There is another problem with the color constants being members of each traffic light object. Every traffic light object needs to keep track of its own color, so color is an instance variable. There is no reason, however, why each traffic light needs to store its own copy of these three constant values. Suppose, for example, we were developing a program to model traffic flow though a section of a big city, and our system had to simultaneously manage 1,000 traffic light objects. The memory required to store these color constants in 1,000 objects would be
Despite the increasing number of researches related to Recommender Systems for Software Engineering, it is believed that this is an area that can still be quite explored. Some of their subareas lack related studies, as UML for example. The closest proposal related to UML was the search engine for UML models proposed by Lucrédio et al. . Their work apply information retrieval techniques in the UML metamodel to find relevant diagrams, and requires that the user provides a search string as an input in order to find them. Each UML diagram has its own context of use, some of them are used to model systems, others are best to describe requirements and so on. Thus, we decided that we should start by proposing a study for one of these diagrams, the class diagram, instead of proposing an approach that combine them all.
iii. parts with nonfixed multiplicity may be created after the whole but once created they must live and die with the whole
g. the whole is responsible for the disposition of its parts (i.e., the whole creates and disposes of its parts) h. is transitive: if A has a B, and B has a C, then A has a C (or if C is part of B, and B is part of A, then C is
Among the 14 different types of diagrams used in UML, half of them employed to display structural information, and the other half represents general type of behavior four of which allocated to different aspects of interactions. 2
UML not only has the capability to be exploited for forward engineering, but also beneficial on reverse engineering. This ability comes from its graphical representation of a software system (Ben-Abdallah et al., 2004). One of basic uses of UMLclass diagrams is to illuminate the structure of a software system that mostly leads to an appropriate understanding of it. UMLclass diagrams model the classes and their various relationships, such as generalization (inheritance), association (aggregation and composition), and other dependencies.
We will not discuss this type of inheritance further; its applications are a bit more sophisticated than what we’re dealing with here.
F. A danger particularly with both software inheritance and variation inheritance (but less so with model inheritance) is letting apparent convenience lead to misuse of inheritance. For example, Meyer cites a well-known software engineering text that develops the following scenario, using multiple inheritance:
President’s Report: S. Hellwig, Sr. expressed his pleasure with the evening’s turnout and that we had a quorum. The President reported that a CPR class will be held in lieu of the June membership meeting.
The Board has approved making the class free to all GPLA members, including Shop members, as well as for a member’s significant other or one other family member. He requests that any member planning to attend notify him with a count so that he can advise the class presenter accordingly. The President then reported that J. Magee had resigned as Sargent at Arms due to his need to assist with his father’s failing health, and that B. Wilensky had agreed to fill the remainder of the term. The President thanked B. Wilensky for stepping up to serve the Association.
getMinimumSize(int w, int h) is redefined to return new Dimension(0, 0). Indeed, this label is intended to be contained in a container managed by ToolBarLayout, and this layout manager never allocates the elements with a size lower than their minimunSize.
AttributeListFigure and MethodListFigure are two figures differ only by the explanatory label. This is why they derive from the ListFigure class. ListFigure extends the org.eclipse.draw2d.Figure class. Its layout manager is adjusted in ToolbarLayout. ToolbarLayout is to arrange figures in a single row or column. Orientation can be set to produce either a row or column layout. It aligns the children in the parent's client area by compressing the children by some amount, but not smaller than their minimum size. If a child's preferred size is smaller than the row's or column's minor dimension, it can be configured to stretch the child. The method getMinimumSize is redefined like above in AttributeFigure and MethodFigure. The ListFigure is provides with an edge extending the LabeledBorder class so as to be able to write “attributes:” or “methods:” according to the case. In addition, in order to make it prettier, we create the ListFigureBorder class extends AbstractLabeledBorder to define the edge of the ListFigure’s border. Figure 5.7 shows the result of the methodList figure with the ListFigureBorder. The methods setLabel(String label), createBorder() in ListFigure class is to implement this functions.
