Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present an innovative teaching approach using a troubleshooting methodology in teaching and learning microprocessors by trainees at technical high schools. Moreover, this paper presents the evaluation of this methodology by electronics teachers who teach at technical high schools. In the beginning, the basic theoretical background about the troubleshooting problem-solving and a literature review about teaching microprocessors are described. Here is a detailed description of the troubleshooting methodology for teaching microprocessors to a real-world problem through a simulator. The methodology was presented in a seminar of teacher professional development for improving the quality of teaching electronic technology at technical high schools, and in the end up, a questionnaire for the evaluation of this methodology was given to the participants in order to express their opinion. The participants consider that the proposed methodology for the teaching microprocessors is appropriate for their students, and that the learner-centered approaches, in general, attract students' interest and they have better learning outcomes.
This paper makes several contributions to the fields of education of technicians on digital electronics, applied logic, critical and creative thinking. This education area (technical high schools) has very little research on the contemporary didactics. This paper contributes to this direction. It describes an innovative scenario in teaching digital electronics at technical high schools. The course is designed to improve students’ applied logic ability, practical thinking, creative thinking, and critical thinking. Moreover, this scenario helps the students construct and co- construct their own deep understanding and knowledge on digital electronics through inquiry-based simulations, explorations, guided discovery, collaboration, and by comparing a known with an unknown logic circuit as well. In this way, the students discover principles and new knowledge of the unknown logic circuits. The role of the student teams is very important for the improvement of each student achievement. The students work in teams in order to solve initially simple technical problems by using simulations and by comparing various circuits, and then more complex technical problems. The teacher guides and support the students, through exploratory questions, to discover new logic circuits by synthesizing simple logic circuits. Then, they are called to simplify-modify them in order to make simpler circuits with the lowest cost. At the end of scenarios, the students evaluate their own work and that of others. The scenario was applied by the author as exemplary teaching (in the framework of school teacher advisor) in various technical high schools in Greece during the 2011-2012 schooling period with a great success. The main conclusions from the application of the scenario in classrooms are the followings:
The sample was determined using a stratified random sampling system. All public high schools within Regions 1 and 6 were listed in numerical order based on the school number assigned from the MOEYC database. The schools that did not have an industrial technology/vocational program to the CXC CSCE level or NVQ-J were removed from the list. The number of schools remaining in each zone were noted and 35% of that number was calculated and rounded to the nearest whole number to determine the raw number of schools to be in the sample from each zone. Technical high schools for the sample were randomly selected at a higher percentage (66.6%) because they are fewer in number as they represent the core of technical education at the secondary school level. A random number table was used to select the sample schools from each zone. A list of the schools in the population is in Appendix A.
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When the data provided by Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI) on work accidents and occupational ailments in Technical and Vocational High Schools in 2016 is examined, it can be seen that a total of 2437 people, 960 of whom were men, had work accidents. 2242 people were reported as serviceable, while 12 individuals couldn’t produce any service. 183 people were entitled two and more health reports, which mention that they cannot work during this period . This situation indicates the status of OHS in vocational and technical schools. Based on the statistical data and lack of abundant research on the issue, this study is to investigate work accidents in vocational and technical schools and to provide a baseline for research and practice on OHS. Additionally, this study is to contribute to the field of OHS through the findings of the work accidents that have occurred in vocational and technical high schools. This study is to fill the void on OHS in terms of educational contexts.
Teachers with 26 year or more experience apply more physical punishment on students than those with less experience in vocational high schools. Even though application of physical punishment in technical high schools varies according to teachers’ seniority, it still continues. This finding is similar to the one obtained from Gözütok, Çiçekdemir, Başçı and Dilekmen, Civelek in their researches on primary school teachers. As their teaching experience increases teachers are able to make up for their “cognitive insufficiencies” at least in small amounts but they cannot control physical and emotional transformations arising through time and thus they tend to display undesired behaviors. That physical punishment applied in educational institutions of every level is not reduced according to teachers’ seniority can be considered as one of the most significant obstacles in front of raising students of the desired properties.
