Teachers must realize that listening will be a stressful activity for language learners (Goh & Taib, 2006). This skill is a very complex process since the memories of secondlanguage learners have limited competence in the target language (Richards, 1983). Therefore, strategy use is important in language learning, and using a strategy is required for active and self-directed participation that is necessary to improve communication skills (Oxford, 1990: 10). Certain studies conducted (Rubin, 1994; Lynch, 1998; Vandergrift, 2004; Flowerdew & Miller, 2005; Macaro, Graham & Vanderplank, 2007, Quoted by Goh, 2008) point to new approaches that are influenced by linguistic and cognitive psychological developments in teaching listening. One of them is the metacognitive approach. Flavell (1979: 906) defined metacognition as thinking about thinking and stated that metacognition has two components. These are knowledge and organization. Metacognitive knowledge includes information about the individual himself/herself as a learner, about strategies, and when and why to use these strategies (Kuhn & Dean, 2004). Organization, which is the other component, includes planning, monitoring, and evaluation activities (Vandergrift, 2002, 2003; Chamot, 2005).
. The dependent variable was the number of errors committed as perceived by two native speakers of Irish and Spanish who were blind to the experimental conditions under which the recordings were made. In short, there were two main results in this study. First, as it was the case in previous (and following) studies that when visual information was present, both perception and production was superior than when it was not available (Wang et al., 2009). This is usually the case when the speech input is hyperarticulated (Lees & Burnham, 2008; also see the concept “teacherese” for the use of hyperarticulation in the classroom, Håkansson, 1987) Second, this study revealed that irrespective of the presence of visual information, Turkish subjects appeared to rely on orthographic information more than their Australian counterparts whenever it was available (auditory-visual- orthographic and auditory-orthographic conditions). This indeed was a good strategy whenever the L1
A number of different activities can be organized on the use of films to improve foreignlanguage vocabulary teaching. Here the teacher plays a key role. A scene or section is taken from a movie (including house sale, house purchase, or home visit). The entire words related to this scene or section is removed and a list is made. As a preliminary activity, students are asked to prepare their home advertisements in pairs or in groups (to identify their home). They can prepare these preparations for the school magazine or newspaper. Once the scene is watched, the class discusses its content and students try to remember all the words and phrases they hear about the home story. The words and phrases that the students say are written on the board. Teacher warns students that they should be more careful in the second watching. Later, the students write about all the words and phrases they hear which are related to home conversation. After the second watching, the students complete the word list on the board. As an after-watching activity, they are asked to animate the scene on stage using the words they know about the house conversation. They are asked to write a related essay as a homework (Talaván, 2007).
Learning a foreignlanguage can be considered as a process that requires intensive work as learning a language entails mastering the four fundamental skills of the target language. The communication need observed in individuals aiming to learn a foreignlanguage is frequently met through speaking skills among others. This leads language learners to prioritize learning of speaking skills. The emphasis put on speaking skills by language learners caused several issues to emerge and one of these issues is the speaking anxiety. It is thought that speaking anxiety increases due to the emphasis put on speaking skills and the lack of and challenging exercises during the process of acquisition as speaking is instantaneous and involves different processes such as thinking, organizing, ordering, and articulating with correct words. The reason for issues to arise is the requirement of having these processes in order (Ozdemir, 2013, p. 5). According to Pong (2010, p. 78), the effort to use a language in accordance with its rules causes individuals to feel incompetent in correct pronunciation which causes additional anxiety in students. In fact, studies focusing on speaking anxiety show that speaking anxiety is associated with speaking tendency and that the reaction towards speaking has negative effects on the quality and success of speaking. This causes in students the avoidance of speaking, and not willing to speak (Melanlioglu and Demir, 2013, p. 392). Additionally, as students would feel freer in an interactive learning environment, their levels of anxiety would decrease, and anxiety would not be an obstacle in learning anymore.
