Abstract: In this study, we examine the psychometric properties of the Persian translation of the Children’s TestAnxietyScale (CTAS) using the Rasch rating scale model. In the first step, rating scale diagnostics revealed that the thresholds were disordered. To remedy this problem, two categories were collapsed and a rating scale structure with three points turned out to have optimal properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) of standardized residuals showed that the scale is not unidimensional. Since the scale is designed to measure three distinct dimensions of testanxiety we fitted a correlated three-dimensional Rasch model. A likelihood ratio test showed that the three-dimensional model fits significantly better than a unidimensional model. Principal component analysis of standardized residuals indicated that three subscales are unidimensional. Infit and outfit statistics indicated that one item misfitted the model in all the analyses. Medium correlations between the dimensions was evidence of the distinctness of the subscales and justifiability of the multidimensional structure for the scale. Criterion-related evidence was provided by correlating the scale with the Spence Children’s AnxietyScale (SCAS). The patterns of correlations provided evidence of convergent-discriminant validity. Findings suggest that a three-dimensional instrument with a 3-point Likert scale works best in the Persian language.
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.814145 2311 Psychology The 10 item Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) was administered to assess Generalized Self-efficacy. The English version of the GSES, which was originally developed in German, was published in 1995 (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995) and slightly modified in 2000 (Scholz, Dona, Sud, & Schwarzer, 2002). Self-efficacy is often regarded as domain-specific (Bandura, 2006; Pajares, 1996). The GSES, in contrast, was designed to assess a broad and global sense of personal confidence in one’s coping ability across a wide range of demanding or novel situations (Schwarzer, Bäßler, Kwiatek, Schröder, & Zhang, 1997). As such, the purpose of the instrument is not to measure self-efficacy for an individual task. An example item includes, “ I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough. ” The scale is widely used and is reported to be reliable and unidimen- sional across dozens of nations (e.g., Canada, France, Korea, and India). In pre- vious multicultural validation studies the GSES has demonstrated adequate in- ternal consistency reliability (α = 0.86 - 0.94) (Luszczynska et al., 2005a; Luszczynska et al., 2005b). For administration in the current study, the scale was modified slightly in two ways. First, students answered each item on a 5 point, rather than 4 point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 = Not at all true to 5 = Exactly true . This revision was made so items across instruments used similar scales. Second, the measure was also specifically altered to assess self-efficacy beliefs in relation to taking an exam. A similar revised version of the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale was employed by Jackson (2002).
The final study reporting no effects of Mg compared pre-exam testanxiety in university students after 5 days intake of 300 mg Mg citrate vs. placebo . The authors categorised participants into four anxiety groups based on subjective ratings prior to the intervention, ranging from normal to very high subjective anxiety. No differences between anxiety ratings (STAI) on the eve of the exam were found between conditions or as a function of anxiety group categorisation. This lack of effect may be due to contextual differences in the form of anxiety examined. Whilst positive evidence of the anxiolytic effects of Mg has been shown in chronically anxious samples (i.e., those demonstrating moderate anxiety scores on the HAM-A), Gendle et al.  examined the effects of Mg on responses to an acute, anxiety-provoking situation-specific context. Whilst the authors did take into account pre-existing levels of anxiety in the sample, this was ascertained by the Westside TestAnxietyScale  which is a short measure specifically designed to assess exam-specific, not clinical, anxiety and was used as a covariate in the analysis rather than to select an anxiety vulnerable sample. Therefore, both the context and sample differ from the other studies reviewed which recruited chronically anxious individuals using a clinical measure; the HAM-A.
Abstract: Music is concerned with the physical and emotional wellbeing of any human being. Listening to pleasant music in the background while doing an arduous task can make it seem so much easier, or in some cases, music may not increase positive attitude, but will ease the strain of an activity. This study assessed whether music blended teaching helps the learners who face difficulties while learning mathematics. The sample consisted of 42 students identified with mathematics learning disability. The experimental group was taught mathematics with violin instrumental music played in the background of the Mathematics classroom. The control group was taught through conventional teaching. The treatment lasted for 44 days, 45 minutes per day. For collection of relevant data, the investigator used two standardised tools namely, Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and PrWi’s Mathematical Ability Test (PMAT). The self-made tools were: Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT), Scale on Interest in Mathematics (SIM) and Mathematics testAnxietyScale (MAS). The pre and post-test analyses disclosed that the experimental group students exhibit lesser mathematics testanxiety in the post-test than the pre-test. In the gain scores it was found that both the control and experimental groups did not show any difference in the achievement, interest and anxiety scores in mathematics. In delayed post-test, the experimental group showed better performance in the learning objective - knowledge than the control group. Also the experimental group students with high level intelligence exhibited better scores in the learning objective – knowledge than the counter parts in control group. No significant difference was found in the delayed post-test in interest and anxiety of both the control and experimental groups. It is also true with regard to the level of intelligence.
