Testosterone-Estradiol Binding Globulin

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Correlation of umbilical cord blood hormones and growth factors with stem cell potential: implications for the prenatal origin of breast cancer hypothesis

Correlation of umbilical cord blood hormones and growth factors with stem cell potential: implications for the prenatal origin of breast cancer hypothesis

A stem cell burden theory has been invoked to explain how in utero and perinatal factors might impact lifetime breast cancer risk [7-10]. The tenets of this theory include the following. Firstly, the breast cancer risk is related to the pool size of breast stem cells, which may be determined in utero or early in life. A second tenet is that individuals with relatively elevated in utero/perinatal levels of growth factors (for example, insulin- like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) and hormones (for example, estrogens) that act as mammary epithelial cell mitogens will have relatively large and mitotically active pools of breast stem cells. This would increase the probability that oncogenic muta- tions will occur in one of these cells. Thirdly, in the presence of elevated levels of mitogens, such individuals might also have a general increase in various stem cell pools and possibly birth weights. When first proposed, this concept was highly speculative [1,7]. Since that first proposal, however, the exist- ence of stem-like, multipotential breast epithelial cells in both mice [11,12] and humans [13,14] has been established. Addi- tionally, there is evidence for malignant breast 'stem' cells with some properties of normal breast stem/progenitor cells, sug- gesting that the former may be derived from the latter [15]. Preliminary and indirect support for this stem cell-based hypothesis came from a pilot study on 40 umbilical cord blood samples from infants delivered in the Worcester, MA, area [16]. In that study, cord blood plasma levels of several key sex hormones, including estradiol, estriol, testosterone and pro- gesterone, the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and cer- tain growth factors including prolactin and IGF-1, as well as one of the major IGF-1 binding proteins, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), were assayed to deter- mine whether they correlated with the density of cord blood- derived hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell popula- tions, serving as surrogates for overall stem cell potential. Such populations included cord blood CD34 + cells, repre-
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Effect of Endurance and Resistance Training on Parameters Related to Sexual Function in Men

Effect of Endurance and Resistance Training on Parameters Related to Sexual Function in Men

Background and Objective: The hormonal responses are different, according to type, intensity and the duration of training. We aimed to compare the effect of endurance and resistance training in untrained men on the level sexual hormone including testosterone, estradiol, and on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG).

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Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians.
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Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on hormones in mifepristone induced PCOS rats

Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on hormones in mifepristone induced PCOS rats

In the present study, a notable increase in the PRL level is observed in the PCOS rats and ESECB helped in lowering the PRL levels. This observed hyperprolactinemia may be either due to elevated levels of estrogen and testosterone or due to the modifications in the pulsatile release of GnRH which causes alteration in the normal LH/FSH ratio. In the ovary, PRL blocks folliculogenesis and inhibits granulosa cell aromatase activity, leading to hypoestrogonism and anovulation (Kulshreshtha et al., 2017). The reduction in body weight and reproductive organs is carried out by correcting the impaired metabolic functions by numerous phytochemicals, such as bonducin, proteins, saponin, starch, sucrose, two phytosterols, namely sitosterol and hepatsane, fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, lognoceric, oleic, linolenic acid which is present in C. bonduella seeds (Gurunath et al., 2010).
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive noncancerous enlargement of the epithelial cells and smooth muscle of the prostate gland accompanied by lower urinary tract symptoms [1]. The enlarged prostate impinges on the urethra and therefore BPH is generally associated with impairment in urinary function [2, 3,4]. The narrowing of the urethra and urinary retention––the inability to empty the bladder completely––cause many of the problems associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The prevalence of BPH is age dependent with approximately 50% of men developing BPH- related symptoms at 50 years of age but the condition is not common before age 40. At the age of 85, the prevalence is as high as 95% and 20-30% of men at the age of 80 years require surgical intervention to manage BPH [1,5]. The mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH remains largely unidentified, however, a number of overlapping and complementary theories have been proposed. Ageing and androgens are established risk factors for the development of benign prostatic enlargement, which may lead to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men [6,7]. Androgens and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) play key roles in BPH development. DHT, an androgen derived from testosterone through the action of 5-α-reductase and its metabolite, 3-α-androstanediol, seems to be the major hormonal stimuli for stromal and glandular proliferation in men with nodular hyperplasia [8]. Experimental work has also identified age-related increases in estrogen levels that may increase the expression of DHT, the progenitor of BPH [9]. The incrimination of DHT in the pathogenesis of BPH forms the basis for the current use of 5-α-reductase inhibitors in the treatment of symptomatic nodular hyperplasia. Several types of therapeutic agent, such as 5-α-reductase inhibitors, are currently available for treating BPH [8,10-17].
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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERUM SEX HORMONES WITH PROSTATIC VOLUME

