justified by the fact that it has preceded the HIPPARCOS catalogue as the International Reference Frame for the po- sitions and proper motions of celestial objects. The cat- alogues treated in the present paper have adopted the system of one of the fundamental catalogues analyzed in Paper I or in Schwan (2001a), namely the FK3 (Kopff 1937, 1938), FK4 (Fricke & Kopff 1963) or FK5 system. The analyzed catalogues provide extensions of those sys- tems with respect to the star density and the magnitude range. A detailed knowledge of the construction and of the properties of these catalogues is not needed for the re- duction of observations to the HIPPARCOS system with the aid of the results offered here. Therefore we restrict the discussions to merely a few remarks to help under- stand the comparison or to show the astrometric meaning of a catalogue. In addition a short comparison is made between those catalogues which have some logical interre- lation, e.g. if they should nominally be on the same system (see Sect. 4).
In the early twentieth century, with the independence of the Islamic nations, the religion of Islam withdrew from the traditional unification of religion and state (caesaropapism) to private life. The secularization of Islam has taken its course and its political characteristics have weakened. In the process of globalization of economy, politics and culture, the development of all countries became uneven and imbalanced. In the mid-to-late 20thcentury, it turned out that the secularization and modernization advocated by the nationalist had failed to effectively solve the development problems which the Muslim countries faced. This made Islam continue to strengthen its position in both domestic and international political life of Muslim countries. The traditional religious identity has become a powerful tool for the domestic cohesion and international fight against power. The analysis of the changes of Islamic religion and politics relations in 20thcentury can help to understand and reflect on the frequent ethnic and international conflicts in the world at present. Such changes will also affect the development strategy of China’s Belt and Road initiative.
the crisis to the League were blocked by the French. This action by a permanent member undermined the League’s credibility, as it appeared that the powers would take independent action when it suited them.
Although the hostility of Britain (and the USA) to the invasion of the Ruhr could be seen as a clear condemnation of unilateral action, the overall impact of the invasion was bad for both the League and for internationalrelations. Despite France’s economic gains (it had been guaranteed 21 per cent of the Ruhr’s production until December 1923, and then this rose to 27 per cent), the results of its actions dramatically increased the tension between France and Germany, making future cooperation all the more problematic. Politically, France had alarmed its former allies, and heightened the sense of patriotism within Germany. In France, Poincaré came under heavy criticism from both left- and right-wing groups. The left argued that this act of aggression had been committed only to benefit capitalist groups in France, and the right were frustrated by Poincaré’s withdrawal from the Ruhr, seeing it as a missed opportunity to exert some real control over Germany’s economy. There was even unofficial support from certain elements for the promotion of an independent Rhineland.
The interrogation of political institutions being carried out by Fiona Mackay, Georgina Waylen and others is one strand of this new research agenda. The critique of the European Union’s gender equality code by Catherine Hoskyns, Roberta Guerrina, Lucie Coley and others is another instance of this exciting turn in bringing a gender- aware dimension to politics research. The fresh interest in political leadership by, for example, Karen O’Connor, Fiona Buckley, and Manon Tremblay is another welcome development. And the feminist understanding of the role of gender in internationalrelations, as explored by Ann Tickner, Marisya Zalewski and Cynthia Enloe, has brought many new insights to bear on the different public positioning of women and men.
Liberal ideas that could explain Japan’s improved relations in Eastern Asia are derived from Kant’s belief in the fundamental freedom o f the individual, as stated in his Critique of Practical Reason (1788). Kant did not regard this freedom as the lawless freedom o f anarchy, but rather as the freedom of self-government, the freedom to consciously obey the laws intrinsic to one’s nature as a rational being. Thus, in his essay Perpetual Peace (1795), Kant advocated the establishment o f a world federation of republican states, which would all live in peace. However, Kant’s ideas did not gain full currency until Richard Cobden (1804—1865), the British economist and statesman known as the “Apostle of Free Trade,” promoted liberal ideas o f international peace based on self-interest, implied in the concept of laissez-faire,55 Despite his contribution to empire, Cobden’s opposition to continuing imperial British foreign policy cost him his seat in Parliament in 1857, suggesting that while laissez-faire was useful for the industrialists seeking foreign markets, it was at odds with the coercive manner in which Britain rose as an imperial power by using its fleet to literally capture new markets.56 Karl Polanyi (1944) later wrote on how this era o f laissez-faire laid the foundation for world war, as other European powers sought to ‘catch up’ to Britain (List 1827, 1841 & 1844). In spite o f this negative prognosis regarding the consequences o f liberal economics, in the 20thcentury laissez-faire has been promoted as a panacea in the work o f those such as Milton Friedman, giving birth to many US-based policy advocacy institutions that eventually challenged the New Deal o f Franklin D. Roosevelt and the “embedded liberal” order (Ruggie 1996 & 2002). Though he did not overtly advocate a “perpetual peace,” Friedman did believe in the relationship between free trade and freedom, thereby making the common mistake o f ignoring the realities o f the power and agency o f countries dissatisfied with the international system.57
