Tensile strength and Friability

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Aggregate tensile strength and friability characteristics of furrow and sprinkler irrigated fields in Southern Idaho

Aggregate tensile strength and friability characteristics of furrow and sprinkler irrigated fields in Southern Idaho

Several devices have been designed to measure aggregate tensile strength over the years. Dexter and Kroesbergen (1985) described an apparatus that measured the load applied to the poles of an aggregate positioned between two flat, parallel metal plates. Depending upon the sample aggregate’s size and suspected strength, the load was mea- sured with (1) an analog balance, (2) the progressive loading, by hand, of a lever, or (3) a proving ring-type loading ring, similar to that of Rogowski, Moldenhauer, and Kirkham (1968), that had a dial gauge to record the maximum load applied. Unfortunately, none of these devices automatically recorded or logged the progressively increasing load applied to the aggregate until it failed. Dexter and Kroesbergen (1985) did note, however, that their small-aggregate apparatus could be improved using a digital rather than analog balance that would output its reading to a data logger or computer. In this study, a device was cus- tom designed to interface with computer hardware and software so the load applied could be read automatically. This device was used to study the impact of sprinkler and furrow irrigation on soil structure, by measuring aggregate tensile strength and friability.
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EFFECT OF BULK DENSITY ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF TABLETS PREPARED BY USING HICELTMMCC (MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE) AND HICELTMSMCC (SILICIFIED MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE)

EFFECT OF BULK DENSITY ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF TABLETS PREPARED BY USING HICELTMMCC (MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE) AND HICELTMSMCC (SILICIFIED MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE)

Direct compression is an admired method for manufacturing the solid dosages form tablets. Now a days many excipients are used to manufacture the tablets. Physical parameters (bulk density, Particle size, moisture content, Carr’s index and angle of repose) and degree of polymerization are very important to manufacture tablets by direct compression. Out of this bulk density plays a vital role in direct compression method. It affects tensile strength of tablets. Tensile strength of tablet also depends on wood pulp sources, it varies from pulp-to-pulp. In this research work, we have used HiCel TM MCC 90M (Microcrystalline Cellulose) and HiCel TM SMCC 90M (Silicified Microcrystalline Cellulose) grade containing dissolving wood pulp. HiCel TM SMCC is a co- processed excipient. It is having superior flowability and 25-30% better compaction than HiCel TM MCC. It gives very good tablet profile in terms of tensile strength, friability, disintegration time and dissolution time. The main objective of this study is to find the correlation between bulk density of HiCel TM MCC and HiCel TM SMCC and tensile strength and second correlation between tensile strength and friability of their tablets. In this study, we will make tablets using different bulk density samples of HiCel TM MCC 90M and HiCel TM SMCC 90M grade and without adding pharmaceutical active ingredient, after that evaluate quality parameter of tablet.
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Title:  ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS: TREATMENT IN ELDERLY PATIENTS. Author:  Callegari C. *, Bianchi L., Vender S Keyword:  Antiepileptic drugs, elderly patients, gabapentinPage No:  96-102Abstract:   Introduction: This study aims to examine qualitatively the use

Title: ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS: TREATMENT IN ELDERLY PATIENTS. Author: Callegari C. *, Bianchi L., Vender S Keyword: Antiepileptic drugs, elderly patients, gabapentinPage No: 96-102Abstract: Introduction: This study aims to examine qualitatively the use of AEDs in a population of elderly patients in nursing homes, including the prescription of specialist and monitoring. Methods: This p revalence study was carried out in a state-founded nursing home providing assistance and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of the use of antiepileptic drugs. The second objective is to study the monitoring the dosage modification from the time of admission of the patient until the end of the study. Results: In the period of time that we took into consideration 65 of 402 patient’s monitored patients had at least one anti-epileptic therapy (prevalence of 32%). The antiepileptic drug most prescribed was gabapentin with a frequency of 63.6%. Discussion: The prevalence use of AEDs has beeen 32%. The second objective concerns the drugs monitoring and it has also been achieved and shows how gabapentin is the most prescribed drug (53.8% psychiatrist) and was introduced mainly for anxiety disorders, psychosis, neuropathic pain and mood disorders. Keywords: Antiepileptic drugs, elderly patients, gabapentin Download PDF

