In the previous section, phonetic change has been divided into two main routes: the first route means a loss in the degree of prototypicality of the phoneme, whereas the second route refers to those diachronic processes that produce more prototypicality. In both cases, our usage of the term prototypicality implies factors that are both articulatory (degree of openness) and auditive (degree of audibility). Taking into consideration these two basic principles, we are going to consider now the nature of allophonic variation. In my analysis, I will consider a phoneme as a complex category (Nathan 1986, 1996; Eddington 2007) consisting of a hierarchical set of allophones. The basic allophone within a given category corresponds with the basic allophone of a phoneme, which can be equated with the category prototype. The other allophones will function as context-induced extensions of this prototype, as diagrammed in the following figure (based on Langacker 1991: 273):
others is incomplete. In addition, I feel that the deepest level of change is in the body, the next deepest is with the feelings, and the least so in the intellect. Put another way, if a body change is not accompanied by para llel changes in the feelings and thoughts, the change is still real but there is the danger that the body will eventually return to its former condition because the original cause of the body aberration still exists. How ever, intellectual -insight not accompanied by emotional and body changes is really not a true insight and will lead to minimal change if any at all. Furthermore the accuracy of insight is confirmed by bodily reactions and emotions in that tensions and unpleasant feelings are dissipated and the person feels freer, more at ease with himself, more whole. Thus by constant reference to the body, insights
Daß alle unsere Erkenntnis mit der Erfahrung anfange, daran ist gar kein Zweifel i . (Immanuel Kant, Kritik der Reinen Vernunft, p.27)
The performance of business processes is considered to be positively and strongly correlated with the effectiveness of associated managerial decision-making (Galbraith 1973; Galbraith 1974; March 1999; Penrose 1995). Currently, rapid technological change, turbulence, and great uncertainty in most organizations’ micro- and macro-environments create increasingly challenging working conditions for decision-makers. Decisions must often be made under considerable time pressure (Payne et al. 1990; Simon 1997), and in highly complex and ambiguous situations (Weick 2001), where either a lack or an affluence of information prevails and great uncertainty exists about future states of the world. Still, managers and other professional decision-makers are not supposed to simply throw dice or postpone decisions indefinitely (Bazerman 2001; Hammond 1996). They must respond fast and appropriately to what knowledge is available to them at a certain point in time (Wagner and Sternberg 1986), making intelligent use of information and experience on the one hand, and of their cognitive skills on the other (Hammond 1996; Simon 1997).
The ba-construction in Chinese has been widely studied and most research has focused on the form of the struc- ture and its constraints. This paper has argued that ba is a verb, based upon the concept of Subsective Gradience and behaviour constructions, and its signals subordination, i.e. taking a clausal complement, witnessed by the typological work such as Cristofaro (2003) and Dixon (2010). However, following Huddleston and Pullum et al. (2002), we abandon the traditional distinction between simple sentence and complex sentence, and thus recog- nise the ba-construction as a clausal sentence, which shows strong transitivity in terms of syntactic and semantic parameters—taking a complement clause and manifesting meaning such as impingement or change of state.
found on a more global time level in a community sample and what Smyth et al. (2007) found on a daily level in a naturalistic environment setting. Interestingly, also increased positive affect predicted less concern about body shape and weight the subsequent week, further supporting the findings of Smyth et al. (2007). The possibility that symptom change would precede cognitive therapy process, which has been suggested in studies of the relationship between cognitions and symptoms in cognitive therapy of depression (Kraemer et al., 2002) and in cognitive and interpersonal therapy of social phobia (Hoffart, Borge, Sexton, & Clark, 2009), did not receive empirical support here. Furthermore, there appeared to be few period (early vs. late) effects.
Many mainstream historical linguistics works took a shape of comparative linguistics in essence; they tried to investigate many etymological fields following different techniques and methods especially the comparative method and the internal reconstruction method; the former concentrates on studying resemblance of variants among world languages within specific time spans and how such common features constitute sets of cognates; while the latter hinges on analyzing all variants within each language as such, (see Stern 1932, Lehmann 1973, Robert and Lehiste 1979, et al). All in all, such variation was sometimes perceived as a process of evolutionary change, (see Samuels 1970). Nonetheless, most recent studies especially over the past four decades have confined their emphasis to investigating linguistic phenomena synchronically, particularly the bulk of studies in the fields of semantics and pragmatics, more noticeably research conducted by cognitive advocates, (see Traugott1990 and Sweetser 1990, Blank 1999, et al). Therefore, all research over the past two centuries can be typologically realized based on the major theoretical approaches and distinctions that language studies and linguistics have undergone when dominated by philologists, structuralists, generativists or functionalists. The results, therefore, reflect the solid premises such schools of linguistics have posited as evidently consequential outputs, starting with etymology, onomasiology, semasiology and semio- pragmatics, (cf. Fitzmaurice 2000 and Geeraerts 2010). This can be ambitiously further extended into some semiological spheres and paradigms of interpretations, (AlBzour 2015).
