It must be understood that for technology innovation and its commercialisation to be successful in Ghana and other under-developed economies, the impetus for change must come from all sections of society under competent political leadership. The weak political commitment and infrastructure, vast bureaucracies, misdirected education and training, scarce financial resources, poor research productivity and inadequate demands on the national R&D system are all constraints to technological innovation and commercialisation . The creative scientists at home are frustrated due to hierarchies of authority, lack of delegation and mistrust in sharing information. The most critical barriers facing successful technologycommercialisation in Ghana today can best be categorized as: Financing, Management, Marketing/Commercialisation and Infrastructure. Addressing these barriers, would contribute significantly to improving the technologycommercialisation climate in Ghana.
Upon achieving demonstration in principle in the lab, few scientists are eager to plow forward to develop a fully functioning prototype. Many promising TEP technologies were very early in their development, compounding the difficulty of technology discovery. Even entrepreneurially inclined faculty inventors often could not fathom the business and legal issues involved in technologycommercialisation. Some of the technologies offered up by PNNL had reached a more mature developmental stage than those from the academic labs. But even here, difficulties in comprehending scientific language and business jargon opened up a gap between new-to-the-world technologies and serious business ideas ready for evaluation as investment opportunities. The director of the TEP programme provided the following illustration of the technology discovery gap:
The research was being approached using a case study strategy, where the investigation method is commonly used in social sciences study . A single case study was chosen for the present project, following the standard Case Study Protocol. Interviews were carried out for data collection. The target population was limited to 9 researchers and an administrative officer (designation: technology transfer officer) a public university. Using the matrix analysis method, matrix tables were drawn up to execute a logical analysis of the data obtained. The matrix helps paint an approximate picture of the correlation between cause and effect, before being refined and developed into a complete map or chart that explains all the threads of the study .
What do Google and an MP3 player have in common? Both are based on inno- vations that originated from a university or public research institution. Google began in early 1996 as a research project by two PhD students at Stanford Uni- versity in the USA whereas MP3 is a digital audio encoding format developed at the Fraunhofer Institute, which together with the Max Planck Society forms the top two public research institutions in Germany. In the last decade major re- search universities and public research organizations have undergone a tectonic shift from ‘knowledge production’ to ‘capitalisation of knowledge’. This com- mercial orientation and increasing commercialisation activities among universi- ties had implications not only for the university’s financial advantage but had a great impact of improving regional or national economic performance (Etzko- witz et al., 2000). Commercial successes like the previously mentioned Google, the MP3 technology and many others have created a fertile ground for the seeds of commercial activities from public research organizations such as technology licensing and university spinouts 1 . The rising number of universities involved in
“The programme provides essential knowledge for all industries and fills the knowledge gaps that executives sometimes have. I’ve been very impressed with the selection of lecturers and guest speakers who all have good practical experience. I enjoyed how learning modules are designed with a multidisciplinary approach to technologycommercialisation, complete with innovative assessment methods and opportunities to engage in project work.” Jack Shan – Patent Executive, AJ Park
Section 2.2 presents an overview of the business model literature, covering the origin and definitions of a business model. It then presents current knowledge obtained from academic work concerning business models and highlights the utility of business models for commercialising new technology. It also discusses the limited research being done in relation to business models for technologycommercialisation in the USO context. Section 2.3 explores the state-of-the-art academic studies concerning business models for commercialising university technology in USO settings in an in-depth manner. It strives to narrow the scope of this thesis by looking at the unique challenges encountered by most USOs related to business model development. Section 2.4 further articulates the challenges associated with different value components of business model development. Following that, section 2.5 describes the effectuation logic and concept of opportunity creation as well as their merit as potential lenses with which to answer the research questions. It also presents the central premises borrowed from both domains, which help to identify suitable operationalisation measures to answer the research question. Finally, section 2.6 concludes the literature review chapter.
Myanmar is a country in rapid economic and political transition, with opportunities emerging for its smallholders to benefit from current economic growth. However many smallholders are trapped in semi-subsistence agriculture, disconnected from markets. Commercialisation can increase farm incomes, and - through the multiplier e ff ect - lead to wider pro-poor growth in the rural economy. However, there are many constraints to commercialisation that prevent this process from occurring. While literature on constraints confronting smallholders abounds internationally, there is a paucity of literature on the challenges confronting smallholders in Myanmar. This study investigates constraints to commercial farming in the townships (districts) of Myeik and Palaw in Myanmar’s Tanintharyi Division. A repres- entative two-stage sample of 259 rural households was drawn from these townships, and data relating to livelihoods and agricultural enterprises were gathered using a structured questionnaire. The most important determinants of com- mercialisation identified using Heckman regression were the household’s land endowment, liquidity, land quality, and productive assets. Access to a ff ordable financial services could boost household liquidity and investment in farm inputs, assets and improvements to land, so alleviating the most important constraints to commercial farming. Keywords: Burma, commercial, market participation, rural credit, rural development, livelihoods, farming
Commercialisation of innovation has become a major issue around the world, where many industries are moving into innovation and knowledge-based industries. However, lack of professional human resource, lack of knowledge management and inappropriate management of development are the problems that influence the commercialisation activities in Sarawak. The purpose of this research is to study the main factor that contributes to commercialisation of innovation in Sarawak industries and examine how this factor influence the commercialisation activities. This study also aims to suggest some improvements for the commercialisation in Sarawak industries. This research is descriptive, and used a qualitative research method to identify the main factor, which influenced the commercialisation of innovation in Sarawak industries. The data was collected through semi-structured interview to identify factors considered to influence the success of commercialisation of innovation. In this study, Allianz General Insurance Company (M) Berhad and Subur Tiasa Holding Berhad were selected among the Sarawak industries to investigate what are the main factor that lead to the commercialisation of innovation. The result shows that investment in human capital is the main factor that can increase the success of commercialisation of innovation in products and services. Furthermore, the human capital investment can enhance their skill and knowledge as well as enhancing creativity, productivity and efficiency to achieve the success of commercialisation activities. The study concludes that a positive incidence not only on the successful of commercialisation of innovation in Sarawak industries but it also gives some initial contributions toward the development of successful of commercialisation of innovation in Malaysia.