One of the subjects studied about foreignlanguage learning/teaching is anxiety. Anxiety, which is defined among people as worry or fear, started to be seen more distinctly in educational activities following the studies on psychology conducted by Sigmund Freud in mid-1900s. Anxiety (fr.anxiété) is defined in dictionaries as: in Turkish Dictionary of TDK (TurkishLanguage Association) as “sorrow, an uneasy thought, fear”; in TDK Glossary of Psychological Terms as “a worrisome feeling which appears when a strong desire or drive seem to fail in achieving one’s objective”; in TDK Glossary of Sociological Terms as “a perturbation experienced by individuals or social groups against the possibility of failure in achieving their desires or drives”. Various definitions of anxiety have been provided in a study by Tunçel (2014:127). He writes that for Barlow (2009), Casado (2001), Gardner (1989), Hortwiz (1986), Huberty (2004), anxiety is a mood which emerges in response to the kind of situations which are likely to happen in the foreseeable future; and for Scovel (1978), it can be attributed to fear that someone feels when faced with a possible threat. Similarly, Şen and Boylu (2015:14) provide a definition by Özdemir and Gür (2011) of anxiety as a state of stimulation which can be bodily, sensory and intellectual and which arises in response to a stimulator. Furthermore, Oğuz and Baysal (2015:108) provide two different definitions of anxiety; they take one of them from a study by Sapir and Aranson (1990) where it is defined as a totality of the feelings of uncertainty, dread, fear and angst that someone has when they think that something bad is going to happen; while the other one comes from a study by Spielber (1972), who defines anxiety as a kind of tension which stimulates the nervous system.
“Willis (1996) states that the task-based languageteaching is more enhanced and logical than the communicative languageteaching. Tasks performed in real communication are essential elements of language learning. Significant tasks both encourage and support learning in the process of education.” (Richards & Rodgers, 2002, p. 223) Considered among foreignlanguageteaching methods, the task- based languageteaching is a method that enables students to develop their language skills interacting with their environment through the tasks given to them and allows the learners to complete the language proficiency by making an effective use of the four skills of language within the same task process. According to Willis (1996), “task” is the keyword of this method. In task-based languageteaching, attention is paid to presenting the language in a meaningful context as in everyday life. In this method, language is regarded as a means rather than an end for communication. (as cited in Yaylı, 2004).
A perusal of relevant literature reveals that studies conducted by Turkish researchers on language learning motivation can be grouped under two categories. The first one includes studies on motivation in foreignlanguage learning. These studies have mainly focused on the concept of motivation in the process of learning English as a foreignlanguage in Turkish context (Göktepe, 2014; Kızıltepe, 2000; Şentürk, 2015). The second category, examples of which follow, focuses on the concept of motivation in learning Turkish as a secondlanguage. Arslan and Gürsoy (2008) examined the effects of drama activities on the motivational levels of learners of Turkish as a secondlanguage. They analyzed the language materials and proposed different techniques to increase learner motivation like the integration of role plays, puppets, and pantomime. Karababa and Karagül (2013) aimed to identify the learning styles, language skills, topics, materials, and learning contexts that learners of Turkish need in the language learning process. Conducting a needs-analysis survey with 305 foreign learners, the researchers noted that the foreign learners of Turkish expected to cover topics related to Turkish culture presented through audio-visual materials. Pointing at the importance of the same aspect, Koçer (2013) underlined the fact that developing an effective curriculum to increase learner motivation in language learning is based on a comprehensive needs analysis. Stressing the need to understand the experiences and identify the problems in the process in order to increase learner motivation, Melanlıoğlu (2014) collected data through document analysis and semi-structured interviews. The results showed that listening was the most problematic, among basic language skills, decreasing learners’ motivation. Kalfa (2015) focused on the qualifications that teachers of Turkish should have. The results of the survey completed by teachers of Turkish revealed that teachers are expected to hold a motivating attitude while teaching and maintaining a motivating learning environment. Highlighting the significance of students’ perceptions of the learning context, Çetin, Bahar and Griffiths (2017) developed a questionnaire and gathered the opinions of 319 foreign learners of Turkish regarding local culture. Though not exposing major conclusions about language learning motivation, the results revealed that the participants had overall positive experiences and perceptions.
The analysis conducted in relation to the students’ mother tongues or official languages revealed that the highest rate of achievement increase was accomplished by the students speaking Persian with 50.58% and then the students speaking French with 43.29%; the lowest rate of achievement increase was accomplished by the students speaking Arabic with 24.27%. These results give rise to two questions: Why was the highest rate of achievement increase obtained by the French speakers; Why was the lowest rate of achievement increase obtained by the Arabic speakers? Though French and Persian seem to be distant from each other in terms of the geographical regions they are used in, they both are from the Indo-European language family; thus, they may have some common aspects. The answer to the second question can be explained as follows: While the contact of Arabic with the Turkishlanguage started after the birth of Islam, the contact of Persian started long before the birth of Islam. Both in the lands of Iran and of Central Asia, Turks lived in close contact with Iranians for centuries. The relations between two nations have intensified since the birth of Islam to this date. As a result, many linguistic and cultural elements have been exchanged between two nations. Given that many words used today in our language have been borrowed from Arabic through Persian, the meaning of Persian for Turkish can be better understood .
