All statistical analyses were performed using the STATA 12.0 software (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) and Revman 5 (Cochrane Collaboration, London, UK). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% con ﬁ dence interval (95% CI) were calculated for evaluating the association between BST1 polymorphisms and PD risk. The pooled ORs were calculated using a genetic model of allelic, recessive, and dominant models. The statistical signi ﬁ cance of the OR was determined using the Z-test. Variation and heterogeneity were evaluated using Cochran ’ s Q-statistic. The random effect model was used when there was signi ﬁ cant heteroge- neity across studies (I 2 >50% or P<0.05), otherwise the ﬁ xed effect model was used in meta-analysis. Sources of hetero- geneity were evaluated by strati ﬁ cation analysis of ethnicity. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the effects of individual study on pooled results and the stability of results. The publication bias was detected with Begg ’ s test and Egger ’ s test. P<0.05 was considered statistically signi ﬁ cant.
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Previous studies found that the level of professional identity is affected by many factors, including: working environment, personality, positive interpersonal experiences, etc. 8,9 Noticeably, workplace violence (WPV) is becoming increasingly prevalent, and makes medical practice a risk job in China. 13 WPV was de ﬁ ned as incidents where staff were abused, threatened or assaulted in circumstances related to their work, including commuting from work, involving explicit or implicit challenges to safety, well-being or health. 14 WPV consists of two parts: physical and psychological violence. Physical violence refers to the intentional usage of physical force, including beating and hitting. While psychological violence is the behavior such as verbal abuses or sexual harassment. 15 Previous surveys showed that almost 80 – 95% doctors were susceptible to WPV. 10–12 WPV in hospitals can leads to serious consequences, such as frequent absenteeism, reduced work ef ﬁ ciency, increased occupational strain and turnover. 12 In addition, it could affect the quality of health services via negatively in ﬂ uencing con ﬁ dence of medical staff. 16 As a result, reducing the occurrence of WPV is important for doctors ’ professional outcomes. 17 Besides, WPV was signi ﬁ cantly negatively correlated with general self-ef ﬁ cacy, which is one of PsyCap ’ s dimensions. 18 Although WPV was found to be negatively related to professional identity in other groups before, 19 the association between WPV and professional identity among Chinese doctors is not clear.
Background: Cancer survivors with certain comorbidities had lower quality of life (QOL). This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of comorbidities and the association between comorbidities and the QOL among Chinese colorectal cancer survivors (CCS). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,398 CCS between April and July 2013 in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. All the participants were asked to complete a simplified Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment quality of life version 3 questionnaire and questions on sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities. In order to mitigate the bias caused by confounding factors, multiple linear regression models were employed to calculate the adjusted means of QOL scores.
Results: Overall, 13 studies fit the inclusion criteria for this analysis, yielding a large study population that included 6,161 patients without Hp 2-2 and 4,684 patients with Hp 2-2. The analysis of these studies showed that the incidence of CV events in DM patients with the Hp 2-2 genotype was significantly increased as compared to non-Hp 2-2 patients in all three subgroups of case–control (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.6; P = 0.003), cohort (OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2–1.5; P = 0.001) and randomized controlled trials (OR: 1.6, 1.2–2.2; P=0.005). Among patients with the Hp 2-2 genotype, administration of vitamin E was associated with lower rates of CV events (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45–0.95; P=0.025). Further investigation into the association between Hp 2-2 and myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and end-stage renal disease was also performed. Conclusion: The Hp genotype is a risk factor for CV events in patients with DM, and admin- istration of vitamin E appears to offer a low cost and accessible means of reducing CV events and mortality in this population.
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Methods: The study group consisted of 289 volunteers (over 60 years old; 104 males and 185 females). Participants’ SMCs were assessed using the SMC scale. The Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination were administered. Participants whose Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scores were 16 or higher were defined as the depressive group and participants whose Mini-Mental State Examination scores were less than 24 were defined as the cognitive impairment group. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify the factor structure of the items of the SMC scale. A multiple logistic regression analysis of the association between depressive state and cognitive impairment and the score of each factor was performed.
From the current evidence available, it is not safe to conclude upon the assumption of a protective effect of statins against ARM and AMD. This is because the clinical studies already conducted do not provide us with adequate data in order to draw certain conclusions. There is a need for large scale prospective studies with a long follow-up period and accurate assessment of AMD to further explore this matter. We are expecting the first results from the ARMSS study to help elucidate the controversy over the association between statin use and progression of age-related macular degeneration. Until then, physicians need to be vigilant in ensuring that use of statins remains restricted to the approved indications.