Lord Baker added that the new clause would give “all young people the chance to hear directly from providers of apprenticeships and technical qualifications” and would be of particular benefit to University Technical Colleges (UTCs) which recruit learners at 14 years of age. He argued that “many schools resist anybody who comes in and tries to persuade a pupil to go on another course. It is a loss of money—about £5,000 a head—and they are very hostile”. 8
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In general, technical and vocational education is an effort by the organizers to alter the behavior of individuals through vocational effectiveness and efficiency of the learning process to take place (Daryani, 2009). Another variable to investigate the issue of unemployment. Unemployed person who refers to the lack of jobs and a steady income can’t meet basic living expenses and one of the reasons unemployment may lack the ability the labor market, and the technical (Zenouz et al., 2011). The lexical meaning of the verb to work and practice and in terms of human behavior, it is an activity that produces goods and services leads to permanent and the salary is granted (Mohammadi, 2007). The investigation follows illustrates the impact of technological and professional education on reducing unemployment are.
In addition, I am trying to demonstrate that cognificable production would also produce subsumption particular forms, beyond producing quantifiable objects. The curricular content and educational practices are not the same in schools with technical and pedagogical resources, with well-trained and well-paid teachers, as in those where there are terrible working conditions with unqualified teachers, so, given that the form of schooling is a social subsumption of the ideas, this curricular content and this educational practices would also be produced from the resources (tangible and intangible) that can be obtained through cognificable production effect.
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Junior high schools and in general the whole Polish education system is not perfect - no one has created such a system in the world so far. However, the collected data suggest that the introduction of junior high school in 1999 was an idea that brought more good than harm. Although some people may find it surprising, gymnasium is the strongest element of Polish education. This is the result of all available research - both Polish and international. Before the introduction of junior high schools, we had over 80% of students who did not cope with reading comprehension in vocational schools. They were simply functional illiterates. After the reform, we gradually improved these results until we reached the top in the OECD. Now we have, for example, more good students in mathematics than Finland, famous for its education system . PISA (international survey of skills of 15-year-olds) and PIAAC (International Adult Competence Research) show that young Poles are really well-educated . Polish students between 16 and 19 years of age have several points more than the average for the OECD countries in reading comprehension, and they reach this average in mathematics. The younger colleagues examined in the PISA study achieved even better results. The output is also quite good for 16-24-year-old students. Only the elders - those who did not graduate from gymnasiums, only 8-year primary school - lower these results . Currently, we are dealing with the notorious undermining of the results of the above-mentioned research - mainly the PISA surveys - by the governing party politicians. It is the largest measurement of students' skills in the world in three basic areas: reading and interpretation, mathematics and reasoning in natural sciences, developed by an international consortium of the best OECD experts . Of course, it can be argued that it does not include knowledge of religion, history and Polish literature, but these are not the key skills to succeed in international competition.
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The school has worked closely with Exeter College in designing its programme for spiritual, moral, social and cultural development. The over-arching vision is for the ‘development of the whole person so that the mathematician can flourish’. The aim is for students to take their place in society as valued, resourceful and economically successful citizens. Using a carefully designed tutorial scheme of work and individual tutorial sessions, the school will place emphasis on personal development, and specifically on moral understanding. High levels of integrity, personal motivation and creativity will be expected of all students. Planned provision includes: encouraging students to respect diversity of beliefs and opinions; demonstrating tolerance and a respect for the interests and needs of others; and providing strong links with the world of work and the local academic community. Students will be expected to take the issue of their citizenship seriously and planned provision will involve them in gaining insights into different public institutions in England, and the workings of common and civil law. They will also be engaged in community enterprises and charitable activities of their choice. The school intends to ensure that students benefit from leadership opportunities, and that the student voice ‘informs the learning environment’. Students will work as mentors as part of the school’s outreach programme, and individual students will have the chance to sit on the governing body and the student committee.
