Teaching Writing Skills and Strategies

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TEACHING WRITING SKILLS IN UNIVERSITY LARGE CLASSES IN PAKISTAN: ISSUES, CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS

TEACHING WRITING SKILLS IN UNIVERSITY LARGE CLASSES IN PAKISTAN: ISSUES, CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS

A large class is not a unique phenomenon in Pakistan, as it is a worldwide issue. A few of the respondents explained that use of appropriate strategies play a vital role in large writing classes as it affects the learning environment and it is recommended to identify the students according to their behaviour and abilities in the start of the class. One of the respondents stated,“ Initially when the class starts, teacher’s job is to identify good students, average students and below-average students for the purpose of using appropriate strategy and contents should be relating the topic” (R-9). Indeed, large classes are challenging, but the goals can be achieved once there is effective planning and teacher delivers her maximum for the sake of students’ learning. One of the respondents suggested, “Enjoy what you teach so that you can deliver in a better manner” (R-1).Peer feedback is a useful strategy of large writing class as the majority of the respondents stated that it reduces the burden of a teacher for assessment purpose. One of the teachers expressed her views as, “I would like to give my colleagues the use of peer feedback, as I consider it one of the most useful strategies in teaching writing skills in large classes” (R-4).
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Employing Drilling Technique in Teaching English Writing Skills to a Group of Rural Malaysian Students

Employing Drilling Technique in Teaching English Writing Skills to a Group of Rural Malaysian Students

There are many language learning strategies or techniques that can accommodated in the classrooms’ teaching and learning sessions. In this research, the researcher has focused on the use of drilling technique or repetition drill (Freeman, 2000: 48) in a mixed gender classrooms for both control and treatment group. Besides that, it was used among limited proficiency students and their level are very poor whereby they cannot write even in using the simplest of English. It is a technique that allows and helped the students in writing because they are exposed to the technique. Researcher, (Gomez, Parker & Alecio, 1996: 211-212) have considered ‘structured writing’ traditionally referred to drill and practice, involving copying sentences, paragraph, or essays, and correcting without actually writing. Lessons are drill-and-practice based on hierarchical skill sequence with few extended writing opportunities. This approach has been noted in extended classroom observations. In their research they found out that:
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Perceptions and practices in learning and teaching second language writing in English : influences of backgrounds and language skills.

Perceptions and practices in learning and teaching second language writing in English : influences of backgrounds and language skills.

This chapter reports the findings of a study examining the L2 writing performance in English by learners from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Participants (n=30) hailed from such countries as China, Thailand, Indonesia, Japan, and Colombia. Their age ranged from 16 to 40 years. Their level of formal education varied from high school to master’s degree. During the study, the participants were honing their English language skills at an English Language College in Christchurch to undertake higher studies at a university in New Zealand. Their proficiency in English was apparently similar given the results of a placement test. Participants completed background questionnaires, grammaticality judgement tests, vocabulary tests, and writing tasks. Incidentally, 20 participants of this study were of Chinese origin, so they were conveniently classified as Chinese and non-Chinese. Findings indicated that for the non-Chinese participants, both vocabulary and grammar test scores correlated with the scores of the writing test. However, for the Chinese learners, scores in the vocabulary test did not correlate with those of grammar and writing. The differences in performance between these two groups suggest that L2 writers of this study are influenced by their native culture and/or language to learn writing in English in a specific way. The finding of this study proposes that effective strategies to teaching L2 across various cultural and linguistic contexts are contingent upon an understanding of learners’ cultural and linguistic orientation and development.
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Qualitative Study On Remedial Teaching Of Writing Skills In Indian Engineering Colleges

Qualitative Study On Remedial Teaching Of Writing Skills In Indian Engineering Colleges

Abstract: This study aims to understand the pedagogical aspects of remedial teaching of writing skills to engineering college students by focusing on the strategies used by students and teachers in achieving the relearning. The paper registers qualitatively both the students and the teachers’ perceptions of remedial teaching and learning. The study evidenced that a combination of inductive and deductive approach of teaching grammar and setting up of multiple goals and strategies in the remedial teaching yielded results. All the students have acknowledged that the teachers creating dispositions to learn from mistakes as helpful. The teachers have expressed that making the students aware of the impact of strategies on learning help in achieving the required modifications in their learning patterns.
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Assessing Systems Thinking Skills in Two Undergraduate Sustainability Courses: A Comparison of Teaching Strategies