The association between being unmarried, having a low educational level and having CVD and the occur- rence of depressive symptoms in CKD patients has been shown in our study. However, the association with age and sex was not revealed. Variations in participants ’ demo- graphic characteristics and the type of study design might be the reasons for the discrepancy. In our study, we found that patients with diabetes seemed to have a low rate of depression, which was not consistent with a previous study. 38 This might be because some patients with diabetes were excluded due to a lack of response to the survey or to a refusal to participate in our study.
showed the association between TSH and obesity. 10,15,26,31,32 Also besides, some longitudinal studies have established the relationship between the concentrations of thyroid hormones and changes in body weight over time. 33 – 35 In contrast, several studies did not detect the relation between TSH and obesity. 36,37 The variability of the maximum value in the reference range of TSH, limited sample size and the adjusting confounders might explain the differences of association between BMI and TSH. Besides adiposity, thyroid function also affected lipid metabolism. 11,13,38,39 The HUNT study found a linear and signi ﬁ cant increase in serum TC, LDL- C, TG levels, and a linear decrease in HDL-C with increasing TSH in euthyroid subjects. 11 Similar results were observed in the PG population. There are controversial ﬁ ndings of the relationship between TSH and blood pressure in euthyroid subjects. 12,40,41 Here we found that TSH was just signi ﬁ - cantly correlated with blood pressure in women. Higher TSH levels within the normal range were not signi ﬁ cantly associated with prediabetes or diabetes in most studies, 16,27
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Abstract: Epithelial cadherin (encoded by the CDH1 gene) is a tumor suppressor glycoprotein that plays a role in the invasion and metastasis of human cancers. As previous studies regarding the association between CDH1 promoter methylation and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have yielded inconsistent conclusions, a meta-analysis was performed. A systematic literature review was undertaken from four databases: PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. Finally, a total of 23 studies (including 1,727 cases of HNSCC and 555 normal controls) were included in the present study. Our results showed that the frequency of CDH1 promoter methylation in HNSCC was statistically greater than in controls (odds ratio [OR] =5.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.36–10.51, P,0.001). In reported cases of HNSCC, CDH1 promoter methylation was statistically associated with tumor stage (OR =0.46, 95% CI: 0.27–0.78, P=0.004) and a history of alcohol consumption (OR =6.04, 95% CI: 2.41–15.14, P,0.001). Moreover, the sensitiv- ity, specificity, and area under the curve of the summary receiver operator characteristic for the included studies were 0.50 (95% CI: 0.4–0.61), 0.89 (95% CI: 0.79–0.95), and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.70–0.78), respectively. In conclusion, our meta-analyses indicated that CDH1 promoter methylation was associated with HNSCC risk, and may be utilized as a valuable diagnostic biomarker for HNSCC.
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ORs and corresponding 95% CIs were combined to measure the association between MIF promoter polymorphisms and cancer risk. Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for each study was determined by the chi-square test. The pooled ORs were calculated for the allelic model (mutation [M] allele versus [vs] wild [W] allele), dominant model (WM + MM vs WW), recessive model (MM vs WM + WW), homozygote comparison (MM vs WW), and heterozygote comparison (WM vs WW) respectively, and P0.05 denoted statistical significance. Statistical heterogeneity among the studies was evaluated using the Q-test and I 2 -test. When
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used as measurement for obesity in our study. Our results showed that the value of the BMI (obesity) is associated with the pathological grade and stage of bladder cancer in a Chinese population. So far, there are many studies exploring the association between obesity and risk of bladder cancer. Several epidemiological studies have also confirmed that obesity was positively associated with bladder cancer risk. 16,17,23 Two reasons may be used to explain these results.
Abstract: Insomnia, the most common sleep complaint in the general population, is defined by difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by some form of daytime impairment. In the current review, we present an overview of recent studies on the association between insomnia and cardiovascular disease. It can be concluded that there is growing evidence for the hypothesis that insomnia is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease independently of classic coronary risk factors. Furthermore, insomnia is likely to be associated with hypertension and elevated resting heart rate, both known to lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the existing evidence is not totally consistent and most findings have not been replicated unequivocally. The major limitations of the cited studies include the failure to use state-of-the-art criteria for insomnia diagnosis, the failure to control for depres- sion, and the use of hypnotic medication and sleep apnea as potential confounders. However, the results suggest that insomnia is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease mediated by hypertension or elevated resting heart rate. Consequently, more effort should be dedicated to cope with the high prevalence of insomnia in the general population.
quently published; however, further verification of the association between the CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism and the risk of HNC is still required. The cumulative meta- analysis reported here was conducted to verify the associa- tion of the CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism with the risk of HNC using data from a total of 34 studies that evaluated 6,367 cases and 6,395 controls. The goal of this study was to provide comprehensive and conclusive evidence regarding the association of the CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism with the risk of HNC. Overall, we observed an increased risk of HNC in patients with the Ile/Val + Val/Val genotype com- pared to those with the Ile/Ile genotype. We also observed an increased risk of HNC in patients with the Ile/Val + Val/ Val genotype compared to those with the Ile/Ile genotype in various subgroups (laryngeal cancer, pharyngeal cancer, Asians, and patients in studies that used hospital-based controls).
