I, Dr.AISHWARYA.R, certainly declare that this dissertation titled, “ROLE OF QUANTITATIVE CT IN COPD & ITS CORRELATION WITH PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTVALUES”, represents a genuine work of mine, done at the Barnard Institute of Radiology, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, under the supervision of Prof.Dr.K.MALATHY, M.D.R.D. PhD, Professor, Barnard Institute of Radiology, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital. I, also affirm that this bonafide work or part of this work was not submitted by me for any others for any award, degree or diploma to any other university board, neither in India or abroad. This is submitted to The Tamil Nadu Dr.MGR Medical University, Chennai in partial fulfilment of the rules and regulations for the award of M.D Degree in Radiodiagnosis (Branch VIII).
Electrical resistivity survey and SPT blow count (corrected N value) for majestic site in Bangalore region are analyzed to establish their relationships. In the present study, the apparent resistivity and corrected N values are interpreted with depth to understand the relation between the two properties. From the results, it is found that zone showing low apparent resistivity values generally have low corrected N value and vice versa.
In the studies compared of young footballers’ anaerobic tests of Alemdaroglu et al. (2007), it hasn't been found any relation in anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity and fatigue indications. Additionally, there was a meaningful relation in anaerobic power, heart rate and average oxygen consumption (Alemdaroglu et al., 2007). In the studies of Bostanci et al. (2004), on amateur footballers, they compared the footballers according to their status, but they can't find a meaningful difference (Bostanci et al., 2004). In the studies compared of 125 young footballers’ anaerobic tests of Alemdaroglu et al. (2007), they haven't found a meaningful relation in anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity and fatigue indications (Alemdaroglu et al., 2007). Vardar et al. (2001), have compared wingate anaerobic power test and speed running testvalues according to the statues of professional footballers and in these test, they especially emphasized that strikers are better in both Wingate testvalues and speed tests (Vardar et al., 2001). Whereas the heights of players participated in our study are parallel with the height values in literature, their weights are lower than the literature values. In the study made by Arnason et al. (2004), about total 301 elite players from on Iceland football first and second league team, they determined that body fat percentage is average 10,5%, in Al Hazzaa Saudi professional football players' body fat percentage 12,3%, Rico Snaz Spain elite footballers' body fat 10% (Arnason et al., 2004).
The mean values, mean difference, standard deviation and paired t value between pre test and post testvalues of sedentary male smokers diaphragmatic excursion was measured by using inch tape for group B who have been subjected to conventional breathing exercise and Upper body resistance training exercises. TABLE-III
top soils are alluvial and these soils generally support the rural roads, being constructed. Further to conduct a CBR test, representative soil sample has to be collected from location selected, from which a remolded specimen has to be prepared at predetermined optimum moisture content with standard proctor compaction. To obtain soaked CBR value of a soil sample, it takes more time making CBR test expensive, time consuming and laborious. Improper handling and poor quality of testing conditions in hurriedly established field laboratories for temporary purpose in sites may also hamper the accuracy of the test results. Again, only limited number of CBR test could be performed for kilometer length of the proposed road to be constructed. Such limited number of CBR test results may not reveal the variation of CBR values over the length of the road to enable lucid, economic, and safe construction. This is particularly true for road construction on alluvial soils which by nature of their development are extremely erratic in nature, In such cases, only limited number of CBR testvalues along the alignment of the road, makes difficult for Highway Engineers to incorporate the in-situ variation of soil properties of subgrade along the length of the road properly and also take rational steps to identify and rectify the local weakness present at any location if any, along the length of the road. Available Correlations:
Cup plate method using Hi-Media agar medium is employed to study the antibacterial activity of against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Psuedomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli . Preparation of nutrient broth, subculture, base layer medium, agar medium and peptone water is done as per the standard procedure. Each test compound (50mg) is dissolved in 50 mL of Dimethyl Formamide (1000 µg/mL), which is used as sample solution. Sample size for all the compounds is fixed as 0.1 mL.
It is a prospective observational study of visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain. The objective is to describe the use of recording VAS for pain intensity in patients operated on for lumbar spine problems. The result of this study shows that preoperative VAS mean values for local and radiating pain were significantly, different in the five diagnostic groups. Significant but moderate correlation between different types of pain outcomes and with patient satisfaction was present in all cases. Thus the study concludes that measuring pain intensity with VAS is a useful tool in describing spine patients, in the search for a standard in the evaluation of pain as an outcome, the differences between the various methods should be taken into account.