Participants had an anxiety or depressive disorder ac- cording to the DSM-IV, were over 18 years old, received treatment for at least two years in specialized outpatient mental health care, had received at least one psycho- logical treatment and at least three medication steps ac- cording to the national multidisciplinary guidelines on anxiety and depressive disorders . They were regar ded as treatment-resistant by their clinicians, meaning that prolonged treatment in a specialized outpatient mental health service according to the professional is unlikely to improve clinical outcomes. They had sup- portive contacts with a community psychiatric nurse. All gave written informed consent to participate in the study. Patients were excluded from participation if they had a life-threatening medical condition, dementia, psychotic or bipolar disorder, alcohol or drugs depend- ence, had cognitive problems or indications for low IQ or were not fluent in the Dutch language.
Item-endorsement was determined by observing ceil- ing and floor effects. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha; inter-item correlation and homo- geneity index were determined. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory factor analysis using both princi- pal axis factoring with oblique rotation (Oblimin), and principal component extraction with Varimax rotation on a randomized sub-sample of 155 subjects. Sample ad- equacy and level of inter-item correlation were previ- ously evaluated by the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test and Bartlett’s sphericity test. Confirmatory factor analysis was subsequently performed both in the 374 resting sub- jects and in the whole sample, using the following indi- ces of fit: CMIN/DF, root mean square error of approximation index (RMSEA) and its confidence inter- val (90% CI), normed fit index (NFI), comparative fit index (CFI) and goodness of fit index (GFI). Multivariate normality was determined by Mardia’s coefficient. Statis- tical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 22 and AMOS 21.
Depression and anxiety affect most people around the world, it is characterized by a presence of fear, loss of interest, feelings of guilt or self-esteem that are more commonly associated with sleep disorders, lack of appetite, lack of energy or difficulty concentrating. Depression can become chronic or recurrent and difficult the overall performance daily, or capacity to live day by day, in its most dangerous form it can lead often to suicide and its lowest form it can be treated with medication and professional psychotherapy. (Health, Depression , 2017). Anxiety is one of the major disorders and its characterized by persistent concern during any activity or routine it is difficult to treat and it can affect the way a person feels physically.(mayoclinic, 2018).During this investigation we will observe a sample that was taken on the Guadalajara Regional Military Hospital during the month of April a sample of 56patients
those obtained from other authors. However, we have estimated that the increase in dental anxiety, directly proportional to higher levels of intellectual disability, might correlate with the fact that this population has lower psychological resources available to effectively face stressing events, is deprived of several cognitive abilities such as memory, problem-solving and planning skills . As far as phobias are concerned, they seem to be prevalent in individuals with ID. Moreover, a number of phobias are physiologically related to age, therefore some kind of fears in ID individuals might be relating to their developmental levels [23, 24].
The HADS has been extensively evaluated across various somatic, psychiatric and primary care popula- tions  and more recently, musculoskeletal , cancer , end stage renal disease  and RA  and found to distinctly measure depression and anxiety with two, seven-item subscales. The HADS was specifi- cally developed for use in primary or secondary health settings to exclude somatic items that may be reflective of the context (i.e. physical condition). It provides a well-established, valid and reliable measure for com- parison to the DASS. Both scales have been tested in terms of their screening ability and cut points against commonly accepted diagnostic gold standard such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [33-35]. It is, however, recognised that detection of psychiatric con- ditions such as depression and anxiety is complicated by the comorbidity of physical conditions even when using diagnostic interviews based on DSM or ICD, unless modified [36,37]. For the purpose of this study HADS will be considered as an interim gold standard as it has been extensively validated across somatic and psychiatric populations in primary care and the general community  and is recommended for use in the physically ill .