Erythromycin is available as the free base, ethylsuccinate estolate, gluceptatae and lactobinnate derivatives. When given orally, erythromycin and its derivatives except the Abstract: Erythromycin drug products have been mostly imported into Nigeria from different countries of the world; with relatively no Nigeria based pharmaceutical company manufacturing same. Cases of therapeutic failures have been reported in some of our hospitals. Hence, the need arises to study some of the physicochemical parameters of some of the available drug products in the Nigerian Pharmaceutical Market with a view to detecting drug products that meet the specified pharmacopeia standards and those that fall short of such standards. The parameters measured were the uniformity of weight, friability, tensile strength, disintegration time and dissolution rate of 12 selected erythromycin stearate 500mg film-coated tablets. The tensile strength of the tablets was determined using the static loading method and Mosanto hardness tester to find the crushing strength and their results compared. The 12 samples disintegrated within 30mins with four of them disintegrating within 3mins, suggestive of possible inclusion of superdisintegrants in their formulations. All products, except two had a percentage release of the drug within 90mins of 70% and above. The friability of three of the products exceeded 1%. However, their tensile strengths did not prolong the disintegration time beyond the official limits. The results obtained from the physicochemical testing of the drug products revealed the failure of two products having release rates of less than 70% within 90mins. Further tests need to be done on these two products (namely Rycin® and Erythromycin 500mg) in order to draw a more definite conclusion.
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“Orodispersible Tablet (ODT) Technology - A Novel Approach to Develop the Super Generics” by Swapnil Suresh Garud, Deelip Rao Vishramji Derle, Sharmin Javed Shaikh, Nikita Deelip Rao Derle, India.

“Orodispersible Tablet (ODT) Technology - A Novel Approach to Develop the Super Generics” by Swapnil Suresh Garud, Deelip Rao Vishramji Derle, Sharmin Javed Shaikh, Nikita Deelip Rao Derle, India.

Like tablet tensile strength, the friability test is used for evaluating ODTs prepared using direct compression or molding but not for lyophilization and flash dose[r]

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Soil Fragmentation and Friability  Effects of Soil Water and Soil Management

Soil Fragmentation and Friability Effects of Soil Water and Soil Management

The slightly stronger soil at 7-14 cm in the NINV treatment may be the result of a less effective soil loosening by the non-inversion deep loosening treatment. Generally, tine cultivation has been found to loosen the soil less effectively than mouldboard ploughing (Bowen, 1981; Larney & Kladivko, 1989; Sommer & Zach, 1992; Carter, 1996; Carter et al., 1998). The stronger NINV treated topsoil observed in this study may also be due to compaction from the rotovator although bulk density data showed no significant difference between the treatments (Paper III). However, a number of studies have reported that tillage pans may develop below a rotovated soil layer (e.g. Schjønning & Rasmussen, 1989). Noticeably, poorer ease of fragmentation and friability was found for the non-inversion loosened 7-14 cm soil. It was supposed that a higher energy input in mouldboard ploughing as in non-inversion tillage (Tebrügge & Düring, 1999) would result in increased aggregate tensile strength and decreased friability due to the breakdown of a larger proportion of weak aggregates (Watts & Dexter, 1997b). However, this statement is based on the assumption that tensile failure was the dominant mode of failure for both primary tillage treatments. Compaction and shear failure may have played a larger role for the studied 7-14 cm soil layer under non-inversion tillage as a direct effect of the tine subsoil loosening or as an indirect effect of the rotovator used for secondary tillage. Difference in the mode of failure may also explain why Watts et al. (1996) found no clear difference in aggregate tensile strength for soil subjected
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Effect of organic inputs on strength and stability of soil aggregates under rice-wheat rotation

Effect of organic inputs on strength and stability of soil aggregates under rice-wheat rotation

As the soil is collectively made of aggregates, the study at the single structural unit or aggregate has been useful to evaluate the soil response to management (Blanco-Canqui et al., 2005). Since the rice-wheat system involves two con- trasting edaphic environments, the role of soil aggregation is of special importance. The mechanical properties of aggre- gates are clearly indicative of soil structural condition deter- mining soil functions for plant growth. Tensile strength (TS), a fundamental property of aggregates, is a measure of the resistance of the aggregate against breaking forces (Watts and Dexter, 1998), and thus, is highly sensitive to soil management (Blanco-Canqui et al., 2005). High TS of ag- gregates helps in proper maintenance of soil tilth and pro- vides a stable traction for farm implements, but limits intra- aggregate root growth (Król et al., 2013; Turski, 2002). The friability of the soil, on the other hand, is the tendency of a body of soil to break into smaller pieces under an applied stress or load (Watts and Dexter, 1998). This might be another important physical property of agricultural soils, since the condition of friability is desirable for better tillage Int. Agrophys., 2014, 28, 163-168
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"FORMULATION AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF TWO CONVENTIONAL RELEASE
                                TABLET FORMULATIONS" by Kwabena Ofori-Kwakye*, Frederic Osei-Yeboah,
                            Samuel Lugrie Kipo, Ghana.