Assessing Systems Thinking Skills in Two Undergraduate Sustainability Courses: A Comparison of Teaching Strategies

Assessing internal cognitive processes is inherently problematic, but in the assessment of systems thinking in higher education, an examination of writing samples or case study analysis seems to be the most viable approach (Wang & Wang, 2011; Zulauf, 2007), utilizing a structured rubric to analyze (Hung, 2008; Wang & Wang, 2011; Zulauf, 2007). Therefore, to assess the students’ systems thinking competency, two case studies (for pre- and post-intervention) were developed. The case studies, written by one of the authors, embodied some typical sustainability challenges and were based on actual apparel industry firms 1 . Nau, a sustainable outdoor apparel company, served as the basis for the pre-intervention case study. This was a company that entered and exited the market in a relatively short period of time, primarily due to the
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Listening Skills Development in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language and The Usage of Metacognitive Strategies

Listening Skills Development in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language and The Usage of Metacognitive Strategies

Listening, which plays quite a significant role in the process of establishing communication and language learning, is the most frequently used language skill both in daily life and school life (Chou, 2017). Listening is the most frequently used language skill (Scarcella & Oxford, 1992). Listening contributes to the development of other language skills in the process of language learning, in addition to being the language skill that develops first. In the process of learning a new language, it develops quicker than the speaking skill and becomes an indispensable skill that affects the development of the reading and writing skills (Oxford, 1993). Despite this importance, listening skill was not regarded as a significant part of language teaching programs until the 1970s (Rost, 2001), and it was a neglected language skill by researchers and teachers (Oxford, 1993). Most teachers believed that listening was developed by children themselves in a natural way, just as walking, therefore, they accepted listening as a natural skill and thought that there was no need to teach listening (Landry, 1969). Nevertheless, listening is more than what a student hears with two ears. Listening is a conscious effort based on perceiving and understanding, evaluating and reacting, which requires an active mental process.
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Pilot study : teaching writing strategies to students with learning disabilities

Pilot study : teaching writing strategies to students with learning disabilities

The participants in this study were all high school students with disabilities, in 1 of these 3 study skills classes. No class had more than 6 students. There were a total of 9 students, of the 10 who started, who completed the instruction studied here. Only 8 students participated in both the pre-test and post-test and were included in the achievement results, even though the 2 other students participated in some or all of the actual instruction and are also included in the case-stories. There were 2 females and 8 males. There was 1 Hispanic, 3 African-American, and 6 white students. By grade they were divided as follows: 3 ninth- graders, 5 tenth-graders, 1 eleventh-grader, and 1 twelfth-grader. The name of each student has been changed to ensure confidentiality
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Games as a measure of reading and writing generalization after computerized teaching of reading skills

Games as a measure of reading and writing generalization after computerized teaching of reading skills

Specifically regarding the use of gamification to teach and test reading or writing skills within behavior analysis, there are a few examples of successful initiatives. Head- sprout Early Reading® and Headsprout Reading Compre- hension® are two online programs that teach learners early reading and reading comprehension skills and strategies. Learners go through different episodes that involve several game-like activities. Moving through the episodes require certain mastery criteria and is automatically mapped in a board game like screen that allows the learner to monitor their own progress. Another example is Sudo et al. (2008)’s study, which evaluated if children’ s spelling errors would decrease when three games (AbraKedraba, memory game, and writing with chalk on the black board) involving writ- ten words, pictures, and constructed response matching to sample (CRMTS) were presented. Performance in spelling tasks improved for all participants. One last example is Souza and Hubner (2010)’s study, which further evaluated the effects of the AbraKedraba game on kindergartners that did not have reading or writing repertoires. The game resulted in performance improvements in both read- ing and writing skills. These examples, like others, taught some conditional discriminations directly and programmed learning opportunities that resulted in generalization. Sudo et al. and Souza and Hubner have explicitly programmed stimulus equivalence and minimal unit recombination procedures aiming at emer- gent or generalized performance.
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The effects of interactive teaching strategies on speaking skills of students learning Turkish as a second language