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERUM SEX HORMONES WITH PROSTATIC VOLUME

Background: Previous epidemiologic investigations of the associations of sex-steroid hormones and benign prostatic hyperplasia have focused on predominately American-European populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations of body mass index and endogenous sex-steroid hormones with prostate volume in a population-based sample of Iraqi men, ages 13–89 yr. Aim of study: To describe relationship between prostate volume with: age, body mass index, serum prostatic specific antigen, Dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. Patients and method: Eighty patients have been selected from May 2012 to April 2013 in Sulaimanyah teaching hospital, they were divided into eight groups of 10(patients) each, according to their age. All groups were sent for the following: serum prostatic specific antigen, serum testosterone, serum dihydrotestosterone, serum progesterone, serum estradiol and body mass index were calculated for them, prostate volume were measured by abdominal ultrasound, but trans-rectal ultrasound of prostate volume were not done. (Any patient suspected for CA-prostate excluded after sending for serum prostatic specific antigen and digital rectal examination which was done in any suspected patient). Results: It was found that prostate volume(range from 14-65g)is directly related to increase in age(range from 13-89yrs), also increase in body mass index(which range from 15.7-30.9) is independently related to increase in prostate volume, also increase in serum estradiol (range from20-50pg/ml) is related to increase in prostate volume, increase in prostate volume is related to increase in serum prostatic specific antigen(range 0.22-4.2ng/ ml),while it is related to decrease in serum testosterone (range 2.5-10 ng/ml), serum dihydrotestosterone (range21-246pg/ml) and serum progesterone (range 20-92pg/ml). Conclusion: The natural history of BPH reflects both pathologic and clinical sequelae of cumulative exposures to a complex of sex-steroid hormones, growth factors, and binding proteins. The Sulaimanyah men’s health study of Iraqi men highlights the importance of age and body composition and the hormonal determinants of prostate volume. In our research we found that our result is similar to other researches done in other centers, also our study is compatible with other researches in making basic information ground for evaluation of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
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The acute effects of bilateral ovariectomy or adrenalectomy on progesterone, testosterone and estradiol serum levels depend on the surgical approach and the day of the estrous cycle when they are performed

The acute effects of bilateral ovariectomy or adrenalectomy on progesterone, testosterone and estradiol serum levels depend on the surgical approach and the day of the estrous cycle when they are performed

In a previous study [3], the superimposition of two stres- sors, ether anesthesia and perforation of the dorsal perito- neum, did not result in higher increase of progesterone levels secretion than those induced only by the anesthesia. This result suggests that the response capacity to stress by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, manifested by increasing progesterone secretion, reaches its peak with the effects of ether anesthesia. According to the present data, we observed that ventral peritoneum perforation resulted in higher progesterone, testosterone and estradiol levels than in ether anesthetized animals (data not shown), again depending on the day of the estrous cycle studied. In rats treated on D1, D2 and E, the perforation of the ventral peritoneum resulted in higher progesterone levels than those in animals treated through the back. These results could indicate the existence of different neu- ral communications between the ventral and dorsal abdominal wall and/or peritoneum with control systems in the central nervous system.
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Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Icacinia manni Tuber on the Reproductive Parameters of Male Rats

Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Icacinia manni Tuber on the Reproductive Parameters of Male Rats