The group was divided into those with normal and impaired alertness based on the cutoff of 20.5 for the THAT (Table 2). A significant difference between those with normal and impaired alertness was found for all variables except for the ESS and the MSLT sleep onset latency. Effect size calcu- lation (using Cohen’s d) (Table 2) indicates large differences in fatigue (FSS) and depressive symptoms (CES-D scale) and moderate differences in anxiety (SAS) between those with normal and those with impaired alertness.
Method: The Persian version of the SASA and the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents, the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale-Brief Version, and the Big Five Inventory were administered to a sample of 500 adolescents (276 females and 224 males). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), convergent validity, and internal consistency were used to compute the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the SASA, respectively. Results: Both alpha coefficient and test-retest correlations indicated high reliability for the forms of the SASA. The results of principle component analysis (PCA) and oblique rotation replicated the two-factor structure of the SASA. The results of a CFA revealed that while one factor model in the SASA had an acceptable fit to the data, the two factor model consisted of apprehension and fear of negative evaluation. Tension and inhibition of social contact demonstrated a superior fit. The significant positive correlation between the forms and SASA total score with subscales, the FNES-B total score with subscales, the QIDA total score and neuroticism, as well as the significant negative correlation with extraversion extended empirical support for the convergent validity of the SASA.
The patients who died (n = 29) had a clinically signifi- cant higher level of anxiety and depression compared to the rest of the patients , although it did not show in impaired HRQoL assessed by the CRQ or CAT. In this study, the prevalence of two or more annual exacerba- tions were more frequent among the patients who died compared to the rest of the patients. This result is not surprising as it is well known that COPD patients with comorbid anxiety and/or depression have a higher risk of exacerbations and mortality after exacerbations, com- pared to patients without these comorbidities [12, 34, 35]. The majority of the patients died in the hospital, which mirror other studies results, although the patients’ general preference is to die at home [11, 36–38].
The comparison of two D-VAMS score means relates to questions raised by the anomalous nature of the Scale 7 (Sleepy-Alert), which was charted as close to valence- neutral in PCA plots from preliminary studies 21 (Figure 1). Since only a single valence factor was observed in scores for this study, it was reasoned that the mean of the first six scales might provide a more valid total score for pleasantness of mood. The pattern of data, however, suggests that omitting Scale 7 does not improve its psychometric qualities. Scale 7 scores were highly correlated with those of the other scales (Table 3), and the variance accounted for by the seven-item scale scores was consistently higher than those of the six-item version (Table 4(a)). Furthermore, the HADS correlations for the former were generally better than those of the latter (Table 5). Scale 7 should therefore be retained.
According to Beck and Clark (1988), “schemas are functional structures of relatively enduring representations of prior knowledge and experience” (p. 24). These cognitive structures guide information processing; individuals tend to elaborate or ignore stimuli consistent or inconsistent with existing schemas, respectively. Hence, individuals high in anxiety will favor the processing of emotionally threatening, anxiety-related stimuli. According to Bower (1981, 1987), emotions are stored as nodes in a network and they are connected to other nodes containing emotionally- congruent information. Individuals experiencing an emotional state will activate the relevant emotion nodes which, in turn, prime the associated nodes for subsequent processing. Therefore, individuals high in anxiety will favor the processing of anxiety-related stimuli in their environment. In addition to the common prediction that individuals with anxiety have an attentional bias toward threat, both theories assert that this bias plays an important role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety. Accordingly, researchers have turned to a number of experimental paradigms to understand this bias.
The goals of the present study were to investigate the sta- tus of anxiety and depression among North Korean adoles- cents and young adult defectors in South Korea, and to evaluate the relationship between their mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). To identify high risk group of poor mental health, we also analyzed the factors associated with their anxiety and depression.