The effects of interactive teaching strategies on speaking skills of students learning Turkish as a second language

When the data related to the effects of interactive teaching strategy on students’ speaking anxiety, a significant difference was found between the groups in post-test comparisons. The mean scores of the control group in anxiety scale were significantly higher than the means of the experiment group. The low mean scores of post-tests in the experiment group indicates the effectiveness of the intervention. Kilicarslan (2014) showed that creative drama methods were effective in reducing the speaking anxiety levels of students. These findings are supported by the current study’s findings. There is a close relationship between learning and anxiety which is one of the fundamental and universal emotions (Varişoglu & Varişoglu, 2014, p. 56). Anxiety impacts language learners. Particularly the level of anxiety being above normal affects individuals negatively when learning a language. For those who learn Turkish as a second language, high level of anxiety creates difficulties during the learning process and that’s why it needs to be eliminated. Considering the conditions of learning and the structure, speaking can be considered as a fundamental skill that may create anxiety in learners (Ozdemir, 2013). When the literature in the field is reviewed, speaking skills are the second skillset that students have difficulty with, after writing skills. One of the factors contributing to these difficulties is speaking anxiety (as cited in Sen & Boylu, 2015). According to Woodrow (2006), speaking anxiety has a weakening effect on verbal performances of language learners. In a study conducted by Rashid (2017), it was shown that students learning Turkish as a second language had speaking anxiety. The role and importance of strategies, methods, and techniques used to reduce students’ anxiety levels are significant. Learning and teaching environments in which students can express themselves freely play an important role in reducing speaking anxiety.
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Effects of Instructional Strategies on the Trainee Teachers’ Learning Outcome in Practical Teaching Skills

Effects of Instructional Strategies on the Trainee Teachers’ Learning Outcome in Practical Teaching Skills

The outcome of this findings showed that the perceptual instructional mode had the greatest potency at effecting students’ practical skills achievement in microteaching. With this situation therefore, one would expect those who received instruction through perceptual mode to not only retain for long but recall better the subject matter as presented by the lecturer than either those who just received the information through the other modes. The finding might not be unconnected with the enthusiasm to which video use provided. The participants were helped to perceive critically what they watched on the screen with active participation of the students in the programme. The mapping method used might also provided the viewers the opportunity of having a mental model after the viewing session. The result of this study agreed with Jimoh’s (2002) study on the effects of videotaped feedback. Also, this study corroborates the claim of Ayo-Obiremi (2008) that the students treated with video and question and answer feedback performed significantly better than their counterparts treated with the question and answer feedback only. Findings of the study also agreed with Salawu (1999) who carried out a study on the effects of three instructional modes on student-teachers’ learning outcomes in selected teaching skills. He found out that a combination of direct mode and video-taped mode was found superior in students’ achievement in cognitive and practical teaching. Hypothesis two was presented to investigate the effect of learning style on the trainee teachers’ practical teaching skills achievement in microteaching. The result revealed in order of performance that the students who preferred the aural learning style achieved highest adjusted post test mean practical skill achievement score which was closely followed by the students preferring the visual style of learning, while the students who preferred the reading/writing learning style recorded the lowest post test practical skill achievement score. However, no significant effect was found.
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A review of research into metacognitive strategies in the process of education: teaching and learning of english skills

A review of research into metacognitive strategies in the process of education: teaching and learning of english skills

Writing: The writing section of the review includes eight studies mentioned below in more details (see Table 4). Which were published online between 2014 and 2018. The main focus of the research is placed on different targets linked with either assessing metacognitive awareness questionnaire of EFL learners, studying the effects of monitoring and planning skills as metacognitive strategies on writing accuracy of EFL learners or understanding of metacognitive knowledge use of EFL learners’ to promote learners’ self-regulation in the process of writing skills learning. Writing is one of the most sophisticated and problematic area in foreign language learning because it incorporates complex accomplishment of the language system and linguistic skills such as syntax, spelling, and writing conventions. Moreover, writing is a highly time consuming activity and most EFL learners rarely have writing courses in English.
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The Effect of Teaching Critical Thinking on Al-Buraimi University College students’ Writing Skills: A Case Study