3.1.1. Effect on Hormonal Levels in the Different Groups The mean values of FSH, LH, Prolactin, Progesterone, Estradiol and Testosterone for male rats after 28 days of administration of ethanolic extract of Icacinia manni tuber, compared with control group, is shown in table 1. Levels of FSH, was statistically high in group D compared with control. Lutheniniing hormone (LH) level was also statistically high in group D. Low and intermediate doses had no statistically significant difference in levels for FSH, LH and prolaction. Prolaction level was also high in group D. Progesterone levels were significantly depressed with extract administration, seen in low, intermediate and high doses. Testosterone levels were also depressed in a dose dependent fashion. Estradiol levels did not show statistically significant changes. Thus, administration of Icacinia manni tuber extract had a dose dependent depressive effect on the levels of progesterone and testosterone whereas elevated levels of FSH, LH and prolaction were noted in high doses. With low doses the effects were unchanged.
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Life-history and hormonal control of aggression in black redstarts: Blocking testosterone does not decrease territorial aggression, but changes the emphasis of vocal behaviours during simulated territorial intrusions

Life-history and hormonal control of aggression in black redstarts: Blocking testosterone does not decrease territorial aggression, but changes the emphasis of vocal behaviours during simulated territorial intrusions

Thus, black redstarts reacted similarly to most other songbird species, in which treatment with androgen inhibitors during the breeding life history stage did not reduce overall territorial behaviour, but only some components of it (Table 1, but see [27]) and supports the view that testosterone emphasizes vocalizations (structure and/or output) within the territorial response. For example, male red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus, implanted with an androgen receptor blocker and an aromatase inhibitor spent more time on their terri- tories engaging in aggressive interactions and vocalizations compared to control males, but still lost parts of their terri- tories (Table 1; [28]). It is unknown why male red-winged blackbirds implanted with anti-androgens and an aroma- tase inhibitor were less able to defend their territories, but possibly the treatment could have had an effect on song structure and thereby the quality of the song. This remains speculative, however, because song structure was not mea- sured in the study on red-winged blackbirds. Male spotted antbirds, Hylophylax n. naevioides, implanted with anti-androgens and aromatase inhibitors do not sing at all and produce fewer aggressive calls in response to a
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Estradiol and Testosterone Secretion by Human, Simian, and Canine Testes, in Males with Hypogonadism and in Male Pseudohermaphrodites with the Feminizing Testes Syndrome

Estradiol and Testosterone Secretion by Human, Simian, and Canine Testes, in Males with Hypogonadism and in Male Pseudohermaphrodites with the Feminizing Testes Syndrome

respectively; individual adult male specimens ranged between 8 and 28 with a mean of 18±1.4 pg/ml. In the eight normal men, the mean peripheral vein E 2 concentration was 20±1.6 pg/ml, while the spermatic vein concentration was 50 times as great, 1049±57 pg/ml. All three patients with testicular abnormalities had low spermatic vein E 2 concentrations (160, 280, and 416 pg/ml). Lesser E 2 gradients were found across the simian (3-fold) and canine (approximately 12-fold) testes. Testicular testosterone gradients (human 110-, simian 10-, and […]

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Spatial Analysis of Substantiated Child Maltreatment in Metro Atlanta, Georgia

Spatial Analysis of Substantiated Child Maltreatment in Metro Atlanta, Georgia

BAA in the dominant female appears to change quickly as a result of changing social circumstances. The only other research to document changes in bAA within hours of a social stimulus is a study with ring doves, Streptopelia sp. (Dudley et al., 1984). Male ring doves presented with females had higher bAA in the preoptic area within 24 but not at 4 hr compared to isolated males, so the effect was not as fast as the average time for bAA to change in Chapter 4. It is hard to tease apart whether the isolation of ring dove males itself had effects on aromatase. It is also hard to determine if the bAA in the preoptic area had changed faster than 24 hr because only 4, 24, and 120 hr time points were examined. Although the authors stated that male behavior changes in the presence of females, they did not quantify the relationship between behavior and aromatase activity. The time scale of the change led the authors to suggest that known surges of plasma luteinizing hormone surges following paring with a female would cause known surges in plasma testosterone, which would then increase the bAA. Still, this is another example of vertebrate bAA changing within hours a social change.
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Changes in androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, estradiol, and estrone over the menopausal transition

