Abstract: Learning by teachingsystems are a relatively recent approach to designing Intelligent Learning Environments that place learners in the role of tutors. These systems are based on the practice of peer tutoring where students take on defined roles of tutor and tutee. An architecture for learning by teachingsystems is described that does not require the domain model of an Intelligent Tutoring System. However a mutual communication language is needed and is defined by a conceptual syntax that delimits the domain content of the dialogue. An example learning by teaching system is described for the domain of qualitative economics. The construction and testing of this system inform a discussion of the major design issues involved: the nature of the learnt model, the form of the conceptual syntax, the control of the interaction and the possible introduction of domain knowledge.
If an adequate relationship can be done between learning strategies profiles and academic scores, the teachingsystems can be reformulated accordingly. The modifications may follow two main tracks, either to adapt the teaching to the specific learning strategies of students, or to promote a different learning for those students that mainly use a surface approach (Phan, 2007; Nasiri, Pour-Safar, Taheri, Sedighi Pashaky, & Asadi Louyeh, 2017). Different questionnaires have been used to assess learning strategies. The Study Process Questionnaire is one of the most used, and it has been validated, being also reliable (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001).
Multimedia teachingsystems combine texts, graphics, sound and animation. A well designed multimedia teaching system should enhance the communication of ideas. The main goal of communication is to direct the learner’s attention to more important information on the screen. The interaction is one of the most important constituent of computer-based teaching and learning. Interactive learning is a key mechanism for the development of cognitive skills. If a computer interaction system contains well designed examples, simulations, and animations then it can be used to stimulate cognition and learning. Techniques and examples of simulations allows a student to experiment with phenomena which are too complex or to expensive to be reproduced in a lab, but which can be modeled using computer environments. One of the main challenges when developing multimedia teachingsystems is the capability to adapt the learning experience to different users. The design of adaptive multimedia teachingsystems requires significant effort, since dependencies between educational characteristics of learning resources and learner characteristics are too complex to exhaust all possible combinations . Karampiperis and Sampson address the design problem of the adaptation model proposing an alternative sequencing method that instead of generating the
This paper shows a course’ design and its knowledge transfer process when teaching the changing paradigm of systems thinking, systems dynamics and simulation, through e-learning. The course uses the methodology for changing the analytical approach to the Systems dynamics thinking paradigm -in three months-; and was designed under the “thought on-line” approach. Action research method is used to observe the course evolution and to evaluate: new knowledge, skills developed by students and student’s improvements on the changing paradigm. This is an on-going research; we present preliminary results about the achievements up-to-date. Even that ST, SD and simulation are difficult topics, they can be successfully taught on the right e-learning environment. We can state that, teaching this kind of topics can result in a good learning experience for students. These results can contribute to broadcast the e-learning experience to other related topics.
For sensor selection, we settled on a GPS and nine degree of freedom IMU since these types of instruments are generally used in any sort of terrestrial or aeronautical autonomous vehicle. We selected parts from Adafruit since they were well documented with lots of tutorials and sample code available. Preference was also given to these sensors since they supported an array of options for accelerating the student development process. For example, the IMU can output raw sensor data, or ready-processed heading data in a number of coordinate systems. These choices of versatile, well-documented hardware opened opportunities for students to get the hardware working quickly but also left room for students to use creativity and make unique design choices. For a robotic chassis and drivetrain, we selected a chassis and motors from Dagu and Polulu and a compatible motor driver. This offered a simple UART interface for controlling the motors and was rugged enough to drive around grass fields on campus, and survive a few crashes during the student learning process. The assembled robots are shown in Figure 1.
Conferencing can be achieved while teaching an online course to make connections with the students and teacher, a great communicating tool for one-on-one and for conferencing with several students at one time. Some sites are free and others charge. You can set up a link for all to participate. There are many commercial conference call/video sites to choose from, some quite costly. A few inexpensive or free sites include ooVoo that can have up to six on a video call at once or Skype, a free call for Skype- to-Skype customers, but sometimes unreliable.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology makes it possible to describe the characteristics of specific locations on the Earth’s surface and to analyse spatial patterns. Recent advances in GIS tools have simplified the process of acquiring, storing, analysing, and sharing geographic information through the internet. Yet it is scarcely used in the educational context [8-10]. It can be used to promote active learning, because of its capabilities to develop spatial analysis, spatial thinking and spatial problem solving. Education systems can benefit from their capabilities to analyse several map layers for spatial representation and consequently identify spatial patterns [4, 11, 12]. Geographic information technologies enhance interdisciplinary and student learning through spatial thinking .
