In principle, sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures aim to protect the health of humans, plants and animals, while technicalbarriers to trade (TBT) ensure product quality and safety. However, governments may overshoot the requirements of health and consumer safety and use SPS and TBT to shield domestic producers from fair competition. Potential abuses of both measures as protectionist tools not only constrain international trade but also consumers ’ welfare by restricting the choices of goods available to them. Our analysis shows that in general the measures seem to be positive for trade after controlling for other factors. However, the impacts are mainly driven by exports from advanced economies. Less developed countries do not gain as much when implementing the measures or are disadvantaged in exporting goods, particularly when importers are advanced economies. Within South countries, developing Asia are more adversely affected by SPS while non-Asian developing country exports are afflicted more by TBT. SPS in particular is damaging intraregional agricultural trade among Asian countries, which calls for policy makers to act more proactively in resolving nontariff hurdles in the region.
China’s foreign trade volume is growing due to the increasingly globalized economy and the improvement in China’s international status. With China’s accession to the WTO and the rapid expansion of foreign economic and trade and economic rise, technicalbarriers to trade are widely used as a measure. In recent years, many Chinese export enterprises have encountered some of the world’s major developed countries. The impact of TBT reaches the ultra- billion dollars each year. Therefore, this paper focuses on the impact on tech- nical trade barriers (TBT) on China’s export trade, from the perspective of government and enterprises to study countermeasures. Technical barrier to trade is a trade import control. It has a duality, broadness, compliance and hidden. China is affected by internal and external causes. External causes are the protection for national interests, trade barriers, and so on. Internal factors are China’s trade pattern, industrial pattern imbalance and export order dis- order. For these reasons, the government should establish a good system me- chanism and the enterprises should improve product quality.
Technicalbarriers to trade (TBT) are kinds of measures that countries using some methods like technical regulations, packaging, testing and conformity as- sessment procedures to protect the domestic flora and fauna, human being’s health and environment. These kinds of methods can improve the requirements of imported products, increase the difficulty of importing, and finally reach the goal of limiting imports. TBT derived from standards and technical regulation, including labeling, special packaging requirements etc. In facts, there are some differences in definition and classification between China and other countries because of different economical and technical levels.
All results in Table 3 indicate that firms which export to the EU region after 2007, tend to improve the quality of their imported intermediates more than firms export to non-EU countries. This implies an improvement of their export quality. Importantly, the treated group not only improves their quality to comply with the requirements in the CR act (the safety requirements), but also improve their export quality in other dimensions. This implies that technicalbarriers lead exporters to upgrade more than required, which is consistent with the literature. Quality upgrading usually associated with huge fixed costs (e.g. Roberters et al., 2012, Maskus et al., 2005). As such, after firms incur huge fixed costs, they can upgrade the quality of their products in numerous dimensions in a relatively low marginal cost rather than upgrade only one quality dimension to comply with the CR act. 16 This is also the reason why we do detect insignificant dynamic effect of the CR act on the firm-level export quality: the treated firms have upgraded their export quality in numerous dimensions at one time.
promote economic performance. Analysis of the incidence of the trade-related impacts of non-technical measure(s) should be done extensively to ascertain who bears the costs and benefits such as small business versus medium-sized and large business, exporters versus import exchange firms and provide an evaluation of other available policy options, their incidence and how they could achieve an outcome of ensuring quality and safety standards of imported and exported commodities that is less restrictive to trade, whereas on the other hand upholding the same level of protection. Therefore due consideration should be given to the difference of the incidence of impact of a non- technical barrier to trade, depending on the various policy options.
provides for sectoral initiatives. On conformity assessments, KORUS is less ambitious than the EU–Korea FTA in that the former merely lists a range of six mechanisms, including mutual and autonomous recognition of conformity assessment, accreditation and supplier declarations. If recognition is requested but not granted, the reasons for not granting recognition must be given (see Pelkmans & Correia de Brito (2015) for a detailed comparison of the TBT chapter in KORUS with that of the EU-Korea FTA). There is a reference to the APEC Mutual Recognition Arrangement for Conformity Assessment in Telecommunications, of which Korea is a member. KORUS broadly follows the TBT approach on transparency and urges the use of electronic forms of communication. But here, as in the general provisions on technical regulations, there is only ‘best endeavour” wording for the ‘level directly below that of central government’. In other words, state level government in the US is not bound. Analogous to the EU-Korea agreement, there is a sectoral committee on regulatory requirements for automobiles, which is to work towards joint implementation of the regulatory requirements set out by UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe). Additionally, the TBT provisions are to be monitored by a Committee on TechnicalBarriers to Trade on which USTR represents the US.
regulatory barriers or standards; namely, the latter are voluntary, not legally binding and arise from the self-interest of producers or consumers involved, for example, to improve the information in commercial transactions and ensure compatibility between products. The former mainly relates to either technical specifications or testing and certification requirements such that the product actually complies with the specifications to which it is subjected (conformity assessment). Technical regulations strike at the heart of business operations affecting business pre-production, production, sales and marketing policies. The need to adapt product design, re-organise production systems and perform multiple testing and certification can entail a significant cost (or technical trade barrier) for suppliers of exported goods to a particular country, the magnitude of which differs across products. Before moving on to look at regional initiatives regarding technicalbarriers to trade, it is worthwhile to briefly review the approaches that the EU has adopted to remove such barriers to internal trade amongst members.