"FORMULATION AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF TWO CONVENTIONAL RELEASE TABLET FORMULATIONS" by Kwabena Ofori-Kwakye*, Frederic Osei-Yeboah, Samuel Lugrie Kipo, Ghana.

The competence of the compressed tablets from all the batches was evaluated using weight uniformity, crushing strength, tensile strength, friability, disintegration, assay and dissolution tests. Table 3 shows the aggregate physical properties of the different batches of the two tablet formulations. All the tablets had uniform tablet weight (metformin, 601.76 ± 4.19; paracetamol, 570.44 ± 2.51), and none of the individual tablet weights deviated by more than 5% and as such passed the BP uniformity of weight test. Metformin tablets were considerably harder (p < 0.05) than paracetamol tablets. However, the tensile strength of the different batches of paracetamol tablets was considerably higher (p < 0.05) than that of metformin tablets (Figure 1). Both tablet formulations showed very low levels of friability (< 0.3 %), even though paracetamol tablets were almost twice as friable as metformin tablets. Figure 2 shows that nearly all the batches of paracetamol tablets exhibited higher friability compared to metformin tablets.
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Optimalization of combined weld and bolt connection to increase tensile strength of plate

Optimalization of combined weld and bolt connection to increase tensile strength of plate

In the tensile test, specimen loaded gradually, which grew little by little. Loading due to this, it changes the length of the magnitude to the load by tensile machine causing the relationship diagram(- ). Up to a peak point called the proportional limit, when a tension proportional to the strain, then the graph will show a straight line. When it comes to the elastic limit, the voltage is no longer proportional to strain. If the load is removed, the length of the rod will be returned to its original state. For the record that could be considered the elastic limit and the limit of proportionality is no different. If the load acting on the test rod passed up beyond the elastic limit will happen suddenly extension permanently from a test rod, is called Yield point (limit melted), where the strain increases even if there is no increase in voltage (only occurs in soft steel), At this point the work load is equal to F y , resulting
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Influence of Aggregate Grain Size on the Formulation of Sand Concrete in the Construction Industry in Congo

Influence of Aggregate Grain Size on the Formulation of Sand Concrete in the Construction Industry in Congo

DOI: 10.4236/gm.2019.94007 91 Geomaterials selected sands taken as aggregates by the following tests: granulometric analysis, bulk density, specific gravity, sand equivalent. These sands have been improved with crushing sand since they do not enter the normalized sand spindle, we have improved three sands (Mfilou, Djiri, and Congo River) so that they enter the spindle (30% of the crushed sand + 70% of natural sand). In addition, the con- cretes were prepared from each of these natural sands and improved to appreci- ate their mechanical strength. The results obtained indicate that sand concrete resists compression well and its characteristic strength was reached after 28 days. These results obtained after improvement by crushing sand are about 50% higher than those obtained from natural fine sand.
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Effect of different cavity configurations on the tensile bond strength of hybrid and nanofilled composites   in vitro study

Effect of different cavity configurations on the tensile bond strength of hybrid and nanofilled composites in vitro study

In the present study, Nanofilled composite samples showed higher or equal tensile bond strength values when compared with hybrid composite samples. Currently available composite resins referred to as “nanofilled composites” are produced with nanofiller technology and formulated with nanomer and nanocluster filler particles. Nanomers are discrete nanoagglomerated particles and nanoclusters are loosely bound agglomerates of nano-sized particles. The manufacturer suggests the combination of nanomer and nanocluster formulations reduces the interstitial spacing of the filler particles providing increased filler loading and better physical properties. Clinically, the nanofilled resin has a proper resistance in high stress–bearing areas, which is typical in the posterior area. The resinous components and filler loading of nanofilled composite resins make their polymerization shrinkage less (Boksman, 2006; Lopes and Oliveira, 2006). This explains the higher or equal tensile bond strength values of Nanofilled composite when compared with hybrid composite samples. Present study evaluated the effect of various cavity configurations on the tensile bond strength of hybrid and nanofilled composites. This study design has limitations for simulating the clinical situation. Further investigations under more closely simulated clinical conditions are necessary.
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Influence of Mechanical Properties on the Hybrid Composites

