The Amish

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Religion and the family : the case of the Amish

Religion and the family : the case of the Amish

I construct a model of religion as an institution that provides community enforcement of contracts within families. Family altruism implies that family members cannot commit to reporting broken contracts to the community, so the community must monitor contract per- formance as well as inflicting punishment. The community has less information than family members, and so community monitoring is inefficient. I provide evidence from a study of Amish institutions, including qualitative evidence from sociological accounts and quantita- tive evidence from a novel dataset covering nearly the entire Amish population of Holmes county, Ohio. I find that 1) Amish households are not unitary, 2) the Amish community helps to support families by inflicting punishments on wayward family members, 3) with- out the community Amish people have difficulty committing to punishing family members, and 4) Amish community membership strengthens family ties, while otherwise similar reli- gious communities in which there is less need for exchange between family members have rules that weaken family ties. My model has implications for understanding selection into religious practice and the persistence of culture.
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The Amish Prevail Over Compulsory Education Laws: Wisconsin v  Yoder

The Amish Prevail Over Compulsory Education Laws: Wisconsin v Yoder

The Amish Prevail Over Compulsory Education Laws Wisconsin v Yoder SMU Law Review Volume 26 | Issue 5 Article 7 1972 The Amish Prevail Over Compulsory Education Laws Wisconsin v Yoder Marc H Follandor[.]

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Amish agriculture in Iowa: a preliminary investigation

Amish agriculture in Iowa: a preliminary investigation

makes Amish farmers unique?; In what ways are Amish farmers similar to other Iowa farmers?; What elements characterize Amish agriculture?; How have the Amish managed to maintain their sm[r]

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Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania

Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania

The Old Order Amish community is a population characterized by a homogeneous lifestyle, including intensive farming practices and low mobility, and has been relatively unchanged across generations [11]. In areas where many large dairy and poultry farms are con- centrated, the land area for disposal of animal wastes is limited. This situation often results in overloading the available land with manure, with considerable nitrogen ending up in groundwater or surface water [8,12]. Lan- caster County in southeastern Pennsylvania is an exam- ple of such an area where extensive dairy enterprises with high stocking rates prevail. High levels of nitrate in the groundwater [8] suggest that the Amish are a poten- tially highly exposed population. Given the biological effects of nitrate intake on the thyroid, investigation of whether the Amish in this area exhibit an increased pre- valence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid disease is of interest.
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Clothing the saints and furnishing Heaven : a Puritan legacy in the New World

Clothing the saints and furnishing Heaven : a Puritan legacy in the New World

The Amish were later to congregate in the area of Lancaster County, but at first their settlements were necessarily on the sparser northern lands to the north of the Pequea Mennonite colony near the Blue Mountains in modern-day Berks County, known as Northkill. The southern more fertile districts were already occupied by English Quakers, Scotch Irish Reformed, English and Welsh Episcopalians, German Lutherans, German Reformed and other marginal groups. However, the expansion of the Amish community finally ousted these settlers, with Amish settlements in Pennsylvania dating from around 1727. It is possible that earlier communities may have existed but are undocumented. Eventually the Amish occupied the eastern half of Lancaster County. The latter half of the century saw the formation of colonies in the Kishacoquillas Valley, Mifflin County. These settlements are important to our study in terms of their location and the proximity of other cultural groups. The same period saw the establishment of settlements near the source of the Ohio River, around 1767. The separate Amish communities in Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana and Ontario49 strictly disassociated their adherents from mainstream American culture, with Elders writing in 1718 to William Penn: "We do not attend elections, we enter not your Courts of Justice, we hold no office either civil of military."69 By 1736 the New World settlers were numerous enough to form a clear cultural group with viable congregations. The following quarter century witnessed a strengthening of the situation, by the arrival of the majority of the ancestors of the present day Amish, in America.
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Haemophilus influenzae Type b Disease Among Amish Children in Pennsylvania: Reasons for Persistent Disease

Haemophilus influenzae Type b Disease Among Amish Children in Pennsylvania: Reasons for Persistent Disease

Community A differed from community B by sev- eral other factors (Table 1). Community A had fewer people living in crowded households ( ⬎ 2 people per room), and the median number of people in the home was significantly less than in community B. More children in community A had received the polio vaccine than in community B. The majority of women in both communities received prenatal care (79 of 81) from a physician (41%), a midwife (89%), or both (32%). The midwife in community A was an advocate of vaccination who held a bimonthly im- munization clinic in her home with the district PADOH nurse; the midwife in community B was not an advocate of vaccination. Most parents (81%) re- ported that they had sought medical care for 1 or more family members at least once in the past year. The households in the Amish communities dif- fered from the non-Amish group by several factors. The 2 Amish communities had larger households than the non-Amish comparison group, and the me- dian age in Amish community B was significantly younger than in the comparison group (Table 1).
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Underimmunization in Ohio's Amish: Parental Fears Are a Greater Obstacle Than Access to Care