Table 5 summarizes the results based on the ADAC EcoTest data. CO 2 emission values on average are slightly higher in NEDC compared to the WLTC (1.4% for diesel cars, 2.7% for petrol cars). Both arithmetic means are highly significant because of the high number of measured cars and the relatively low scatter among individual vehicle types (uncertainty with 95% confidence: 1.0%). For the hybrid vehicles, CO 2 emissions are on average 1.5% higher than during NEDC testing. For the ADAC EcoTest data it is not possible to distinguish between vehicles with and without stop-start technology and also not between vehicles with manual or automatic transmission systems. Hybrid vehicles include both stop-start and automatic transmission functionality and it should be noted that the difference between the WNQ values presented in Table 5 could be largely driven by the fact that many of the non-hybrid vehicles tested by ADAC were manual transmission vehicles without stop-start system.
the case of two breaks, 12 and 13 countries rejected the null hypothesis of a unit root in the cases of one-break LM and RALS-LM tests, respectively. In case of the LM test for Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States, convergence in RPCE was confirmed as they had stationary series. In the case of the RALS-LM test, the unit root null hypothesis was rejected, i.e. convergence does hold for Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Iceland, Ireland, Netherland, New Zealand, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States. All of the break dummies were significant at the 10% level or better in one break case. Concerning the break dates, the breaks, as stated by Romero-Avila (2008) and Lee and Chang (2009), are related to the relative emission series; thus, we could not define the breaks for each individual country or related events. Based on the definition of the emissions data, a break in the original series may appear as a break in all 28 individual relative series unless the breaks for individual series are ruled out with the breaks exhibited by the average emission series. Therefore, we abstained from detailed explanations of break dates for each country. However, in general, the first break dates of 20 countries occurred in the period of 1965–1982. In the 1960s, the modern environmental movement began with concerns about air and water pollution such as the Clean Air Acts of 1963 and 1965. The first breaks of Ireland, Iceland, Israel, Italy, and Japan occurred in this period. In addition, two major oil crises from 1970–1982 caused some shocks in RPCE because fossil fuels became the main source of productivity in 1970s due to higher oil prices.
Abstract: The growing market penetration of heat pumps indicates the need for a performance test method which better reflects the dynamic behavior of heat pumps. In this contribution, we developed and implemented a dynamic test method for the evaluation of the seasonal performance of heat pumps by means of laboratory testing. Current standards force the heat pump control inactive by fixing the compressor speed. In contrast, during dynamic testing, the compressor runs unfixed while the heat pump is subjected to a temperature profile. The profile consists of the different outdoor temperatures of a typical heating season based on the average European climate and also includes temperature changes to reflect the dynamic behavior of the heat pump. The seasonal performance can be directly obtained from the measured heating energy and electricity consumption making subsequent data interpolation and recalculation with correction factors obsolete. The method delivers results with high precision and high reproducibility and could be an appropriate method for a fair rating of heat pumps.
47 were compared between stainless steel and titanium. The load applied to produce displacement in stainless steel miniplates in control group (Group I) was 0.19 kN this same load was required to produce displacement by Group IV and VI, the load value for Group II and V was 0.2 kN and the load value for Group III was 0.17 kN. The displacement produced for the given load by Group I was 8.08 mm and with increasing number of autoclaving cycles the values decreased in Group II, III, IV and V, with an exception for Group VI where there was an increase in the displacement value compared to the control group. In titanium the applied load for the control group was 0.11 kN and it was same for all group except for Group III and V whose values were 0.08 and 0.09 kN respectively. The displacement produced in control group was 8.01mm and with increasing number of cycles there was variation in the values and there was increase in the values with exception in group IV whose value was same as that of control group. The mean value was obtained for the stainless steel and titanium miniplates, the mean value was increased for stainless steel than titanium. This also may be because of the fact that there was a decrease in hardness for stainless than that of titanium. Although there was variation in the values obtained it was not statistically significant (p>0.05).