As the table 1 illustrates, the instructors and students in research, according to their sexes, were accumulated at “very often” and “sometimes” choices. Total percentages of those who pointed out the “very often” accumulated between 82,4 and 61,1 percentages. The problem of “the policy of foreignlanguageteaching is not good enough” was taken the first place. But, the point of the “foreignlanguageteaching policies in Turkey have been changed, till today” was taken place the first place, with the highest degree. The other first six problems followed this item were the “teacher centred foreignlanguage courses ( 75,0%), “Heavy grammar oriented (73,1%),”Students not reserving enough time (64,8%), “too crowded classes (63,9%),”Not having suitable learning conditions at schools” (61,1%),”Not starting foreignlanguageteaching at the earlier ages (61,1%). Those who marked the answer of the “I have never faced these problems” was 2,8%. But, at the end, we can point out those problems as the “system’s problems” which are faced very often, they are quite general and illustrate the reasons for “failures” at the foreignlanguageteaching. Because of not having a policy for foreignlanguageteaching, its faults and insufficiency seemed as the main reason for not being able to learn a foreignlanguage.
SIOP teachers realize that L2 learners cannot learn as if they were majority language speakers and their instruction includes a variety of SIOP techniques so students comprehend the lesson’s key concepts. Examples of language accommodation techniques include teacher talk that is appropriate to student proficiency levels; restatement, paraphrasing, repetition, and written records of key points; and previews and reviews of important information. In addition, visual representations, not just language-based explanations, provide students with needed, additional support (Short, Fidelman & Longuit, 2012). Some of these techniques include demonstrations and modeling of tasks, processes, and routines; gestures, pantomime, and movement to make concepts more clear; opportunities for students to engage in role-plays, improvisation, and simulations; visuals and supplementary materials, such as pictures, real objects, illustrations, charts, adapted texts, audiotapes, CDs or online resources, perhaps in the L1, if available; and hands-on, experiential, and discovery activities.
engaged in the training of becoming self-reliant human beings. The growing emphasis on student-centered approaches to learning has promoted a corresponding interest in the affective dimension of the foreignlanguage (FL) learner. In fact, scholars have been concerned with identifying the reasons why some students feel more anxious, less motivated and less self-efficacious in FL modules than in other subjects. They have also been concerned with creating a learning environment that contributes to lowering students’anxiety and fostering their motivation and self-efficacy. As Oxford )1990) insightfully pointed out, ''the affective side of the learner is probably one of the very biggest influences on language learning success or failure. Good language learners are often those who know how to control their emotions and attitudes about learning'' (p. 140). Additionally, Myers (1992) point out that when students understand how they learn best, they are likely to become more autonomous and responsible learners. Additionally, Carrell, Prince and Astika (1996) maintained that language teachers should recognize their students' individual differences and apply different techniques to cater for their needs.
The positioning of Ottoman Empire among the most powerful nations has increased the interest toward Turkishlanguage. Therefore, countries that were willing to have warmer relations with the Ottomans had opened schools to prepare people who could speak Turkish. Related to this topic, Agildere says; „The relationships of the turks with other countries have increased during the time of Ottoman Empire. Countries that had an interest in collaborating with the Ottomans in business, politics or military issues had been keen in learning Turkish (Ağıldere, 2010: 694).
As vocabulary is an important component of languageteaching and there exist certain problems in students’ vocabulary skills, traditional and modern teaching methods used in Turkish as a foreignlanguageteaching are discussed in the article. The frequency of use and the success rates were taken into consideration in the determination of the methods. In this context, a survey was developed and administered within Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for teachers of Turkish to foreigners in order to determine the significance level of vocabulary teaching methods in Turkish as a foreignlanguage. The survey consisted of comparative questions for determining the significance levels of vocabulary acquisition methods used in teachingTurkish as a foreignlanguage. The data collected in this research were analyzed in Microsoft Excel program and the results were presented as statistical tables. According to the findings, the significance level of communicative teaching methods conducted through visual and auditory tools and activities were determined to be the first in vocabulary acquisition in teachingTurkish as a foreignlanguage. Videos and movies were seen to be the first in the order of significance level within vocabulary teaching through visual and audio tools. Role-play activities were determined to be the first in the order of significance of level. Interactive course CDs and smart boards became the most effective tools in teaching vocabulary in terms of educational technologies. Course-books and workbooks were identified as the most preferred tools in printed publications. According to the results of the study, the tools applied by students that address multi-senses were seen to be the most preferred techniques in vocabulary acquisition in teachingTurkish as a foreignlanguage. The results of this research will contribute to updating the methods to be used in teaching / learning Turkish as a foreignlanguage vocabulary. In addition, they will help to improve the course-books and other materials to be developed.