According to Wallerstein and Gilpin, globalization is dependent on the growth of states’ power, hegemony in the IS is linked to the cycles of states’ economic development. Gilpin refers to the theory of hegemonic stability and Wallerstein refers to the Kondratieff wave theory. The Kondratieff wave is an economic cycle of about 45 to 60 years. In the first phase A of this cycle (~ 25 years), one or more industrial sectors in a country acquire a certain relative monopoly. They are making huge profits and the industry of that country and its whole economy are expanding. More efficient production leads to a positive trade balance for the country. Capital raised from trade strengthens the financial dominance of the country. However, this productivity monopoly is difficult to maintain (technology transfers through investment, information leakage, etc.) and new competitors emerge. Increased competition lowers prices and reduces the profits of all manufacturers. Economic development stops and stagnation begins. The second phase B of the cycle (again ~ 25 m) is recession. Since 1780, four such Kondratieff waves have been detected. 20 New rivals of the old hege- mon emerge in phase A, in phase B one of the rivals wins, and then in the next phase A it establishes its own hegemony, which begins to weaken in the next phase B as new rivals appear. It starts the next cycle of hegemony with a new A ascent. Historical evidence suggests that the cycle of hegemony lasts about a century, i.e. it involves two Kondratieff waves. The emergence of hegemony
the genocide Germany had provoked divisions in the Turkish community in Europe, had brought an image of a bloody, violent Turkey, thus blocking the entry of many immigrants. The Turkish government did not provide explicit support of the protest but it did not either take a clear distance from an occasion intended to sanctify Mehmet Talaat Pasha, who as the leader of the Young Turks was one of the principal directors of the genocide and escaped a death sentence by moving to Berlin in 1918. The International Red Cross then gave him a new identity and passport, with which he traveled through Europe promoting the ideas of Atatürk. He was then recognized and killed by Soromon Tehlirhan, a young Armenian who lost his family in the massacre, who was then absolved as he was declared mentally unstable. According to the interpretation of some historians, to avoid that there be too much international attention drawn to the armenian tragedy. Cf. di Lea Nocera, Giovani turchi sfilano a Berlino.
From 1907 to 1940, Captain W.E. Fairbairn was assigned to the International Police Force in Shanghai, China. He was quickly introduced to the Chinese underworld when, in 1908 a gang tried to kill him and left him for dead. He vowed this would never happen again and developed skills and tactics to defeat enemy fighting arts. It was at this time that he became a student of Professor Okada in Jiu Jitsu. Shanghai was known as the toughest Police assignment in the world. The city was overrun with gangsters and killers. They were involved in strong-arm tactics, extortion, slavery, prostitution, kidnapping murder and smuggling. To contend with these gangsters, Fairbairn was promoted to
Sheriffs of the 20thCentury
Silas E Davis, Sheriff – 1897 until 1901. It must have been a great honor to have
served as Sheriff at the turn of the Century. Sheriff Silas Davis had a distinguished career in law enforcement. He was also St. Augustine's Town Marshall and Chief of Police. His legacy in law enforcement continues today. Sheriff Davis' son, Silas Davis Jr, served as Police Commissioner for the City of St. Augustine and his sons, Silas Davis and Mark Davis, were deputies with the St. Johns Sheriff's Office in the 1970’s through the early 2000’s. Sheriff Davis has 2 great grandsons in law enforcement, one being Silas E. Davis III is with the University of Las Vegas Police Reserve. In addition, great-great grandson Kevin Mark Davis is police officer with the Liberty University Police Dept in Lynchburg, VA. The law enforcement tradition is a continuing tradition in Sheriff Davis' family.
In the early 20 th century, thousands of African-Americans moved to northern industrial cities in order to achieve wealth and their American dream; to find jobs that would create a better life for them and their families, and the Youngers were one of them. The play reveals frustrations that complicate their dreams for success. The matriarchal figure is Mama who takes care of her son Walter Lee, his pregnant wife, and her younger daughter. Her husband died, leaving a ten-thousand-dollar insurance policy and Mama is the beneficiary. Now, the real problem pops up because every member of the family has different plans for spending that money; they have different dreams they want to accomplish. Mama wants to buy a house to finally fulfil a dream she had with her deceased husband. Mama’s son, Walter Lee, would rather invest the money in a liquor store with his friends because he believes that it is a sure deal and that the investment will solve their financial problems forever. Walter’s wife, Ruth, supports Mama rather than her husband with hope to provide more space and opportunity for their son, Travis. Finally, Beneatha, Walter’s sister and Mama’s daughter, wants to invest the money in her education in medical school. Moreover, she wishes that her family members were not so interested in moving to the white neighbourhood and blending in the white world. However, their dreams and wishes were hardly achievable because of segregation, racism, intolerance and violence against which Hansberry’s father was fighting. Although the position of African-Americans was at the lowest point; the Youngers knew that, if they wanted to accomplish even the smallest thing, they will have to struggle to the maximum, especially to liven their American dream of “success, equality and freedom” which is seen “as an
Historically, it has been noted that WWI erupted after the assassination of
Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne) in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914. However, historians continue to debate other underlying causes, including changing political and economic situations in major European nations, the Industrial Revolution, and social turmoil. Whatever, the cause, The World War of 1914-18 - The Great War, as contemporaries called it -- was the first man-made catastrophe of the 20thCentury.