Underimmunization in Ohio's Amish: Parental Fears Are a Greater Obstacle Than Access to Care

the Amish population in Arthur, our study provides further insight into un- derimmunization in Amish communi- ties by revealing the practice of selec- tive immunization. The reticence of parents to accept immunization against rubella and varicella because of the understanding that the immuni- zations “come from aborted babies” suggests an ethical if not specifically religious basis for their decision- making. (Rubella and varicella vac- cines present concern because the at- tenuated viruses in the vaccines are propagated by using a human cell line, WI-38, derived in 1961. The cell line was originally prepared from tissues of an aborted fetus.) 25 Further investigation
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Thesis

Thesis

When schools began consolidating in Indiana, the Amish applied a similar horizontal approach as they have with their churches by creating their own parochial schools, which keep the children close to home and prepare them for an Amish life. The Amish parochial schools allowed the Amish to cater education to meet their own needs. Children start school in 1 st grade at age 7 and go through 8 th grade. Most of the work is completed during the school day so that the children have very little homework, giving them time to complete their chores and help out around the house after school. The school year begins at the end of August and runs through April (with no Spring Break, only Christmas Holidays and Good Friday off). The subjects include arithmetic, reading and writing, geography, and health. They will begin Standard German lessons in the 2 nd or 3 rd grade. Teachers are Amish and are selected by the church from a list of interested
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Through My Window—Remarks at the 125th Year Celebration of Children's Hospital of Boston

Through My Window—Remarks at the 125th Year Celebration of Children's Hospital of Boston

provided important knowledge, but, I also know that some of the work with the Amish and Mennonite people of Lancaster County, done by teams of people from universities, has amounted to l[r]

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The Association of rs7903146(C/T) and rs12255372(G/T) Polymorphisms of the TCF7L2 gene with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chennai Suburban Population

The Association of rs7903146(C/T) and rs12255372(G/T) Polymorphisms of the TCF7L2 gene with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chennai Suburban Population

2006 Polymorphisms in the transcription factor 7-like 2 TCF7L2 gene are associated with type 2 diabetes in the Amish: replication and evidence for a role in both insulin secretion and in[r]

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King_unc_0153D_14566.pdf

King_unc_0153D_14566.pdf

explicit community rules of order that produce and reproduce cultural practice across generations. In some ways, Orthodox Jewish communities in Israel, Europe, and the United States constitute analogous populations. The Amish founding populations are often mentioned in tandem with Jewish populations due to their similar ongoing production of these culturally- informed, genetically-isolated local bodies. A vast and significant difference between Jewish populations and Amish could be reduced to a simple dynamic: what is the culturally appropriate response to carrier testing and how does that response impact kinship patterns? Most notably, the program of Dor Yeshorim 161 , begun in Orthodox Jewish communities in the early 1980s, has radically altered the downstream effects of bio-cultural consanguinity. Dor Yeshorim folds genetic screening and carrier testing into culturally traditional norms of matchmaking. All members of the community are screened and put in a database at a young age. When a match query is made, the samples are compared for genetic compatibility; two individuals carrying recessive alleles known to cause disease are not permitted to continue toward union. The program has an uptake rate of 95% among orthodox communities and has virtually eliminated some genetic diseases typically prevalent among Ashkenazi Jews (Raz and Vizner 2008:1362). The Amish, like Orthodox communities, are not averse to carrier testing but have no traditional practice in which to make sense of this kind of community-wide screening or to prohibit unions on a genetic bases as a means for promoting similar change at the population level 162 .
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Polymorphisms in the SOCS7 gene and glucose homeostasis traits

Polymorphisms in the SOCS7 gene and glucose homeostasis traits

wide association studies, our sample of 765 subjects did none-the-less provide 80% power to detect an associ- ation that accounted for as little as 1.5% of the total vari- ance in glucose and insulin homeostasis traits. One limitation of our study is that we were underpowered to detect modest effect sizes for T2DM in the case–control study as our sample provided 80% power to detect odds ratios of 1.6 to 1.8. While it is possible that SOCS7 plays a role in T2DM and related glucose homeostasis traits in other populations, this scenario seems unlikely as many genetic findings in the Amish are similar to those found in the outbreed Caucasian population [31-33]. Furthermore, in SOCS7 SNPs found on the DNA micro- array chips used for T2DM and glucose homeostasis GWAS, no significant associations have been reported with these SNPs or other SNPs in the region of the SOCS7 gene. Additionally, in studies by MAGIC, only one nominally associated SNP (rs4300700) was identified which is consistent with our findings in the Amish of a very limited to no impact of SOCS7 on risk of T2DM or variation in glucose homeostasis traits [22]. Another limitation of our study is the higher number of female subjects in the T2DM group compared to the NGT and NGT + IGT groups. This difference may be due to selec- tion bias related possibly to women being more health conscious and more willing to take advantage of the screening done as part of the study.
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Disruptive Classroom Behavior in an Amish School-Aged Child With Muscular Dystrophy