According to the findings of several studies, teachers who hold constructivists pedagogical beliefs may not necessarily teach actively because of other contextual factors such as teacher technology competence, time constraints and demands of high stakes examinations. Moreover, teachers’ insufficient understanding of pedagogy associated with technology use, lack of knowledge about how to use technology effectively, classroom relocation when the required technology is located in specialist rooms, access to equipment, system unreliability and a lack of technical support are also barriers to technology integration. A study of Nigerian secondary schools also found that teachers’ lack of expertise in using ICT was a prominent factor hindering teachers’ readiness and confidence in using ICTs. There is a growing body of evidence which seems to suggest that the ways in which students use ICTs at school are heavily influenced by out-of-school cultures of use. ICT tools are not static and continue to evolve with a rapidity that is nothing short of awe-inspiring. Students are generally more au courant than their teachers with the latest advances in technology. It is important, therefore, for learning environments involving the use of ICTs to be collaborative in nature in order to facilitate the co- construction of knowledge by students. Most teacher- training courses with respect to technology integration in education focus on teaching basic computer literacy skills. The underlying belief being that teachers simply have to be trained to use the basic application packages in order to successfully incorporate technology in their classrooms. Most scholars however, agree that these traditional methods of technology training for teachers are ill-suited for preparing teachers to be intelligent users
One question often asked by students is, “What are the job opportunities at the college level for teaching communication?”” According to one study, “more than 80 percent of those institutions currently advertising for new faculty to fill communication positions prefer or demand the Pd.D. However, only half the number needed to fill those vacancies will be available in the years ahead… These trends will be more severely felt in the communications discipline than in many other academic fields, because Ph.D. production in communication per undergraduate to be served has been declining steadily for a number of years.” (20)
In Sri lanka, curriculum is reformed in every 7 years. The learner-centered constructive learning-teaching methodology has been introduced in 2007 and still it is recommended to implement. However, besides these reforms still the class room learning-teaching process is dominant by teacher centered lecture method. Aforementioned educational environment which can develop students‘ naïve beliefs such as knowledge is derived from external source might have resulted in mix beliefs of senior secondary students. Researchers emphasize that, if the epistemological belief systems of students is ignored, then it can lead to ineffective teaching strategies and learning outcomes (Marra and Palmer, 2008). The present study reflects the need for improvement of students‘ scientific epistemological beliefs towards more sophistication beliefs system. Explicitly, the belief about development of knowledge which is the factor measures the belief about science as an evolving and changing subject and the belief about Justification of Knowledge which is the factor concerns the role of experiments and how individuals justify knowledge should be further developed in secondary students in order to direct them towards meaningful learning approaches. This study contributes to knowledge required for the education system including educationists, educational researchers and curriculum developer about the relationship of secondary students‘ scientific epistemological beliefs and approaches to learning science. Furthermore, it contributes to the development of science curriculum in secondary grades. The content of the science curriculum can be improved and recommended teaching-learning techniques can be revised in the way that it develops sophisticated beliefs. Effective lessons/activities can be integrated to the curriculum of teacher training courses
The present work examined the application of information and communication technology (ICT) support systems for teaching and learning physics in selected secondary schools in Eleme local government area of Nigeria. It applied descriptive survey method, oral interview and observation techniques to study the level of available ICT infrastructure, the qualifications and skills of Physics teachers, experience of students, ability to use ICT facilities for teaching and learning, benefits of use of ICT in such education system and perceived hindrances to its applications. Selected six schools each were randomly studied from the public and private secondary group of schools whilst the student population of students was 120. Standard questionnaire was designed, tested and distributed to both staff and students of the chosen institutions. The data collated were analyzed using statistical frequency counts, percentage grading scores and t-test. The results confirmed that some information communication and technology facilities were available in some secondary schools in the study area. For example, Onne Secondary School, Onne (Public) and Ranjennys’ High School, Ogale (private) have a good number ICT infrastructure but the drive for its application is lacking due to some serious hindrances. It was also observed that lack of skilled and computer literate teachers cum technical staff affected the uses of the available ICT resource facility. This created low interest and morale for the students thereby making applications of ICT difficult. Besides it was revealed that the average success of learners (students) in external public examinations where ICT-applied examinations are emphasized was about 51.5%. Thus the desires and interest in computerized examinations is rated as low as 38%. Additionally, most students interviewed stated that regular teachings with ICT resources were completely absent. Hence the students could not really derive modern benefits of ICT conducted examinations and learning.