Influence of Mechanical Properties on the Hybrid Composites

ABSTRACT: This paper deals about design and development of dirt bike by using hybrid composites. In this work an old two stroke bike is taken and making a new kind of frame and designing a body by using hybrid fiber composites. In this study, 50% of natural fiber composites is chosen because it has a good strength and light in weight. Hence the weight of the bike is reduced the performance of the bike as good as the existing model. When the weight of vehicle’s body parts are reduced automatically the rate of fuel consumption would have been reduced, this in turn, increases the mileage of the vehicle. Instead of using sheet metal, 50% of natural fiber and 50% of glass fibers are used because they are eco-friendly. From the experimental result, the tensile and impact strength of the hybrid composite sample shows the better result compared with natural and synthetic fiber.
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On the origin of the tensile strength of insect swarms

On the origin of the tensile strength of insect swarms

Abstract Traditionally animal groups have been characterized by the macroscopic patterns that they form. It is now recognised that such patterns convey limited information about the nature of the aggregation as a whole. Aggregate properties cannot be determined by passive observations alone; instead one must interact with them. One of the first such dynamical tests 10 revealed that swarms of flying insects have macroscopic mechanical properties similar to solids, including a finite Young’s modulus and yield strength. Here I show, somewhat counterintuitively, that the emergence of these solid-like properties can be attributed to centre- of-mass movements (heat). This suggests that perturbations can drive phase transitions.
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On the origin of the tensile strength of insect swarms

On the origin of the tensile strength of insect swarms

Here I show how these emergent mechanical properties of insect swarms can be deduced from the simple, analytically-tractable model of Reynolds et al (2017) which is in close accord with a plethora of other (albeit passive) observations of midge swarms (Reyn- olds et al 2017, Reynolds 2018a, 2018b, van der Vaart et al 2019). I show that tensile strength can be attrib- uted to the presence of centre-of-mass movements (i.e. to heat), as documented by Reynolds and Ouel- lette (2016). This new result along with earlier results (Reynolds et al 2017, Reynolds 2018a, 2018b, van der Vaart et al 2019) shows how the suite of observed complex, emergent, macroscopic behaviours of insect swarms (Kelley and Ouellette 2013, Ni and Ouellette 2016, Sinhuber and Ouellette 2017, van der Vaart et al 2019, Sinhuber et al 2019) can be attributed to sim- ple processes and encapsulated within a simple model (Reynolds et al 2017, Reynolds 2018a, 2018b). This is significant because the development of accurate, gen- erally-applicable models is of central importance, as a check on our understanding of the processes at work within swarms.
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Effect of Silicon content on the Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy

Effect of Silicon content on the Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy

The variation of the silicon particles in aluminium alloy as shown in table -2. It can be seen that the ultimate tensile strength of aluminium alloy is increased with increase in silicon content as shown in table 3. The density of the alloys decreased as the silicon content increased. The maximum tensile strength was found in Aluminium alloy (6% of silicon) 148.99 MPa, when we decrease the silicon content then the tensile strength will be decreases, the minimum tensile strength was found in Aluminium alloy (1.5% of silicon) 120.87 MPa.
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Tensile strength of incipient rock discontinuities

Tensile strength of incipient rock discontinuities

ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the issue of the tensile strength of incipient discontinuities in rock and presents preliminary results from a series of laboratory studies. In most rock masses rock discontinuities, as veins or incipient fractures, often retain some tensile strength that may approach that of the parent rock. This fact is of high importance to rock mass strength but is generally ignored, neglected or underestimated. Samples of incipient rock discontinuities including joints, bedding and mineral veins have been tested in direct tension. It has been confirmed that incipient, visible and discrete discontinuities, that might be recorded as ‘joints’ in a rock mass characterisation programme can indeed have high tensile strength, approaching that of parent rock. Others are of course far weaker. The factors contributing to tensile strength have been examined. It is concluded that the degree of incipiency of rock discontinuities needs to be differentiated in the process of rock mass classification and engineering design and this can best be done with reference to the tensile strength relative to that of the parent rock.
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INVESTIGATION AND COMPARSION OF STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BASED ON GGBS AND FLY ASH AGAINST ACID ATTACK