Disruptive Classroom Behavior in an Amish School-Aged Child With Muscular Dystrophy

Dr Lee Pachter is Professor of Pediatrics and An- thropology at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, where he directs the Division of General Pediatrics. Dr Pachter’s education in anthropology and pediatrics is highlighted in his commentary, where he explores the unique characteristics of the Amish culture and their impact on educational and family values. Lisa Schwartz, a doctoral student in clinical psychology at Case Western Reserve Univer- sity, writes about the importance of a comprehensive psychosocial evaluation that moves beyond the ini- tial concern with ADHD. Dr Howard Taras is Pro- fessor of Pediatrics at the University of California, San Diego, where he is Acting Director of the Divi- sion of Community Pediatrics. Dr Taras is a medical consultant for several school districts and Chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on School Health. His commentary addresses medical, behavioral, legal, and cultural aspects of the case.
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Understanding Perceptions of Fresh Produce Safety and Barriers to Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) Use Among Amish Growers in the Holmes County Settlement of Ohio

Understanding Perceptions of Fresh Produce Safety and Barriers to Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) Use Among Amish Growers in the Holmes County Settlement of Ohio

While adhering to tradition, many members of Amish communities are viewed as entrepreneurial and inventive, even looking forward and cautiously anticipating change that allows them to explore potential impacts of new behaviors and technolo- gies (Landing, 1970; Lowry & Noble, 2000). As one Amish farm implement dealer and respected community leader stated, “The Amish do not fear modern technology; they chose not to be con- trolled by it” (Parker, 2013, p. 163). Traditional Amish household livelihoods include production of diverse farm products and income sources derived from low-input, intensive practices that include small fields, multiple crops, multiyear rotations, and several cottage industries. Other characteristics include the use of animal traction as their power source, reliance on animal manure fertilizers, a well-balanced ratio of acres farmed to animal numbers, and the use of local ecological indicators for planting and harvesting times (Kline, 1990; Moore, 1995; Moore, Stinner, Kline, & Kline, 2000). Yet social and economic pressures of the last three decades, such as the increasing
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Injuries among Amish children: opportunities for prevention

Injuries among Amish children: opportunities for prevention

alone is home to 3 of the 12 largest Amish Settlements, with Lancaster County home to the largest settlement in the country at an estimated 36,920 (Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies 2017). While there is a range of cultural expression within the larger Old Order Anabaptist community, Amish beliefs often include avoid- ance of technology, conservative dress, and lifestyle, and adherence to traditional farming practices (Rohrer and Dundes 2016). The Amish largely avoid allopathic health care and health insurance, believing the latter undermines the accountability of the community (Kraybill et al. 2013).
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Care for Amish and Mennonite children with cystic fibrosis: a case series

Care for Amish and Mennonite children with cystic fibrosis: a case series

ulations also are experiencing a decline in the incidence of CF. However, the extent of genetic testing and counseling services available to these communities is unclear [8]. The Mennonites separated from the "Old Order" Amish in 1850 as a result of adoption of new practices by the Men- nonites, however, many of the central tenants of each group remain similar [9]. Both the Amish and Mennon- ites believe that good health is a gift from God, resulting from hard work and strict obedience to the teachings of the Bible. The ability to work defines a "healthy" individ- ual [9-12]. Conversely, illness is generally believed to be "God's will," while death is considered a natural part of life and a new beginning, rather than an end or punish- ment [12]. The Amish and Mennonites believe in the strict separation of church and state, which historically has extended to refraining from use of government funds, including Medicaid and social security [11,12]. Further, typically they do not purchase commercial insurance [12]. Thus, barriers to provision of modern medical care include reimbursement issues, as well as the Amish repu- diation of worldly conveniences such as telephones, elec- tricity, and automobiles [12].
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Déjà Vu in The Hague – the relevance of the Chagos arbitral award to the proceedings before the ICJ - QIL QDI

Déjà Vu in The Hague – the relevance of the Chagos arbitral award to the proceedings before the ICJ - QIL QDI

16 For a defence of this position see S Yee, ‘Notes on the International Court of Justice (Part 7) – The Upcoming Separation of the Chagos Archipelago Advisory Opinion[r]

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Protecting the Jewel in the Crown: The Ognyanov Case and the Preliminary Reference Procedure

Protecting the Jewel in the Crown: The Ognyanov Case and the Preliminary Reference Procedure

A BSTRACT : In Ognyanov (judgment of 5 July 2016, case C-614/14), the Court of Justice held that Bul- garian courts have to set aside a national rule aimed at protecting fundamental ri[r]

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Articles | British Journal of Community Justice

Articles | British Journal of Community Justice

The present results suggest that the quality of contact that a probationer has with his probation officer may be a crucial variable associated with success or failure in probation, at le[r]

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The outlook for the development of the investment funds in the republic of Croatia

The outlook for the development of the investment funds in the republic of Croatia

But any further vigour and direction of devel- opment will depend on the development of the capital market, with which the growth of the investment funds is tightly connected, on modifi[r]

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