Changes in androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, estradiol, and estrone over the menopausal transition

Our report and previous SWAN studies may have found modest perimenopausal elevations in DHEAS due to larger sample size and our ability to follow women over a longer period of time prior to and after the FMP. Thus, changes in the estrogen/androgen ratio are driven by declines in circulating estrogens, and this relative in- crease in androgenicity may drive some of the pheno- typic changes characteristic of later menopause, such as increased hirsutism [19]. Although speculative, it is pos- sible that such effects are exerted at the tissue level, due to the differential binding of A4 and E2 [20]. Changes in the estrogen/androgen ratio may also be driven by the adrenal response to changing LH concentrations: studies in humans have noted the presence of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors in the adrenal cortex [21], and mouse models note increases in LH receptors in re- sponse to increasing LH levels [22], thus explaining how the adrenal gland might increase sex hormone produc- tion even as ovarian response to LH declines.
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Estradiol, progesterone, testosterone profiles in human follicular fluid and cultured granulosa cells from luteinized pre-ovulatory follicles

Estradiol, progesterone, testosterone profiles in human follicular fluid and cultured granulosa cells from luteinized pre-ovulatory follicles

Methods: Follicular fluid and granulosa cells were extracted from 206 follicles of 35 women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. Follicular fluid was assayed for estradiol, progesterone and testosterone. Granulosa cells were cultured from individual follicles and their culture media assayed for production of these hormones after 24 hrs in vitro. Levels of steroids were correlated with follicular diameter, oocyte recovery and subsequent fertilization. Results: Follicular fluid levels of progesterone were 6100 times higher than that of estradiol, and 16,900 times higher that of testosterone. Despite the size of follicle triggered after controlled luteinisation, the levels of progesterone and testosterone were maintained at relatively constant levels (median 98.1 micromoles/L for progesterone, and 5.8 nanomoles/L for testosterone). However, estradiol levels were slightly lower in the larger follicles (follicular diameter 10-15 mm, median 25.3 nanomoles/L; follicles > = 15 mm, median 15.1 nanomoles/L; linear correlation r = -0.47, p < 0.0001). With respect to oocyte recovery, no steroid showed a significant
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Increased free androgen index is associated with hypertension in premenopausal women

Increased free androgen index is associated with hypertension in premenopausal women

An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 75 g glucose) was performed in a random sub-sample (approximately 65%) of the non-diabetic participants after an overnight fast. A venous blood sample was taken immediately be- fore the glucose load and after two hours. Glucose levels were analyzed without delay on a HemoCue Glucose 201 device (HemoCue AB, Angelholm, Sweden) and converted to plasma glucose levels by a correction factor of 1.11. According to previous validation of this proce- dure, the adjusted data for glucose showed a high corre- lation to plasma glucose simultaneously measured by the hexokinase method in a sub-sample [18]. SHBG and testosterone were analyzed on a Modular E170 (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). The total coefficients of variation of the instrument for the analytes were 1.5% at 43 nmol/L for SHBG and 6.8% at 3.9 nmol/L for tes- tosterone. Free androgen index was calculated as testos- terone (nmol/L)/SHBG (nmol/L) × 100.
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THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN DEFICIENCY AND ASSOCIATED NEUROLOGICAL DEFICIT

THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN DEFICIENCY AND ASSOCIATED NEUROLOGICAL DEFICIT

Laboratory tests included a normal hemogram, urinalysis, hearing tests, skull x-rays, and blood.. and urine amino acids.[r]

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Preparation and Properties of Thyroxine Binding Alpha Globulin (TBG)

Preparation and Properties of Thyroxine Binding Alpha Globulin (TBG)

molecular weight obtained by sedimentation equilibrium was 36,500. Gel filtration studies on Sephadex G-200 demonstrated that the protein had the same elution volume as that of native TBG in serum, apparently excluding the possibility of a subunit of the native protein. Chemical composition was ascertained by amino acid and carbohydrate analyses. The maximal thyroxine (T4)-binding capacity measured by reverse flow paper electrophoresis was 15,000 µg per g of protein, representing more than 2100 times that of the starting