INVESTIGATION AND COMPARSION OF STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BASED ON GGBS AND FLY ASH AGAINST ACID ATTACK

Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag is the material which is using widely as replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement. Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag is mainly formed with the compounds called calcium oxide, silicon di-oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide. Compressive strength of concrete is more when compared with the concrete made from ordinary Portland cement(OPC). It has same chemical compounds like the ordinary Portland cement have. Heat can be easily liberated during mixing of concrete. So, heat of hydration is relatively less with respect to OPC
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Production and Characterization of Zinc-Aluminium, Silicon Carbide Reinforced with Palm Kernel Shell Ash

Production and Characterization of Zinc-Aluminium, Silicon Carbide Reinforced with Palm Kernel Shell Ash

Fig 1.5. below shows a comparative analysis of both the results of the tensile strength and hardness test in a barForm, it is observed that the tensile strength and hardness of samples B-F increases with the increase of weight percentage of PKSA at a constant percentage of SiC(5%),while control sample A which has no percentage of PKSA included has a lesser tensile strength and hardness value when compared with samples B-F.

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Exploring the Impact of Work Life Balance on the Employee and Organisational Growth

Exploring the Impact of Work Life Balance on the Employee and Organisational Growth

This study presents the test results of fresh and hardened properties of bottom ash concrete incorporating bottom ash as partial replacement of normal sand at 0%,10%,20%,30% by weight .The fly ash and bottom ash are the slag from coal combustion process for power generation.80% fly ash and 20% bottom ash, and are classified as waste in utility disposal sites. In construction large volumes of materials are consumed, such as high way. Embankment construction, it is an economic alternative to the use of traditional materials. This paper presents the bottom ash concrete. the sample of bottom ash were collected neyveli lignite plant. For evaluation of compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength. The bottom ash was added as partial replacement of fine aggregate in 10%, 20%, 30%. In addition humic acid an organic water soluble humic substance derived from lignite was also added in 1%, 1.5%, 2% based on the percentage of water added. In split tensile strength of the cylinder and beam flexural strength the maximum tensile strength is achieved in 10% of Bottom ash and 1% of Humic acid then the normal conventional concrete
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A Study based on Combination of Coconut Fibre and Human Hair Mixed with Concrete

A Study based on Combination of Coconut Fibre and Human Hair Mixed with Concrete

-------------------------------------------------------------------------***------------------------------------------------------------------------ Abstract: - Natural fibres have nowadays become eye-catcher to researchers, engineers and scientists as an alternative reinforcement for FRC (Fibre Reinforced Concrete) due to their low cost, fairly good mechanical properties and high aspect strength. Among them, human hair and coconut coir are most easily available and cheap fibre. On the whole much amount of human hair and coconut coir is produced by India as a waste product. Hair is elastic material due to presence of Cortex Keratin. Whereas coconut fibre is ductile in nature and can withstand strain 2-3 times more than other fibres. The objective of this research is to make a concrete mix with coconut coir and human hair as composite materials in concrete and their effect on compressive strength and flexure strength. Trial methods are done to achieve the strength at an interval of 7 and 28 days with 1%, 2% and 3% replacement of cement in concrete mix.
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Effect of Silicon on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Si Piston Alloys

Effect of Silicon on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Si Piston Alloys

Milind G Kalhapure [4] says that Mechanical testing plays an important role in evaluating fundamental properties of engineering materials as well as in developing new materials and in controlling the quality of materials for use in design and construction. If a material is to be used as part of an engineering structure that will be subjected to a load, it is important to know that the material is strong enough and rigid enough to withstand the loads that it will experience in service. As a result engineers have developed a number of experimental techniques for mechanical testing of engineering materials subjected to tension, compression, bending or torsion loading. The influence of silicon on mechanical properties such as ductility, hardness, toughness, yields strength of Aluminum alloy. The silicon content is varied from 5, 7, 9, 12.5 and 14% in five different aluminum alloys. The mechanical properties were measured using the tension test. It was found that the ductility has been increased after increase in silicon percentage. Also
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