There are others work about UML and ER models. Such as, in  focus on deriving ER diagram from database schema with little information for the attribute in its table and no information for keys. Through analysis of data, instances in database and the query and view statements in program code related to the database. In work  focus on extracting an UML conceptual schema and set of OCL, integrity constraints and derivation rules inferred from the database schema to facilitate the comprehension of the enforced rules and their evaluation in database.
proach and tool, and then complying with the RDFS derived from the UML, some actual data from a database can be directly represented by RDF statements. For example, a student in- stance identified by its primary key attribute SID 1 in a table Student of a database can be rep- resented by a RDF statement [
As security packages are added to a class diagram some areas will have more of a security focus than others. To make the class diagram easier to read in these areas, it is good practice to use security package combinations and sets. A combination is a security package that contains a collection of different security descriptors that are all shared by the classes the security package protects. A set is a security package that contains a collection of the same security descriptors that are shared by the classes the security package protects. A root security package is the concept that makes combinations and sets possible. A root security package is a security package that has multiple security descriptors which means that its security tile contains security details for each descriptor. A good example of this is the creation of a rule set. A rule set is a security package set for the rule security descriptor so it combines a collection of similar rules. A simple example of this is shown in Figure 1, which shows part of a rule set for avoiding buffer overflows in C/C++. Note that because of space this example is not functionally complete and is shown simply for understanding the concept of a rule set.
Feature modelling is used for variability management in the field of software PL development. Specifically, this activity can be seen as a part of the domain analysis process, for example, as it is described by the FODA method . A feature model is an abstraction of a family of systems in a domain capturing the commonalities and variability among the members of the family. Feature models are used to specify the members of a product-line. They define common and variable features, their dependencies and relationships, and their usage constraints in product-lines. Feature models are easy to understand and provide a generic way to represent variability information. Features are primarily used in order to discriminate between product instances (configuration choices). Common features among different products are modelled as mandatory features, while different features among them may be optional or alternative. Optional features represent selectable features for products of a given domain and alternative features indicate that no more than one feature can be selected for a product. Aggregation of features represents all variability within the scope of the domain and is thus the domain feature model, or feature model.
In some cases the number of objects of a class is forced to be zero. As an example, if we add to the class diagram of Figure 1 a further likes association, with the constraints that each student likes exactly one curriculum, and that each curriculum is liked by exactly one student (cf. Figure 2), then it is impos- sible to have any finite non-zero number of students and curricula. In fact, the new association and its multiplicity constraints force the students to be the ex- actly as many as the curricula, which is impossible. Observe that, with a logical formalization the UMLclass diagram, one can actually perform such form of reasoning making use of automated reasoning tools 1 .
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Analyzer allows the generation of snapshots showing instances of the model as well as the execution of operations and assertion checking.
Although very few UML software developers are familiar with formal meth- ods, Alloy could be easily adopted by UML practitioners due to its simplicity and its resemblance with UML. Both Alloy and UML can benefit if two-way transformations are developed between them. On the one hand, from the UML practitioners point of view, Alloy Analyzer could be exploited as a model verifi- cation tool in a MDE context. On the other hand, from the Alloy practitioners point of view, a myriad of UML tools could be used in order to unleash Alloy potential for MDE. Specifically, there exist multiple code generators to different platforms and programming languages, such as JEE, CORBA, Java, C, C++, C# and Python, that could be used to refine Alloy specifications.
In this paper an attempt is made to represent the UMLClass diagram into its equivalent table format.
The paper proposed a semi automatic tool which takes the UMLclass diagram as an input and then generates the output in a table format. This Representation of UMLclass diagram is carried out by converting class diagram into its equivalent XMI format and then abstracting the information from XMI and is presented in a table format. This tool collates all the UMLclass standard features such as attributes, operations, Associations, generalizations, Aggregation and composition which systematizes with no ramifications. It helps to quickly visualize relationships of class diagram and is affable to develop software systems and further may be used to abstract requirement specification. In future we are proposing similar kind of representation to the remaining UML diagrams.
FSM gives a computational model for dynamic as well as static behavior of any software system. It is an abstract machine that produces a finite number of states and it produces one state at a time by reading input symbols. The working of FSM is started from the initial state and end on the final state and it can accept any length of string; if an automaton reaches its final state by reading input symbols one by one otherwise it rejects the string. The input is a finite set of alphabets. The finite-state automata can accept or reject an input string.