A significantly reduced heart rate was found in a sub- maximal ergometer test in the NW group after the exer- cise period, as compared with the change that occurred in the control group. A test with an unaltered exercise intensity was chosen for this study because of the com- mon use of beta blockers and/or anti-depressants in FM, which may affect heart rate, and since there is a known difficulty in FM in increasing the resistance on an ergometer bicycle . The heart rate can also be affected by diurnal variations and use of caffeine or tobacco. Attempts were made to control these factors by booking the patients at the same time of day and asking them not to change their medication during the study period and to avoid their use of tobacco, caffeine and food two hours before the ergometer cycle test. No documentation was made as to the prevalence of smo- kers; a patient ’ s heart rate was compared only with her own baseline values. Despite the methodological limita- tions involved with the assessment of heart rate, the results indicate that women with FM may decrease their exercise heart rate by regular moderate-to-high intensity exercise, as suggested by previous studies in the field .
The 26 items of WHOQOL-BREF were grouped into 4 domains: physical health, psychological health, social re- lationships, and environment . Individual and total WHOQOL-BREF scores were transformed into a 100- point scale, with higher scores indicating better quality of life. HAD scores for depression and anxiety were cal- culated from 7 questions each, with a range between 0 and 21 points. Depression and anxiety were indicated by HAD scores above 7 . The PHQ-15 score was calcu- lated from 15 questions, with a range between 0 and 30. Using the PHQ-15 score, the severity of somatic symp- toms was categorized as minimal (0–4), low (5–9), medium (10–14), and high (≥15) . The 8 items of the SDSCA were grouped into 4 groups: diet, exercise,
18 should take the levels of testanxiety or any other concept into account. It is recommended to include only cases with above-average levels of testanxiety. This way it is more likely to achieve significant change if a ceiling effect is indeed present. In addition, the sample size could also be a cause of the almost-significant result. In both the current and Brown et al.’s (2010) research, small sample sizes were used. The current results might not have been as expected due to the combination of a large variation and a small sample size. Thus, the sample size should be larger in future research, especially if all levels of testanxiety are incorporated. This makes the results more reliable compared to a small sample size such as in today’s study. Therefore, it is still expected to have significant decreases in testanxiety levels in feature research if the sample size will be large enough and if sufficient participants with above-average levels of testanxiety are incorporated. A last explanation of the results can be made by looking back at the core processes (Hayes et al., 2006). The evaluative questionnaire showed that both “achieving greater present-focused attention” and “identifying those aspects of life that are important to oneself” (i.e. values) were stimulated during the intervention. Many participants said that the intervention helped them in getting insight about their daily structure, but also the motivation behind individual actions. This is in line with the core process “achieving greater present-focused attention”. Participants learned to be more aware of the here and now by actively focusing on what they are doing at a given moment.
Abstract: This study investigates the usefulness of morningness–eveningness and emotion dys- regulation for better understanding of social anxiety dimensions. Specifically, associations between morningness–eveningness and incremental validity of emotion dysregulation as a predictor of social anxiety were examined. Data were obtained from a sample of normal students (N=510). Results of regression analyses showed that morningness was a significant predictor of social anxiety variables. Dimensions of emotion dysregulation had multiple associations with facets from social anxiety. Emotion dysregulation was found to be a positive predictor of social anxiety. The results expand the understanding of social anxiety and indicate how the domains of morningness–eveningness and emotion regulation could explain social anxiety in a normal population.
As noted previously, prevalence estimates are influenced by diagnostic criteria. The complications posed by the exclusionary rules of various diagnostic nosologies were illustrated by Bach, Nutzinger and Hartl (1996) when they examined the effects of the hierarchical rules in three diagnostic systems (DSM-III, DSM-III-R and ICD-10). Similar to DSM-IV (APA, 2000), DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980) criteria excluded a diagnosis of hypochondriasis if the condition was due to any other mental disorder; DSM- III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) and ICD-10 (WHO, 1993) did not have this hierarchical rule. In the study population of 82 psychiatric patients, over 50% of the participants qualified for a diagnosis of hypochondriasis under DSM-III-R or ICD-10 criteria. In sharp contrast, only 14.6% qualified under DSM-III criteria. The differences in rates of diagnosis were largely due to individuals excluded because of the presence of an anxiety disorder. The limitations of diagnostic criteria were further illustrated by an Italian study of primary care patients which reported prevalence of subsyndromal somatoform disorders at 65.9%, although prevalence of hypochondriasis was only 1.6% (Altamura, Carta, Tacchini, Musazzi, & Pioli, 1998). Studies focussed on hypochondriasis found similar results. The WHO study in primary care found that if the criteria “refusal to accept medical