To overcome these difficulties, a benchmarking framework must be implemented which makes it possible to evaluate solutions relative to a baseline evaluation. To this end, the traffic and interference characteristics of reference scenarios (e.g. home, office, public buildings) and different wireless technologies (e.g. Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, LTE) are determined. When running experiments, a reproducible background reference scenario can be chosen. Simultaneously, the benchmarking framework is used to collect and process spectrum information and network level data, both from the devices under test, as well as from dedicated observation devices. During and after the experiments, the framework may be used to capture the performance of the solution using one or more metrics, making it possible to fairly compare the performance of different cognitive radio and cognitive networking solutions, or to compare the performance of different iterations of a single solution. Based on the collected input, the benchmarking framework should indicate whenever the collected results cannot be trusted, for example when an unexpected rise in externally caused RF interference is observed.
The cognitive reflection test (CRT) was presented by Frederick (2005) with the purpose of measuring the construct cognitive reflection, which he defined as “the ability or disposition to resist reporting the response that first comes to mind” (Frederick, 2005, p. 35). As shown in Table 1 CRT contains three mathematical problems with the common feature that they all typically trigger a quick, intuitive response, which is not the correct answer. If the test taker realises that the intuitive response is not the correct answer, finding the correct solution requires relatively easy mathematical computations. Typically, a participant either solves a problem incorrectly or correctly within a few minutes. Research has shown that people find it difficult to solve these problems, and that those who perform well at CRT tend to perform well at numeracy tests, other general ability tests, and tend to avoid biases in judgement and decision making tasks (e.g., Campitelli & Labollita, 2010; Cokely & Kelley, 2009; Frederick, 2005; Liberali, Reyna, Furlan, Stein, & Pardo, 2011; Oechssler, Roider, & Schmitz, 2009 ; Toplak, West, & Stanovich, 2011).
Th e large percentage of individuals who have sub stan- tial levels of Aβ but remain cognitively normal is a potential limitation in the use of amyloid imaging for prediction of clinical outcomes. Th irty to ﬁ fty percent of individuals who are clinically normal at death have suﬃ cient Aβ plaques at autopsy to meet pathological criteria for AD [1,2]. Similarly, PET imaging studies also show that about 30% [3-7] of cognitively normal indivi- duals have varying levels of increased Aβ on imaging. Some investigators argue that cognitively normal indi- viduals with AD pathology are in a preclinical stage of AD [8-10]. However, we  and others  have shown that antemortem cognitivechange in this group of ‘asympto matic AD’ individuals does not diﬀ er signiﬁ - cantly from cognitively normal individuals without AD pathology at autopsy, in contrast to the marked memory decline evident in those who develop subsequent cog- nitive impairment (Figure 1a).
The current data also demonstrates that stereotype change can be drawn from even slight encounters with incongruent evidence in sufficient volume, with the effects observed in the experiment being based solely on the observation of member summaries rather than any significant interaction with actual counter-stereotypical group members. This is in contrast to past theories such as the Contact Hypothesis which often re- quire intensive, long-term interaction with out-group mem- bers to generate a reduction in stereotypical beliefs (Allport, 1954). This is not to say that prior expectations have been completely overcome: revision still does not reach the level suggested by conversion (or indeed the actual ratio of evi- dence in the experimental data sets); even so, this does still provide limited evidence that stereotype maintenance can be counteracted through increased exposure to incongruent data. The current design may therefore present a more economic path to combating prejudice, requiring less time and effort than some existing methodologies. What is more, the effects observed in this study could in fact be greater at more signif- icant forms of encounter, potentially counteracting subtyping
(20). Rother warns against taking this approach and instead advocates concentrating on change targeted on improving the flow within specific product value streams. Indeed, industry participants at workshops organised by the UKLAI have observed that there is ‘initiative fatigue’ among their employees. Introducing lean manufacturing as another ‘major change initiative’ might, therefore, generate greater employee resistance. The popularity of large-scale change initiatives in recent years, probably means that managers have more experience in launching major change programmes than in implementing lean practices in their workplace. This relative lack of experience in lean implementation is a further reason for taking an incremental approach to change.
Organizations have used rigorous methodologies to identify the improvements necessary for remaining viable and competitive in today’s turbulent business environment. However, they have rarely used the same level of rigor in the implementation of the identified improvements. One organization benefited by using design of experiments to determine the best approach for implementing a difficult organization- wide change.