The Effect of Teaching Critical Thinking on Al-Buraimi University College students’ Writing Skills: A Case Study

Traditional EFL teachers consider the first draft as the final focusing on grammatical and spelling errors regardless of the logical and organized text. Bean (1996) explains that there is a relationship between writing and critical thinking that focuses on solving problems. Consequently, he says, “presenting students with problems, then, taps into something natural and self-fulfilling in our beings” (3). Bean encourages curriculum designers to include critical thinking goals. Kurfiss (1988) points out that “students are active, involved, consulting and arguing with each other, and responsible for their own learning” (quoted in Bean .5). Bean explains that writing assignments have flexibility to integrate CT tasks into writing courses because the writing process involves CT (5). He suggests that EFl/ESL teachers need to design CT tasks to engage students in doing writing tasks in groups to generate and discuss ideas and organized logically. Bean indicate that using writing to promote deep learning is not the amount of writing in a course, but the quality of the writing assignments (13). Bean suggests strategies for designing CT tasks to build bridges between students’ prior knowledge and the new materials.
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Evaluating the effect of writing instructions on students' writing skills

Evaluating the effect of writing instructions on students' writing skills

According to Güneş (2013:1), the role of language has changed with the effect of constructivist approach and the social communication aspect of language has started to be given importance. Güneş (2013:1) states that this situation leads to changes in the structure of the texts used in language teaching. For this reason, this situation should be taken into consideration in the texts written by the students. The development of language skills on the basis of each other requires that these skills interact with each other in the learning processes. Karakoç Öztürk (2012:70) states that the development of students' reading skills affects writing skills in the same direction. As a matter of fact, the strategies used by individuals in this process affect the development of their language skills. In Belet and Yaşar's (2007: 69) research concluded that using learning strategies positively affected the development of reading and writing skills. Similarly, İnal's (2008:62) research states that clustering strategy will improve students' writing skills positively. This situation is important in terms of showing that cognitive processes affect the development of language skills such as reading and writing. According to the researchers, in addition to individual competencies, elements such as teacher and family are also effective in the development of students' writing skills. In Erdoğan's (2017:672) research examined the use of writing strategies by classroom teachers and concluded that teachers did not use these strategies enough. According to Erdoğan (2017:672), this situation may affect students' writing skills negatively. Ungan (2007:469) states that teachers should be taken in-service trainings in this direction in order to take advantage of lessons of writing in this research. Doğan (2003:198) also states that teachers have a direct effect on the development of students' writing skills and therefore, it should be taken into consideration that this situation should be taken into consideration in the training given to teacher candidates. Grossman, Valencia, Evans, Thompson, Martin & Place (2000:658) state that teacher education can help teacher candidates in their writing education. This situation reveals the teacher-student interaction in the teaching of writing skills as in other language skills. Öztürk (2007: 272) states that in addition to teachers, there are behaviors that families should do in the development of students' creative writing skills. Englert, Raphael, Anderson, Anthony & Stevens (1991:337) stated that teaching based on students' interaction with teachers and another students positively affected students' writing skills.
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Teaching Technical Writing Courses Online: Challenges and Strategies

Teaching Technical Writing Courses Online: Challenges and Strategies

This course is essential for developing students' professional writing skills, especially their ability to manage large and complex projects. Students in this course learn how to diagnose and solve their writing problems through an analysis and understanding of the writing process. Through audience analysis, organization, editing, and document design assignments, students also receive intensive review of their writing as well as exposure to both the theory and practice of technical communication. (3 credits)

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Students will be able to apply their writing skills to the format of letter writing.

Students will be able to apply their writing skills to the format of letter writing.