Mann –Whitney tests are non-parametric tests that are used to compare groups. In this instance, the seven Mann-Whitney tests that were performed compared the rankings of male principals vs. female principals. The results showed that there were no differences between males and females in their rankings of the importance of instructional leadership (p = .213), a clearly stated and focused mission (p = .356), a safe and positive environment (p = .837), frequent monitoring of student progress (p = .295), maximized learning opportunities (p = .581), or positive communication with home, school, and community (p = .909). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the rankings of the importance of high expectations for all students (p = .026). The mean rankings for this correlate shown in Table 4.6 indicated that male participants tended to rank high expectations for all students as more important (mean rank = 2.17) than female participants (mean rank = 3.44). Summary
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expressed in numbers (from 1 to 5) is an evaluation of the extent in which a student mastered particular subject (i.e. acquired some knowledge) during a certain period of educational process. In this paper, we decided to perceive the distribution of school success through the distribution of student's success in the previous grade, as an indicator of real effectiveness of gifted and other students during their regular schooling. In that context, there has been set a specific hypothesis that no significant differences in school success between gifted and other students may be expected. Self-awareness – in the analysis of subjective experience of both gifted and other students there were perceived two important aspects: the perception of present and the vision of future. Both aspects carry within themselves that emotion – value character, as a referential framework for adjusting the behavior of an individual, in everyday activities and planning of some relevant activities in the near and far future. In Psychology, the terms of perception of present and vision of future are regarded as important within the identity analysis of an individual (identity, self-consciousness, self, self-system, self-image, self-concept); so it is important to emphasize that they are an integral part of self-image or self-consciousness. Therefore, we shall assume that both perception of present and vision of future are phenomena, relevant for the development of gifted students during their schooling as well as in the self-actualization process, later on. They are particularly important in the relation of an individual toward tasks that person set himself/herself as some relevant goals and tasks to which he/she strives in his/her life. In that view, there has been set a specific hypothesis that no significant differences in the perception of present and the vision of future between both gifted and other students may be expected. However, we shall assume that all persons set some goals to themselves to which they strive in their lives and according to which they adjust their activities and behavior in the social environment, so no differences among young high school students, nor gifted and other students may be expected.
the responsibility under the RTE Act is low. It is also found that educational qualification has direct positive impact on the awareness of teachers. This was also supported by Ajay,M.Gadam (2013) , who identified that there is significant impact of the educational qualification of the teacher on their awareness of the responsibility under RTE Act, 2009. Male awareness is also found higher than the female awareness. This statement is also supported by the research conducted by Fathima Jaseena (2011) ,who found out that male students possess higher awareness than female students about the Right to Education Act, 2009 . There is need to focus on filling vacancies of teachers in schools for improving enrolment and retention of children. Mehta, 2006 also focussed on filling vacancies of teachers in schools for improving enrolment and retention of children. Jha, Ghatak, Mahendiran and Bakshi (2013) also felt the requirement of thousands of professionally trained teachers in their study. Tejaswini (2001) also identified the gaps in the existing services and needs of students and teachers in the context of quality education. He recommended that there is a need to strengthen teachers on aspects of motivation, pro-children attitudes and creative teaching learning process. Appointment of suitable staff is also recommended in order to lessen the burden on teachers. Singh, Joshi, and Garia (2003) also suggested that the quality of school can be improved by giving training to teachers, providing learning and teaching materials, filing the vacant posts of teachers, and paying teachers a good salary.
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each institution. The inscription of new students is performed through selection processes with written exams, to evaluate the knowledge of the Portuguese language, mathematics and specific knowledge of the agricultural area. In the specific part, empirical knowledge related to experiences and interaction with the rural environment and, in some schools, evaluation was through interviews. The selection processes of the institutions are remembered, both by the teachers of the EAF Guanambi, as well as by those of EAF Senhor do Bonfim. They reconstruct their experiences, emphasizing the prior form of entrance as efficient, as a means of inserting the candidates of the rural environment and also those with greater affinity with the course: “[...] previously, to be admitted here [...], there was an interview, the student did the theoretical exam and passed for the interview, and the interview classified or eliminated the student. Another form was more coherent than the one presently applied, with Portuguese or math exams. There was a specific field exam, such as: who uses Cangaia (a type of harness)? These questions were understood by those who lived in the rural environment, right? And in the first year you realized that the students were from the rural environment” (Professor, Jul. 2016).
attendance for a certain number of days. This was a difficult requirement for the students attending virtual schools to reach. Many virtual schools do not require students to attend virtual classes on a set schedule. Students may work anytime, anywhere, and at their own pace. There may be days when they do not even log into a class. Some students are able to stay on pace with the state‟s recommended timeline, but many students who lack the self discipline may find themselves falling behind to the point where it effects their graduating on time (four years from the first time they enter ninth grade). The question of the digital divide also arose during my tenure as a virtual high school principal. There were concerns with students of older parents or parents who did not have the opportunity to keep up with the all of the technological advances in our country having adequate support and financial assistance to provide all students with equal opportunities in a virtual setting. Virtual schools provide students with differing levels of support – there is no mandate by federal or state government to what type of support these schools offer to students and families. Being that virtual schooling is still such a new concept and there is little research on the effectiveness of these schools, I am interested in how the students are performing in this type of setting. Knowing that differences such as the examples discussed still have not been addressed, it strikes my curiosity to see how the success rates of students compare between virtual schools and brick and mortar schools.