Since innovation has become an increasingly important source of competitive advantage, and business investment in R&D and innovation has risen, innovative firms have become increasingly dependent on external sources of knowledge rather than in-house research. Intensified competition, shorter product life cycles and expanded technological opportunities force them to innovate more quickly and focus their R&D expenditures, while seeking privileged and rapid access to complementary new knowledge in the public and private sectors. A result of these driving forces has been the emergence of a new type of organisation of industrial research that is less centred in individual firms, based more on networks and markets, and in some cases, is more reliant on small technology firms. Such inter-organisational collaboration can provide a strong basis for the generation and commercialisation of innovation, and provide other potential benefits, such as facilitating access to new technology and entry to new markets through licensing (Chiaroni et al 2008).
Commercialisation of higher education institutions and research institutions innovations depends on direct investment of the companies. Research Commercialisation is the focal point of urbanised nations (Hitt, 1996). Hence, research institutions and industries must work together with HEIs so that education sector get the know how about importance and need of research required. It gives an immense picture to academia that how to properly utilise the resources on the basis of precedence (Zahra & Nielsen, 2002). Academic research concept in universities is shifting from community good knowledge to academic entrepreneurship (Slaughter & Rhoades, 2004). Generally, the concentration of university in commercialisation activities is considered to be a winning strategy for great contribution towards development of trade and industry and revenue generation, expansion of funding sources and incentives for faculty members participating in this entrepreneurial activity (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff, 1997).
http //www hts org za Open Access HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies ISSN (Online) 2072 8050, (Print) 0259 9422 Page 1 of 8 Original Research Read online Scan this QR code with your smart phon[.]
With the growing unemployment rate as well as decline of entrepreneurial ventures in South Africa, alternative ways need to be investigated to increase entrepreneurship efforts and increase employment opportunity. Publicly funded universities throughout South Africa develop innovations as part of research outputs that through further development and refinement could be commercialised. Not many of these researchers or academics are entrepreneurially inclined and usually obtain the assistance of the Technology Transfer Office (TTO) for assistance in driving innovation to a commercial conclusion. However, human resources within these Technology Transfer Offices do not necessarily have the required entrepreneurial skills or work force to successfully push these innovations to the market. At the same time, students throughout South Africa have the opportunity to study entrepreneurship through modules, degrees and short courses, yet do not always have access to good business ideas or get the exposure to apply the theory practically while getting expert guidance.
commercialisation. One such concern has been the positioning of students as consumers (Abrams 2016; Kenway & Bullen 2011; Molnar 2007), prompted by initiatives like the launch of ‘Channel One’ in the US in 1989. By 1999, Channel One had 8 million students tuned in every morning for a 12 minute news program, which incorporated 2 minutes of commercial advertising by the likes of Snickers, Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Nintendo, Xbox, Nike, Pizza Hut and McDonald’s (Molnar 2007). Channel One provided schools with TVs, videocassette recorders and satellite dishes, an outlay exceeding $250 million, however the 30 second advertising spots sold for $200,000 and generated over $100 million per year in revenue (Abrams 2016). This example shows the importance of curriculum standardisation within and across systems for creating ‘economies of scale’ that enable products and services to be developed and disseminated nationally and, in some instances, internationally.
