116). Using only one type of strategy, however, can prove to be detrimental for students, espe- cially for those with ASD who may exhibit difficulty with changes and transitions. Adjusting to new strategies and approaches, as students move through the grades, requires transitional periods for many students not just those with ASD. This can lead to frustra- tion and avoidance during activities. Additional studies need to be conducted to examine this approach to address concerns on length of time using DI and grade levels. Flores and Ganz (2009) stated, “it is also unknown whether long-term use of DI reading compre- hension with these populations would be the most efficient and successful form of remediation” (p. 52). Hart and Whalon (2011) demonstrated through their study of students with ASD between the grades of K through 5 th grade, that teachers too often used
Children with autism have severe language deficits and socialization problems (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Although a wide array of intervention techniques such as incidental teaching (Hart & Risley, 1980), pivotal response training (Koegal, Koegal, & Schreibman, 1991), reinforcing communication attempts rather than correct speech responses (Koegal, O’Dell & Dunlap, 1988) have been employed to stimulate speech, researches have shown that approximately 50% of children with autism continued to remain nonverbal (Charlop & Haymes, 1994; Peeters & Gillberg, 1999; Prizant, 1983). Hence, one option is to use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) to teach communi- cation to these nonverbal children.
very important to introduce motor imitation, because the skills learned by the child are related to improvement of other skills needed in the treatment of children with autism (Whalen, Schreibman, Ingersoll, 2006). The deficit in imitation can be observed in the first years of the child’s life, if there is a close evaluation and can be seen also in adolescence (Laine, Rauzy, Gepner,Tardif, 2011). Imitation can lead to future social abilities and as well, can predict how communication skills can be developed to children with autism. The deficit of imitation to children diagnosed with autism was considered the result of the lack of a symbolic representation and later was discovered to be the first manifestation of a disorder in the self-other mapping, creating a cascading effect in subsequent social skills (Laine, Rauzy, Gepner, Tardif, 2011). Later studies showed that the deficit in imitation is related to a gap between perception-action coupling due to a disorder of the mirror neuron system which might lead to a self-other mapping deficit in autism (Oberman and Ramachandran, 2007). Some studies showed a comparison between a typical child and one with autism which revealed the fact that a child with autism is imitating facial expression if they were showed slowly and not at a normal speed, there had to be a delay in order to capture the gesture and imitate it (Garcia, Baer, Firestone, 1971). If we speak about the traditional method in teaching motor imitation to children with autism, then we can say there is a one to one session with the adult and the child, where the child is taught using the discrete trial teaching, where is used a very structured adult directed sessions. Motor imitation is considered the most important component of the profound social and intellectual development that occurs over the first several years of life. A child increases the capacity to imitate starting from the second year of life, when the need to meet the world is taking shape. To a child with autism, this need must be taking care of as he cannot learn by himself actions, sounds, gestures (Kleeberger, Pat, 2008). Giving this importance, I chose to teach motor imitation behavior to 10 children diagnosed with ASD, who were showing no signs of imitation. Previous research show that imitation is developing progressively, starting from the most simple self observing actions on object that produce a prominent effect, to more complex actions like complicated gestures. Studies also showed that early ruptures in the imitation process “could be partly responsible for shaping the early behavioral phenotype of autism” (Young, Gregory, Sally et. all, 2011).
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Although the literature is currently expanding in the area of kindergarten transition in regards to students with ASD, to date there exists a need to explore how schools are preparing for these incoming students. The purpose of the current study was to examine how schools are preparing for the kindergarten transition process for students with ASD. Recommended practices for kindergarten transition for students with ASD have been identified; however, the extent which professionals are using these recommended practices is unknown. This study surveyed school psychologists, speech language therapists, special education teachers and kindergarten teachers to assess: (a) which transition practices were being used, (b) barriers to implementing best practices, (c) the training these personnel reported having in ASD, and (d) factors that predict the use of best practices. The predictors included number of years spent in current position, years of experience working with students with ASD, perceptions of training in the area of ASD, and perceived need for more training in the area of ASD. These predictors were selected because they reflect field experience and training variables, and it was reasonable to believe that they would relate to the use of transition practices for students with ASD. In addition, the
From all ICT tools, serious games (SG) are the most promising to teach child- ren with ASD (Grynszpan, Weiss, Perez-Diaz, & Gal, 2014). SG could be de- scribed as “ digital games and equipment with an agenda of educational design and beyond entertainment ” (Park, Abirached, & Zhang, 2012). In a recent lite- rature review, we found 31 SG aiming to train social skills in subject with autism (Grossard et al., 2017). In this review, we explored two aspects of this SG: me- thodology and playability. We observed that the playability was often forgotten and that most games do not involve the characteristics of video games as de- scribed by Yusoff (2010). The implication of the player in the game is often li- mited, as the possibility to personalize some aspects of it. This is unfortunate as playability allows the player to be more motivated during game sessions and so more available to learn new skills. Also, visual aspects of the games are not well described although it is an important part of a video game allowing players’ comprehension and progression in the game (Yusoff, 2010).