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No effect of protein binding ratio of levofloxacin in hemodialysis patients

No effect of protein binding ratio of levofloxacin in hemodialysis patients

As shown in Figs. 3, 4, and 5, LVFX was bound to not only albumin but also globulin. Moreover, the protein binding ratio of LVFX increased with increased concen- trations of albumin as well as globulin. No studies have reported that LVFX and other fluoroquinolones show protein binding to serum globulin. However, the protein binding ratio did not increase with increased serum globulin concentrations in the presence of 3.5 g/dL albu- min. We therefore considered that the globulin binding ratio had a minimal effect on the protein binding ratio since the globulin binding ratio is lower than the albu- min binding ratio. These results suggested that the pro- tein binding ratio of LVFX was minimally affected by serum globulin concentrations. However, if patients had severe hypoalbuminemia, the protein binding ratio may be affected by serum globulin levels.
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BINDING OF CORTICOSTEROIDS BY PLASMA PROTEINS  IV  THE ELECTROPHORETIC DEMONSTRATION OF CORTICOSTEROID BINDING GLOBULIN

BINDING OF CORTICOSTEROIDS BY PLASMA PROTEINS IV THE ELECTROPHORETIC DEMONSTRATION OF CORTICOSTEROID BINDING GLOBULIN

The failure to observe two corticosteroid binding zones in our equilibrium paper electrophoresis experiments can be attributed to the fact that these experiments were carried out with am[r]

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EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON SEXUAL DYSFUNCTIONS AND HORMONAL PROFILES IN MALE WISTAR RATS

EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON SEXUAL DYSFUNCTIONS AND HORMONAL PROFILES IN MALE WISTAR RATS

Alcohol can affect the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis leading to impotence and sterility by various mechanisms of action. Until recently, alcohol induced liver disease was considered to be primarily responsible for sexual dysfunction in alcoholic men. Ethanol impairs testosterone production by being a direct testicular toxin and by interfering with pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion. In chronic alcohol fed rats, testicular atrophy is associated with reduced plasma testosterone levels by reducing the number of LH binding testicular receptors and also by interfering with the enzymes involved in testosterone biosynthesis. Healthy Male Wister rats were selected for this study, exposure of alcohol with 6% alcohol in feeding bottles orally for 90 days, compared to normal – control rats, the parameters were studied are Mounting Index (MI), Total Sexual Behaviour (TSB), Sperm count, Serum Testosterone by RIA methods, histopathology of target organs and Pituitary were observed under special Histochemical staining: AB-BR-OFG method. In this present study Total sexual behavior (TSB) in normal rats showed: 210.0 ± 0.56 compared to alcohol exposed rats: 260.0 ± 0.96,
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Interventions for sexual dysfunction in women with breast cancer: a systematic review

Interventions for sexual dysfunction in women with breast cancer: a systematic review

Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of interventions performed in women with breast cancer for the improvement of sexual dysfunction. Materials and Methods: This was a systematic review of the literature following the PRISMA guidelines. Bibliographical searches were carried out in the Medline, LILACS, Ibecs, BDenf, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL databases. The following inclusion criteria were considered: primary study with an experimental and randomized design; recruitment of women with breast cancer; addressing the effectiveness of an intervention to improve sexual dysfunction; with a Jadad’s scale score equal to or greater than three; published in English; and with the full text available online. Nine articles were included in the final review Results: The included studies focused on interventions with educational technologies (peer counseling program, cognitive behavioral therapy, Trendils website) as well as with pharmacological methods (bupropion, water- and silicone-based lubricants, pH-balanced vaginal gel, intravaginal testosterone cream and estradiol-releasing ring). Conclusion: There is evidence to support the use of educational technologies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and self-help groups, as effective strategies for improving sexual dysfunction in breast cancer survivors and of intravaginal testosterone cream and estradiol-releasing vaginal ring in breast cancer patients.
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