Immunoscore, 47,48 using the densities of CD3-positive and CD8-positive lymphocytes, has been advised for evalu- ating the status of the local immune system in colorectal cancer. However, the availability of computer-based immu- nohistochemical assessment has been questioned. 34,35 There is a strong trend of achieving most tumor microenvironment characteristics in routine slides stained by hematoxylin- eosin. 34,38 In the near future, the same slides might serve as the basis for computer-based assessment complementing whole-slide scanning. 49 Therefore we decided to evaluate the cellular composition of the in ﬂ ammatory in ﬁ ltrate on the hematoxylin-eosin basis. In addition, IHC, e.g. for CD68, can be less speci ﬁ c than expected 34 due to back- ground or cross-reactivity issues. The possibility of counting cells reliably in HE slides was shown by Richards et al, who reported reasonable inter-observer variabilities, reaching 0.92 for lymphocytes, 0.80 for plasmatic cells and 0.92 for eosinophils. 34 In addition to the classically tested relations with pTNM, 35 we also evaluated the association with the manifestations of invasive growth.
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The genotype frequency of rs3759223 was in HWE in both cases and controls (P.0.05). Table 2 shows the allelic association results for rs3759223 after stratification accord- ing to SE in high myopia cases: , - 9.0 D in at least one eye; , - 9.0 D in both eyes; , - 11.0 D in both eyes; , - 13.0 D in both eyes; and , - 15.0 D in both eyes. The OR for the T allele of rs3759223 increased according to the progres- sion of SE, and the highest OR was found in patients with SE , - 15 D in both eyes (OR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79–3.06). However, in the allele test, we did not find any significant association in any of the patients who were stratified according to the level of SE (P.0.05).
Abstract: Obesity and pain present serious public health concerns in our society. Evidence strongly suggests that comorbid obesity is common in chronic pain conditions, and pain com- plaints are common in obese individuals. In this paper, we review the association between obesity and pain in the general population as well as chronic pain patients. We also review the relationship between obesity and pain response to noxious stimulation in animals and humans. Based upon the existing research, we present several potential mechanisms that may link the two phenomena, including mechanical/structural factors, chemical mediators, depression, sleep, and lifestyle. We discuss the clinical implications of obesity and pain, focusing on the effect of weight loss, both surgical and noninvasive, on pain. The literature suggests that the two condi- tions are significant comorbidities, adversely impacting each other. The nature of the relationship however is not likely to be direct, but many interacting factors appear to contribute. Weight loss for obese pain patients appears to be an important aspect of overall pain rehabilitation, although more efforts are needed to determine strategies to maintain long-term benefit.
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In our analysis, depression had no significant independent impact on treatment adherence, despite its established association with smoking and its direct association with reduced treatment adherence, as described earlier in this paper. The lack of confounding impact may be explained in part by the use of medical and pharmacy claims data for depression diagnosis, which may underestimate the overall prevalence rate based on self-reported depression. Prior research suggests that the prevalence of self-reported depres- sion may be significantly greater than that derived from claims data. 25 It is difficult to determine whether individuals
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Allelic frequencies were estimated by direct counting. The signiﬁ cance of allelic frequencies between the patient and control groups was evaluated by Fisher’s exact test. The probability of association was corrected by the Bonferroni inequality method, ie, by multiplying the obtained P values with the number of alleles compared. A corrected P (Pc) value of 0.05 was considered statistically signiﬁ cant. Statistical analyses were performed on a computer using the SPSS software (version 10.1; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the multi-locus analyses were calculated using PyPop. 20
The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between ABI, IC, and physical activity level, and the influence of these variables on functional capacity in a sample of stable patients either with or at a high risk of CVD recruited from a reference cardiology outpatient clinic in Southern Brazil. The main findings of the study were as follows: 1) functional capacity, assessed by the 6MWD, showed strong positive correlation with the absence of IC and moderate negative cor- relation with age; 2) in addition, weak positive correlations were observed between functional capacity, IPAQ score, and ABI; and 3) functional capacity was independently associated with age, ABI, and IC. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate, in stable patients either with or at a high risk of CVD seen in a reference cardiology outpatient clinic, a relationship between greater functional capacity and high ABI values, an active level of physical activity, absence of IC, and lower age, as well as being the first study to confirm that age, ABI, and absence of IC can be used for the predic- tion of functional capacity.
Statistical analyses were performed using Stata software version 12.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). We pooled the ORs with 95% CIs to analyze the association between the CCND1 G870A polymorphism and suscep- tibility to SCC of the UADT. Four genetic models were evaluated, including the allele-contrast model (A vs G), the codominant model (AA vs GG and GA vs GG), the dominant model (GA/AA vs GG), and the recessive model (AA versus GA/GG) (GG wild-type homozygotes, GA heterozygotes, and AA variant homozygotes). The I-squared (I 2 ) statistic
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