However, the effective authoring, management and distribution of high-qual ity educational resources cannot be overlooked. Once online lecture material is created, it must be stored and efficiently distributed to students, who must be able to enrol and follow online courses, including thei r associated examinations. Learn ing Management Systems provide the framework for creating such web environments for online instruction, including facil ities such as student registration and authentication, content creation, management and reuse, quizzes, exams, report uploads, homework grading, instructor grade books, class calendars and online help . Although there is general agreement that powerful authoring and learning management systems are essential, substantial courseware l ibraries cannot be bui lt unless systematic re-use of modules based on meta-data and presentation standards become widely supported. Therefore, there is a growing realisation that standardisation is a critical issue to be addressed.
The teaching modules are tested on students selected from two types of schools, which are the daily (non-boarding and non-vocational) schools and vocational (boarding) schools. Group 1 is a group of 35 students from vocational schools who have been taught basic programming for eight months. Students from this group consist of students from Sekolah Vokasional Balik Pulau and Sekolah Vokasional Shah Alam. Group 2 consists of students from daily schools with a total of 36 students have yet to be exposed to any formal basic programming in schools. Students from this group came from the Sekolah Kebangsaan Derma, Perlis and Sekolah Kebangsaan Bandar Baru Salak Tinggi.
Reference  developed online interactive learning system called INDIE. The students use the system to run simulated experiments, analyze test results, form rationales and construct arguments to support or disprove possible hypotheses. Garyfallido and Ioannidis  developed a web-based application used for teaching students energy concepts dealing with renewable energy and non-renewable energy forms
Various methodologies, agile and traditional (Bajaj et al, 2004), and techniques, structured as well as object oriented (Gorgone et al, 2002), can be used to perform SAD, which adds to the complexity of SAD T&L. When both methodologies are taught, the comparative advantages must be explained, as well as the fact that the two methodologies do not always contradict one another. The same applies to teaching both structured and object oriented techniques. Using iterations with variations of ATL could possibly address this challenge. The principle of iteration can also be used by applying the same methodology/technique repetitively to various problems. Likewise different methodologies/techniques can be applied to a similar case study through iterations to illustrate the comparative advantages. ATL values working knowledge (Chun, 2004), which readily agrees with the fact that SAD is best learned through application and experience (Suscheck & Huff, 2007). Using iterations with variation may provide more opportunities for students to apply their newly acquired knowledge to various cases.
the relations among the theories and laws as a hierarchical structure; that is, the theories evolve to laws depending on the amount of supporting evidence. In this sense, the laws maintain higher ontological position compared to that of the theories. Trying to correct and revise this interpretation, Lederman argues that laws and theories are two districts representations of science which could not transform or improve to one another. The laws are the descriptive predicates of the relations among the phenomena observed. For example, the Boyle–Mariotte law describes the relation between the pressure and volume of gas at constant temperature. On the other hand, the theories are deduced explanations for observed phenomena. As an example, the kinetic molecular theory offers an explanation for what Boyle–Mariotte law and Charles and Gay-Lussac Law describe. Along these lines, the distinct implication of complex systems theory for teaching science is that the teachers could use the relevant scientific examples in order to reveal the condition-bound nature of scientific theories and laws and the possible changes during the history to the students.