  Transition  by  saying  that  we  all  work  to  revise  our  own  writing,  but  sometimes   other  people  can  see  ways  to  make  our  writing  better  that  we  don’t  see  ourselves—  “That’s   why  Mrs.  Posey  and  I  walk  around  and  talk  with  each  of  you  about  your  writing.    Have  you   ever  noticed  how  we  ask  questions  and  give  suggestions?    Now  it’s  your  turn  to  do  that.”     Explain  that  we  will  be  doing  something  called  ‘peer  conferencing,’  which  just  means  giving   your  partner  advice  about  how  to  make  their  writing  better.    Students  should  use  the  
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CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING APPROACH TO TEACHING WRITING

CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING APPROACH TO TEACHING WRITING

According to Johnson and Johnson (1990), cooperative learning has established guidelines to help teachers avoid the negative conditions and create environments, in which students may be expected to learn concepts at a deeper level of understanding. After the guidelines were implemented in this research, the students could interact while completing assignments, learn to use interpersonal and small group skills, structure positive interdependence within students learning groups, and ensure that learning groups discuss how well the group functions. The other fact of cooperative learning can be counterproductive. For example, some students may not participate in the group processes at all, while others may dominate and the group members may refuse to accept or share responsibility for the group’s work.
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CHANGING TEACHERS` ATTITUDE TOWARDS WRITING, TEACHING OF WRITING AND ASSESSMENT OF WRITING

CHANGING TEACHERS` ATTITUDE TOWARDS WRITING, TEACHING OF WRITING AND ASSESSMENT OF WRITING

Writing is the most visible and probably therefore the most criticized product of education, but often the teacher has not declared to him/her what is the essence of writing and what are the main goals of teaching and as- sessing writing. Usually, when teachers in Estonia claim about students` bad writing skills, they often mean spelling, which is actually only one element of writing. The present article is going to introduce the research, which goal was to convince teachers, that creating text is a complex process, which involves paying attention to numerous factors: choice of words, syntax, message, peculiarities of different text forms, language usage etc. Therefore analytical assessment is described more closely in named above research paper and in this article, with hoping to encourage teachers to use it more systematically and consciously. Analytical assessment model, worked out for the research and used for assessing 740 pupils written texts, gave complex information about pupils writing skills, from what brief overview will be presented in the current article. The fact, that all pupils had their strong sides and weaknesses, confi rmed complex nature of writing and proved, that for assessing pupils writing skills we need to assess many aspects of writing, not only spelling and/or content.
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Acquiring Skills-PhD-Strategies for Writing a Good Study Plan Strategies for Writing a Good Study Plan

Acquiring Skills-PhD-Strategies for Writing a Good Study Plan Strategies for Writing a Good Study Plan

• http://career.berkeley.edu/Article/041112b- so.stm - The statement of purpose is a critical part of the application process for graduate school. Three experienced admissions officials from Harvard, NYU, and Yale offer their thoughts and wisdom on writing a great statement of purpose.

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WRITING SKILLS Course Syllabus

WRITING SKILLS Course Syllabus

4. Do not miss class because at least half of the class meetings depend on your active participation in discussions, or doing in-class writing assignment, so your attendance is noted: that is, you don’t earn the points for participation or assignments.

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Enhancing writing skills in IT students

Enhancing writing skills in IT students

Although very little research appears to have been done on the decision to continue with e-learning innovations, a number of studies provide some of the reasons why such projects are discontinued: the need for strategies to move from isolated innovations to sustainable e- learning (Tham & Werner, 2005); lack of institutional support including financial (Salmon, 2005) and training (Nichols, 2008); the individually ‘hand crafted’ nature of some projects (Salmon, 2005); and the lack of conclusive evidence of the impact on learning (Cox & Marshall, 2007). In reality an environment to support such innovations embraces organisa- tional (eg a sponsor at organisation level, peer support from colleagues), developer (eg workload acknowledgement of the project), teacher (eg time to learn and apply the innova- tion), student (eg ease of use) and technology (eg maturity, cost) factors. Together these pro- vide the level of institutional sustainability that ensure e-learning activities will not, in the long term, be limited to enthusiasts (Nichols, 2008).
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