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If implemented the proposals put forward in this study will give rise to an increase in the total number of ETOs in the country to 12, in accordance with the 7 year national development plan. The quality of technical education offered in the ETOs will be ensured through implementation of the recommended improvements in the physical facilities, equipment, numbers as well as levels of qualifications of the technical teaching staff, while at the same time limiting class sizes to 30 students per programme, initially. Two (2) new ETOs will be constructed in the Northern Province and ETO Umutara (Umutara Polytechnic) in the Eastern Province will be expanded in order to address the identified shortfall in these two Provinces. Training will also be restructured to offer a full complement of 8 recommended programmes in each ETO. The total student enrolment per year is expected to grow from the registered figure at the time of the study of 1011 through to 1770 (due to the rehabilitation and expansion of existing ETO to offer 4 full programmes, the associated increase in the number of technical teachers in the programs to a full complement of 9 per programme, and setting up of new ETOs), 5040 (due to the expansion of existing ETOs to offer a full complement of 8 programs, double streaming of 4 programs per ETO and setting up of new ETOs), and 6720 (due completion of double streaming of all programs in all ETOs) during the period of the proposed project.
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With the proposed expansion in capacity and the addition of 2 new ETOs in the Northern Province, the total number of technical teachers required was projected to rise to 456; which are 337 more than the 119 in the system at the time of the study. It was proposed therefore that aggressive recruitment be done internally and externally as well, starting from the beginning of the year 2008. TVET in Rwanda at the time of conducting the study was characterised by very poor retention of technical teachers, particularly those with A1 and A0 qualifications. It was recommended therefore that measures be put in place to ensure that the remuneration package for national technical teachers was attractive enough to ensure retention. This would guarantee long term availability of a stable and reliable pool of technical teachers in the country. It was further recommended that the remuneration package
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Changes in school syllabi are considered here. There should be changes at the primary, secondary and tertiary level education. Let us consider the primary lev- el first. The present syllabus of primary education ignores national languages. The primary child should learn one official language (not two as is the case now) and be introduced to two indigenous languages i.e. his own mother tongue in the first position and one Cameroon indigenous language of his choice in the second position. This teaching of the indigenous languages will be limited to the acquisition each year of some 200 common vocabulary items like “father”, “mother”, “sun”, “house” etc. and short expressions like “what is your name?”, “where are you going?” etc. in each child’s two languages. That will give a total of 1200 words in the six primary school years. These words will be recorded on CDs with taxpayers’ money and sold at a subsidized price in schools. This exer- cise will enable Government to draw up a list of those languages which are most often chosen in the second position; from this list will come the ultimate nation- al language of Cameroon. More details on how this selection will be done are presented in separate research works. By getting all Cameroonian languages taught at the same time, Government will be implementing a constitutional pro- vision.
educators. The 1980 military government in Turkey banned Private Tutoring Centers (PTCs) because of their concern for equity consideration. In 1983 a law was passed which required the closure of the PTCs within one year of 1984. The ban was lifted before it took effect because of the lobbying activities of the Private Tutoring Centers. There were only 174 PTCs at that time across the country. This event was a turning point in the history of the PTCs in Turkey 2 . It led to the establishment of the first association of the PTCs called Ö z-De-Bir in 1985 3 . Today, Ö z-De-Bir is the oldest and the largest of the several other PTC associations in the country. Tansel and Bircan (2008) have observed that private tutoring exacerbates social stratification and inequalities in Turkish society. Household income and parental education levels play important roles in determining access to private tutoring (Tansel and Bircan, 2006). Parents with high incomes can buy better quality and greater intensity of private tutoring while poor parents cannot afford the same. Parents with high levels of education also afford a better quality and greater amounts of private tutoring compared to parents with low levels of education. As a result, those students whose parents can afford private tutoring have an advantage over those who cannot in getting into the elite, high quality high schools and universities and obtaining higher incomes and prestigious positions in the labor market and the society. Wealthy parents view private tutoring as securing a competitive advantage for their children. In contrast, Ö z-De-Bir officials have argued that PTCs provide services for middle- and low-income families at affordable prices compared to a private one to one
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