187-212; Na’ama Shik, “Sexual Abuse of Jewish Women in Auschwitz-Birkenau,” in Dagmar Herzog (ed.), Brutality and Desire. War and Sexuality in Europe’s Twentieth
Century (Houndmills, 2009), pp. 221-246; Leonore J. Weitzman, “Women,” in Peter
Hayes and John K. Roth, eds, The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies (Oxford, 2010), chapter 13 (Goddard online); Elisabeth Anthony et al, Women under Nazi Persecution. A
The results went to the National Security Council (NSC) and where given to the President Truman and the director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) on September 9th. 9 However, AFOAT-1 was kept on an extreme need-to-know basis 10 this caused miscommunications within different levels of bureaucracy; the rest of the CIA did not hear of the discovery and sent a message to Truman on September 20th, declaring that the USSR would not be able to go nuclear until the mid 1950s. 11 During this stretch of time Truman and other high level officials who knew about AFOAT-1’s discovery where questioning whether or not to go public with the information. 12 The CIA report proved the varying levels of secrecy surrounding the discussion of nuclear weapons and had to be weighed into the decision of releasing the information or not. On September 23 rd Truman shared the information with his cabinet and took a poll on whether to announce the findings; all but two cabinet members were in favor of release. 13 Directly following the cabinet meeting the news was delivered via a written memo to White House press
There are a series of movements often cited in studies on the history of terrorism, including “the Sicarii from ancient times, the Assassins from the medieval period, the protagonists of the French Terror of 1793-4, and the Irish nationalists and Russian anarchists of the late nineteenth century”. 13 The sicarri of the first century was an offshoot of the Zealots who fought against Roman rule in Palestine to try to be free from Roman control. 14 They were one of the first known groups to utilize violence in a subversive form, revolting against the Roman Empire’s decision for a census as that would highlight the minority status of the Jewish population. “Echoes” of subversive activity related to philosophies of political violence have diffused across political and geographic borders for hundreds of years, albeit without an explicit terminology of terrorism as is in use today. 15 In the Middle East during the 12 th and 13 th centuries, the Assassins stemming from the Ismaeli sect of Shia Islam became famous for their assassinations against the Crusaders. 16 Both the Sicarii and the Assassins depended upon individual efforts and strategic targets, a strategy not dissimilar to those labeled terrorist today. 17 Also similar to contemporary terrorism and political violence, these groups were “exceptional not because they were ‘terrorists’ but because they employed methods which were highly unorthodox for their day”. 18 Thus, exceptional methods do not necessarily indicate a “new” terrorism, but represent a continuity of terror-causing
It was suggested to us that the measures of eminence used in this study might have favored American psychologists. Some measures might also have favored those whose significant con- tributions occurred more toward the latter part of the 20thcentury. Consider first the possibility of temporal bias. We suggest that the qualitative variables NAS, APA, and EP are largely free of temporal bias. The NAS and APA variables span the century. The NAS was established in 1863, and the first psychologist elected to NAS membership was James McKeen Cattell in 1901 (Over, 1981). The APA Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award dates only to 1956 and might somewhat favor psychologists who were most productive in the latter part of the 20thcentury, but the APA presidency dates to 1892. Moreover, some of the earliest recipients of the APA award made significant contributions to psychology relatively early in the century (e.g., Ko¨hler, K. Spence, and Tolman). Finally, al- though it might sometimes take time for an eponym to become established and used, and over time some eponyms will fall into disuse, the EP variable is not time dependent in any systematic way. For the most part, it seems
To understand migration, we must fi rst understand how modes of migration are arranged to benefi t those who typically have power, and examine the commonalities and distinctive forms that have permeated communities, regions, continents, and the world. The historical record over the past 500 years sees remarkably common factors rooted in military power, economic exploitation, and poverty. We have witnessed that people have migrated from distinct systems under conditions that are remarkably similar: slavery, forced migration, poverty, economic advantages, war and displace- ment, expulsion, and the demands of capitalist economic development. The latter demand factors are crucial. While migration is a universal theme, in the past 250 years since the emergence of capitalist labor markets, migration has been primarily been driven by demand for labor, providing what Karl Marx described as the reserve army of labor that expands the supply of workers and reduces wages, thereby expanding profi ts. This theme remains as true among Irish migrants in Manchester, England in the early 19th century as among East Asians in North America in the mid - to - late 19th century, southern and eastern Europeans in South America, or Asians and Africans in Europe from the 1970s to the 2010s.