Surgeons Residency Review Committee (10-11). Surgical education has dramatically changed in response to numerous constraints placed on residency programs, but a substantial gap still exists between expectations and performance (12). This gap is in part due to the declining trend in teaching technical skills during medical school and has resulted in the necessity to look for other avenues of skill training such as mannequin simulations and software-based training (2, 4). Technological advances have allowed for curriculums to create new, viable mechanisms of teaching modalities. Yet, limitations exist within these avenues, such as the equipment cost and the necessity to have full-time faculty present who is familiar with the software-based training. Furthermore, the realistic tissue handling, hepatic feedback and preserved tissue planes provided by non-preserved cadavers were unparalleled when compared to the inferior degree of realism provided by mannequins (1, 2, 6-8, 13-19).
differently to the same situations. A one-size-fits-all policy isn’t always going to work. It’s something broad like we will treat these people with respect. Then that is going to work just because one student with autism was helped this or needed to that, doesn’t mean it’s going to work for everybody as far as what they need to understand when dealing with the student. Getting to know the specific students and what helps them and then as far as training just spreading knowledge and informing people creates a better understanding and I think it’s going to help people be able to better interact with those students that is really is important to have a good understanding because a lot of times people fear or dislike or aren’t comfortable with things they don’t know about. Providing that knowledge even if maybe they don’t have a lot of students on the spectrum into their school can be very important and helpful. Be patient, which is difficult. I understand that even more now that I’m in the teaching field. A child on the spectrum may literally be unable to do something you’re asking them to because of the autism, because of sensory overload, or maybe once they get to the point where they’re super upset or in a meltdown, there may only be one thing that calms them down. You may feel like you are giving in or breaking the rules, but you have to look at the bigger picture, is this helping the child? Is it in their best interest? Realize you have to be flexible because sometimes they’re inflexible. They’re not purposely being stubborn; it’s just how their brain is wired. By having a better understanding of the behaviors you’re more likely to be able to come up with a solution that will work and not fail.
Many studies have found individualized supports for students with ASD to be highly valuable in terms of success in higher education (Gelbar, Shefcyk, & Reichow, 2015; Kuder & Accardo, 2018; Van Hees, Moyson, & Roeyers, 2015). Kuder and Accardo (2018) concluded that supports for college students with ASD must be individualized in order to target each student’s unique needs. Gelbar, Shefcyk, and Reichow also emphasized the importance of understanding the individual when advising students with ASD, as this population has found success in many different areas of interest and it would be doing them an injustice to assume their best fit would be within a technology field like common stereotypes suggest (2015). In regards to career services within higher education institutions, McLeod, Meanwell, and Hawbaker concluded that students with ASD might find more benefits from “flexible and targeted” assistance, as opposed to a self-directed approach (2019, p. 2330).
In the same vein, Mahmud and Rawshon (2013) define micro teaching as a teaching training tool that offers students the opportunity to put their knowledge in the area of instructional methods and strategies into practice, under organized and structured conditions. Micro-learning can therefore be defined as a teaching scenario that is conducted on a specific amount of pre-determined time with limited number of students under controlled classroom environment, where the instructor or lecturer only explains principle of teaching skills (Hamalik, 2009). Initially developed in 1960s at Stanford University, micro teaching is designed to provide students with the chances to engage in real-like teaching situations to enhance teaching appearance through open classroom interconnected dialogue. Since then, it has been modified to suit the need of university in the form of teacher training programs in order to stimulate a focused, constructive criticisms from members of the class and instructor, with the intention to improve students’ teaching and learning strategies, which in the end results in improved acquisition of required teaching skills and positive strengthening of students’ teaching experiences. In other words, micro teaching is able to set a trial environment for the student teachers to teach (Saban & Coklar, 2013).
“dichotomies,” but we think that the peer-to-peer environment supported the breakdown of these learning facades, or at least the pretense that learning is about sharing what you know, rather than exploring what you do not. In our class, the Anthropocene was much more than just a geological timescale; it was a common understanding of the gravity of our topics, the messiness of scale, action and intent - the reality we are facing as environmentalists, artists, justice-oriented community members, and university students. Most importantly, it was critical that as co- facilitators we did more than just acknowledge the Anthropocene or even pretend that we were moving towards it. We simply accepted the reality of living within the Anthropocene. To the entire community, the Anthropocene held a quiet presence as an omnipresent, accepted and unspoken truth. Within our class culture and topics, “moving forward” in the Anthropocene was exemplified through the work of our guest pollinators. During reflection, many co-learners expressed how hopeful it was to see the guest pollinators doing passion-driven work that was in and of itself a response to the Anthropocene. With this presence, we as co-facilitators began to push the boundaries of the term’s definition.