It is widely known that mastering any language, including one’s native language, was described a hundred years ago by a great Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov in his “Rational Study on The Second and First Signal Systems”. This study says that a word, being an element of the second-signal system, causes a corresponding image in the cortex. For example, if we see, hear, write, or pronounce a Russian word ночь ‘night’, our consciousness will create an image of night — wet, cold, dark, etc. It is broadly shown in Figure 1:
Addressing the most fundamental writing unit of Chinese language – stroke, Chapter 12, Which Is More Effective: App Game or a Workbook? An Experiment on Learning Chinese Character Writing by Xiaoshi Li and Wenying Zhou, examines the effects of an App game designed for character recognition and production on adult L2 learners, in comparison to the traditional pen-and- paper approach. Results showed that learners who used the App wrote characters faster than those in pen-and-paper group, and they also demonstrated more advanced knowledge of character stroke order as they followed the sequence of the strokes more strictly and arrange the character structure in a more balanced way. Another advantage of using App games is that learning and practicing character is less constrained to location and time, hence teachers will be at a better position in planning pedagogical activities.
The teacher‟s book (Norris & Thomson, 2008, p. 7) states that the goal of the materials “is to prepare students for the Cambridge First Certificate ... examination.” However, no explicit reference to what is included in the syllabus is made. My evaluation revealed the materials are based on several syllabus elements including grammar, topic, vocabulary and skills which led me to conclude that the syllabus is integrated. It is most likely that the initial consideration of syllabus design was the grammar the author viewed as either easiest (unit 1 expressing habitual behaviour) or most important, (unit 2 the gerund and infinitive). Talking about habits rarely causes difficulty at this level and it is essential that this is principally mastered to pass the examination. Gerund and infinitive, on the other hand, often causes problems. Nevertheless, it is commonly tested at FCE level and students who can use some of these forms improve their chances of passing. The secondary consideration for syllabus design was likely the need to incorporate common examination topics, whereby the topic was probably selected on the basis that it maximised opportunities to use the grammar of the unit. Vocabulary was then probably chosen on the basis of a combination of what useful chunks of language could be taught, given the near-authentic texts and the problem areas often encountered at this level. Finally, skills were most likely added to each unit to ensure an even distribution throughout the book.
Regarding your question about whether 15-20 year olds are connected to people all over the world, in our experience this is not so - most teenagers we are familiar with use social networks to talk to their local friends. In Ana's doctoral research, the informants had practically no foreign friends before they did their Erasmus programme. It is true that, during study abroad, they all had to start writing and speaking in other languages with their new contacts (mostly other Erasmus). But we also need to remember that only about 2% of students in Europe study abroad, and this reflects the percentage of Europeans who move to another European country to work - leaving the other 98% at home... food for thought!
MODULE 2: The Direct Method (DM): The direct method, also called the natural method was introduced by Charles Berlitz. This method grew in the 19 th century in Germany and France during the period when modern scholars had established the reform movement as a reaction against the traditional “old school” systems which had become unsatisfactory. Berlitz argued that there was a strong similarity between learning the first language and learning a secondlanguage and so, learning a second or foreignlanguage should involve more interactive activities orally, spontaneous use of language, no translation and little or no grammatical or syntactic structure. DM emphasized that spoken language had to be acquired and that grammar was not the best means of teachinglanguage. The main aim of DM is to immerse the learners in English, using realia, visual aids, demonstration and repetitive patterns. One of the proponents of this method was Harold F. Palmer (Tamura 2006:173). Significant principles of DM include:
Certain teaching methods used in secondlanguage education and in education generally that seem particularly suited to peace education are projects, role plays and simulations, and cooperative learning. Projects enable students to spend an extended period of time using their own initiative to go deeply into a particular topic, often one of their own choosing. Further, projects can serve as a vehicle for students to link classroom learning to the outside world and to take actions related to their chosen topic. Role plays (Ladousse, 1987) and simulations (Omaggio, 1978) fit well with peace education, because they encourage students to imagine themselves as different people, in different roles, and/or in different situations, again providing a connection between the classroom and the world beyond.