During medical care service, large amount of data are created and need to be stored safely for a long period, often a life time. One major difference between healthcare data and other big data sharing is that electronic health records (EHRs) are normally highly sensitive, which may make patients and medical organizations reluctant to share. On the other hand, however, EHR sharing [17, 19] can benefit both patients and medical organizations in a few ways. First of all, data sharing can facilitate medical research, for example, pooling multiple medical trials together for better understandings and scientific discoveries. Secondly, collaboration between different healthcare organizations (even cross-boarder cases) will be easier, such as doctors accessing patient’s medical records, the reimbursement of medical treatment in a foreign country and so on. Thirdly, regulations and standards to facilitate secure EHR sharing will be developed and strengthened, which will in turn bring more trust among different medical organizations and thus can offer patients better service and further improve medical research as well. However, there still exist some technicalbarriers that hinder EHR sharing and make it challenging in many ways. According to a literature survey  on research papers about main security issues related to EHRs sharing from the year 2004 to 2014, the main eight security issues (from the most concerned to the least) are confidentiality, privacy, access control, integrity, data authenticity, user authentication, audibility and transparency. It is urgent to solve these issues to enable secure EHR sharing.
Abstract This study utilized Glaser’s classic grounded theory to investigate the critical security and technicalbarriers to the continuance use of cloud storage services by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and to also determine which of these factors was of higher priority to decision-makers. In addition to observation, research data was collected through a semi-structured interview of twenty IT specialists with current cloud storage service experience. Participants were decision-makers directly in charge of technology adoption in SMEs based in the United States. Results from the data analysis uncovered the major security and technical concerns of cloud storage service users. Furthermore, the results indicated that security vulnerability was of higher concern and the most influential barrier to the continuance use of cloud storage service by SMEs. This study expanded discussions on the security and technical inhibitors or barriers to the continuance use of cloud storage service from the perspective of IT decision-makers.
TechnicalBarriers to Trade (TBT) are barriers which put extra technical regulations, standards, testing, and certification procedures with the intention of creating obstacles to trade (World Trade Organization). Figure 3.5 shows that TBTs are placed 10% of the time which while not the most common trade barrier, it still poses major problems to Kosovar exporters. The reason why this poses major complications to exporters is that technical regulations as well as standards vary considerably among countries (World Trade Organization). So, while Kosovo’s technical regulations and standards may be aligned with one of the CEFTA member countries, it is highly likely that they are not aligned with other CEFTA countries, in spite of the existence of the agreement itself. This means that even though all countries are signatories to the CEFTA that does not necessarily mean that their standards are harmonized. Therefore, it is important to analyze the cases of TBTs, the financial burden associated with them, and to examine their effect in the food industry in Kosovo.
This study attempted to investigate the process and barriers of flow of technical information in KWPA  . A survey method was used to collect the data. Interviews with some key persons were also conducted. The target population included both experts and technical managers, and the information output of technical departments. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were applied to analyze the data. Results showed that overall production and use of technical information are relatively satisfactory, and the respondents generally used the technical. Lack of a holistic view of information management and systematic access to information were major drawbacks. The authors suggest applying a holistic view for information management to systematize the production and use of information and reduce the costs.
interfere in setting up technical regulations and standards for protection of consumers and the environment as well as correction of market imperfects. Wilson and Otsuki (2004) also concurred with the above notion and they stated that technical regulations are mainly used for the purpose of minimizing risk that may be facing by consumers, plants and animals. Nonetheless, if technical regulations are inappropriately applied instead of trade promoting they can obstruct it since time and money can be wasted as a result of conducting tests. Otsuki, Maskus and Wilson (1999: 19) emphasized the need for putting technical regulations in the form of standards for developing the market as well as facilitating transactions since they can increase the demand for those products. Despite this it is the developing countries that are worse affected due to compliance complications.
The study was conducted with the aim of exploring the barriers to the adop- tion of BOT contract systems for infrastructural development of technical universities in Ghana. In an empirical questionnaire survey with professionals and experts in the construction and education sector, the respondents were invited to rate their perception on the barriers to the adoption of the BOT contracts systems. An interview session to satisfy ways of adopting the BOT contracts for infrastructural development in technical universities was con- ducted with selected professionals. The study revealed that the major barriers to the adoption of the BOT contract system are: delays in approval, corrup- tion, reliability and credit worthiness of entities and expropriation. The study suggested that detailed policy or framework for implementing BOT contracts; proper planning by technical universities; and adequate protection for lenders is required for successful BOT implementation. Therefore there is a need to explore this concept, using adequate policy initiatives, proper measures and support from government to improve on the proper implementation of the BOT contracts in Technical Universities in Ghana.