such that π h ( ATE ) would be a measure of the impact of commercialisation . A common problem in programme evaluation is the missing data problem where outcomes (i.e., daily per capita household expenditure) for households are observed for only one state and no information in the counterfactual state is available. Using average daily per capita household expenditure for non-participants to estimate the average treatment effect (ATE) in absence of the counterfactual outcome data for participants would bias the true impact of the programme due to endogeneity and sample selection biases. From equations (4a) and (4b), the observed outcome is expressed as:
descriptions from literature, which are adopted here. According to Khalil (2000), technology is understood to be “all the knowledge, products, processes, tools methods, and systems employed in the creation of goods or in the provision of services”, while also referring to Pieterse’s (2005) definition of “the integration of people, knowledge, tools, and systems with the objective to improve people’s lives”, and Van Wyk’s (1988) description of the “created capability manifesting in artefacts with the purpose of which is to augment human skill.” As previously mentioned, CSP technologies represent a class of solar thermal energy generation technologies that convert sunlight into thermal heat to produce thermal energy and/or electricity (Gauché et al., 2017). However, it is a complicated technology due to its many internal components, along with different design types, uses, and operating environments, for the purposes of generating thermal energy and/or electricity (Gauché et al., 2017). As a result, this research study concerns itself with a macro-level view, covering the entire class of the technology. A ‘CSP commercialisation universe’, illustrated in Figure 1.8, describes the boundary points set for the study in terms of the commercialisation process (horizontal axis), the class of CSP technology (vertical axis), and the South African context. TES is also included in the classification as a CSP technology, given the role it plays in CSP’s potential to operate as a dispatchable technology, as well as the associated production processes.
ABSTRACT: This paper explores the cultural and organisational dimensions of academic life that lay the foundations for academic freedom. We briefly review the relationship between university autonomy and academic freedom, the relationship between ethics and freedom and the impact of increased commercialisation on scholarly independence, particularly how the increasing casual- ization of employment limits the freedom of academics to teach critically and publish freely. We examine the geopolitics of knowledge and how the hegemony of Western thinking frames domi- nant epistemologies and imposes constraints on academic freedom. We also explore the ways in which Cartesian rationalism underpins contemporary understanding of what constitutes valid knowledge, and how this can and does act as a constraint in what we come to know and study, not least in terms of values but also in terms of how caring (affective) relations impact research and teaching. Our paper highlights the silenced doxa in the organisation of the academy, including the impact of care-lessness on women and primary care givers in particular. We examine the social class biases in how higher education is organised, and how class exclusions are themselves con- straints on being an academic or a student in a university. Finally, the paper illustrates the impor- tance of distinguishing between the institutional autonomy of the university, the personal and pro- fessional freedoms of individual academics, and each of these from subject autonomy, namely the freedom of scholars to create and maintain new disciplinary fields, especially fields of scholarship that are critical and challenging of prevailing academic orthodoxies.
From earlier years in the bio-medical space at the Garvan Institute, through to her recent Deputy Director role at the Mater Medical Research Institute, Topaz has worked on multiple sides of research, development, and commercialisation including CEO of Cytopeia, USA, and being an angel investor herself. Strategy, funding and partnerships are her strengths and her company, Biothoughts, is dedicated to these services. Topaz is a Graduate of the Australian Institute of Company Directors and currently sits on the Boards of PafTec International and Springboard Enterprises Australia.
Medipex identifies potential commercial partners to whom the IP can be licensed or assigned and then offers its services as negotiator with the commercial organisations to identify the best route to exploitation. Medipex has also worked with a variety of existing agencies to commercialise the IP and, where appropriate, set up spin-out companies to exploit the IP. Initially it had been assumed that the route for the commercialisation of IP would be via licence deals or sales to commercial organisations. However it was found that the formation of a spin-out company was identified as the route to commercialisation more often than we had expected. This was because the innovations were not developed to a near market state sufficiently to generate commercial interest. Medipex was required to obtain approval from the Private Finance Unit (PFU) on behalf of the Secretary of State for Health for the formation of these companies. To date, five new healthcare companies have been set up by Medipex, nearly £2million of investment secured to continue product development and two of the spin outs have commenced trading.
There is inverse relationship between economic and social life of the people. The economic men emphasize more on skill and social men on value and attitude. The economic condition of a person plays an important role in determining social and value system of a person. Due to the introduction of market economy every piece of assets or resources and even activities becomes saleable property and measures in term of money in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. Hence, the people become an economic man that measures every resources and activities in term of monetary value. There is also an adverse affect on social value system and relationship. The traditional or cultural based economy gives more importance on relationship, attitude and character of the individual or an institution whereas the market economy rely more on benefit, profitability and performances. In fact, the tribal society is built on cultural ethos, social relationship and value system. The monetary economy has no place in the domain of tribal society. Hence, the upcoming of rapid commercialisation of forest resources under market economy posed great challenges to the tribal society of the state. Furthermore, developmental projects have seen large scale immigration of people from outside, in search of employment, thus distorting demography of the tribal society that may lead to conflict and destruction of tribal lifestyle.
2. School of Early Childhood, Department of Primary Education, Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education, Sagbama, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
This study examined commercialisation of tertiary education as a correlate of economic recession in Nigeria. The study adopted a correlational survey design. The Taro Yamane’s formula was employed to draw the sample of 322 lecturers from the purposively chosen two federal universities using the convenience sampling technique. Data collecting instrument was the researcher’s structured questionnaire that was face validated by three experts. Data were analysed using the Pearsons’ correlation coefficient and linear regression. Findings revealed among others very high relationship between commercialization of tertiary education and economic recession in Nigeria. Based on the findings, some recommendations were made among which was the intensification of quality assurance mechanisms of the tertiary education system by the various commissions responsible for the programme to ensure quality manpower.