The use of the initial set of constants resulted in premature failure of the NANOS-BA® steel specimen for the displacement of the tester punch ∆z = 1.95 mm. Modification of the values of J-C fracture model constants increased the strength of the sample, and in consequence the moment of fracture of the sample was moved in the higher displacements direction to the value of ∆ z = 4.8 mm. Both the shapes of force-displacement curves as well as the values of characteristic stresses and strains obtained in experiments and simulations with the use of modified set of constants are very similar. Differences are visible only in the initial parts of the curves. This may be caused by the fact that values of forces and displacements in the experiments were recorded directly from the testing machine. Thus, at the initial stage of the test, these values could be affected by some errors due to the quality of the apparatus used, e.g. clearances between the components of the machine (stamps, jaws), compressibility of the hydraulic fluid, etc.
used until there is no deviation or the deviation is re- versed. However, the prism must be changed several times, especially when there is an accompanying vertical strabismus. Consequently, the duration of the examin- ation will be long in such cases and, as such, it is diffi- cult to perform in a child who does not cooperate or gaze in accordance with instructions. In such situations, the Hirschberg and Krimsky tests are used to determine the angle of deviation. The Hirschberg test measures the distance between the corneal light reflex and the center of the pupil, and then converts it into an angle. Al- though it is a relatively simple method, it may not accur- ately measure the exact ocular deviation. The Krimsky
Kiran R. G. Kiran L (2010) had studied “The analysis of Strength Characterstics of Black Cotton Soil Using Mill Scale and Additives as Stabilizer”. In this study the black cotton soil is stabilized with different percentage of Mill Scale (4%, 8% and 12%). The strength parameters like CBR, UCS are determined and observed the MDD value increases upto 8% replacement and CBR, UCS values also increases maximum on optimum percentage i.e. 8%, beyond which further decreases.
The COPD assessment test (CAT) was designed to provide a simple and reliable measure of health status in COPD patients. The CAT questionnaire consists of eight simple items about coughing, phlegm, chest tightness, breathlessness, home activities, leaving home, sleep problems, and energy. Each item is scored on a scale of 0 – 5, such that the total CAT score will fall within a range from 0 to 40. A score of 0 represents the best pos- sible health status, and higher scores indicate worsening health. The St. George ’ s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) shares several similarities with the CAT, but it is a more exhaustive screening assessment because it contains 50 questions . Recently, the COPD guidelines recom- mended using the CAT to assess COPD patients. Hence, the use of the CAT is being expanded in many clinical practices and studies .
After extracting the emotion features and training the features using Right Truncated Gaussian distribution, the results obtained are stored in the database in Excel format. The emotion speech signal to be tested is trained as specified in section-4 of the paper, and the obtained features are compared with the existing emotions, based on MFCC coefficients . The features of the test emotion are classified using Right Truncated Gaussian distribution using the emotions in the database and the results obtained are tabulated using a confusion matrix and are presented in Table1 and Table-2 and Barchart 1 &2.
Moreover, the p-curve has been used to study evidential value in a set of studies [14, 17]. This is considered to be present when the published evidence for a specific hypoth- esis consistently suggests that the effect truly exists across a set of studies. When the true effect is strong, researchers are more likely to obtain very low p-values (p < 0.001) than moderately low p-values (p < 0.01), and less likely to obtain non-significant p-values (p > 0.05) . Therefore, as the true effect size increases the p-curve becomes more skewed to the right . Binomial tests have previously been used to assess existence of evidential value and data-dredging [14, 17]. To achieve this goal, the significant p-values are binned into two groups; 0 < p ≤ 0.025 (lower bin) and 0.026 ≤ p ≤0.05 (upper bin). The assumption here is that if evidential value is present, the expected number of p-values in the lower bin should be equal to or greater than that in the upper bin. Conversely, if there are more p-values in the upper bin, then data-dredging is a plausible explanation .
validity, on the other hand, is about the degree of distinction between two conceptually similar structures. When evaluating the discriminant validity, the value of average variance extracted (AVE) is compared to the square of correlation between the two structures. If the AVE value is larger than the square of this correlation, discriminant validity can be provided (Hair et al., 2010). For the construct validity of the GBS, discriminant validity, and convergent validity, composite validity, calculated based on the structural equation model, and average variance extracted were calculated. Hair et al. (2010) states that values ranging between .50 and .60 are acceptable for composite reliability and values of .70 and above are considered good. It is seen that composite reliability values obtained for the GBS were very high. A value of .50 and above is recommended for the average variance extracted (Hair et al., 2010). Values of average variance extracted obtained for rejection/exclusion sub-dimension and overall scale can be considered on adequate levels; however, the value obtained for acceptance/exclusion seems to be a little below the critical value. The composite reliability for the GBS indicates that scale convergent validity was provided. Because squares of correlations for both subscales were smaller than the average variance extracted, it can be said that both subscales had separate structures, meaning that their discriminant validity was provided. As can be seen in Table 5, discriminant validity of both GBS subscales and the general belongingness total score with loneliness, life satisfaction, and parent and peer attachment variables was provided. Based on the data obtained from 140 students to examine the criterion validity for the GBS, correlation coefficients between the GBS and the UCLA Loneliness Scale