The analysis steps to model and identify changes between 2013 and 2017 from bi-temporal imagery are shown in Figure 2. The process was as follows. First, a series of unsupervised classifications were undertaken using a minimum distance approach with percentage change threshold of 2% and a maximum of 10 iterations. The aim of these was to identify an appropriate classification scheme for this study area. This determined a set of seven classes that could be reliably identified in each image which were then manually labeled. Then, class-to-class training data were selected and labeled automatically with the change classes from the 2013 and 2017 unsupervised classifications. For each class-to-class pair, including no change class pairs, 100 sample locations were selected from within homogenous areas and subjected to a 70/30 training and validation split. From these, the start and end coordinates in six-dimensional image space from the 2013 and 2017 coupled images were determined for each sample and three change vector variables were calculated: magnitude, spectral direction and spectral angle. Thus, the reference samples were labeled with the from-to change classes and contained 15 predictor variables of the six spectral bands for each year and the three derived vector measures. These were used input parameters to a Random Forest classifier to create a predictive model of land cover change. The model was then applied to the combined bi-temporal Landsat images to predict change areas. Finally, regional comparisons were undertaken to compare the magnitude and direction of change in different landscape contexts.
Cognitive neuropsychology ﬁ rst emerged as a coherent discipline in the 1970s as a reaction to the then dominant approach in neuropsychology. This earlier approach to neuropsychology (the ‘classical approach’) sought to character- ise the performance of people with aphasia by de ﬁ ning them in terms of their localisation of lesion (see Shallice, 1988, for further discussion of this approach). The aim here was to understand the psychological functions of parts of the cortex by investigating the patterns of de ﬁ cits shown by indi- viduals with lesions in these areas, and identify syndromes de ﬁ ned in terms of de ﬁ cits that frequently co-occurred. Over the last 20 years, in the UK at least, cognitive neuropsychology has expanded to become the dominant approach in neuropsychology. Part of the reason is that it moved neuropsychology from being of interest only to those concerned with brain behaviour relation- ships to a major source of evidence on the nature of normal processing. Another reason is that good cognitive neuropsychology pays real attention to providing accounts that address how individual people with brain lesions behave, often using sophisticated experimental methods to investigate the determinants of their performance.
long-term mental illness and high drug and its therapeutic costs, replacing the correct and logi- cal cognitive patterns and beliefs compatible with primordial nature is essential to prevent and treat more stable as well as less costly. The motivation for this issue is important for two reasons. First, universal comprehensiveness of Rumi’s thoughts and the depth of his ideas represent complexities of understanding the psyche. Second, his effective style of expression in the application of allegories, the accurate selection of symbols and emblems make the story more effective, and the readers are identified with characters. Providing consistent recognition patterns with primordial human nature is more stable through the study of Rumi’s thought in comparison with other common cognitive patterns because Rumi considers basic treatment of the human psyche as the correct understanding of the self and reformation of worldview. For him, other treatments will not be successful until these two factors are available. 14
People do not have to get angry when they encounter such an event. The event itself does not get them upset and angry; rather, it is people’s interpretations of and beliefs concerning the event that cause the anger. Beliefs underlying anger often take the form of “should” and “must.” Most of us may agree, for example, that respecting others is an admirable quality. Our belief might be, “People should always respect others.” In reality, however, people often do not respect each other in everyday encounters. You can choose to view the situation more realistically as an unfortunate defect of human beings, or you can let your anger escalate every time you witness, or are the recipient of, another person’s disrespect. Unfortunately, your perceived disrespect can keep you angry and push you toward the explosion phase. Ironically, it may even lead you to show disrespect to others, which would violate your own fundamental belief about how people should be treated. The A-B-C-D approach consists of identifying maladaptive beliefs and disputing them with more rational or realistic perspectives, so in this model, “D” stands for dispute. You may get angry, for example, when you start thinking, “I must always be in control. I must control every situation.” It is not possible or appropriate, however, to control every situation. Rather than continue with these beliefs, you can try to dispute them. You might tell yourself, “I have no power over things I cannot control” or “I have to accept what I cannot change.” These are examples of ways to dispute beliefs that you may have already encountered in 12-Step programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous.
Persons (1989) suggests that a complete case formulation will explain how current problems are being precipitated (and how they actually make sense in the light of the hypothesised underlying beliefs and current triggers), and will also suggest origins of the underlying beliefs in the client’s early life. Judith Beck (1995), Melanie Fennell (1989) and others have expanded this view of the cognitive formulation to include ongoing Core Beliefs and Assumptions from which spring the Automatic Thoughts specific to a given situation (see Figure 2, adapted from the above sources).
dividing cells located at the apex of shoots and roots. Plantlets derived from meristem-tip culture usually retain the genetic characteristics of mother plants. Many important plants contain systemic viruses, which substantially reduce their potential yield and quality. It is, therefore, important to produce virus free stock plant . The main reason behind the using the meristem tip for virus eradication is that the terminal region of the shoot meristem, above the zone of vascular differentiation, is unlikely to contain pathogenic particles. Meristem- tip culture is, therefore, the most widely applicable approach for virus elimination. The explant of small size (1 mm) i.e. meristem tip is preferred for in vitro culture. Meristem tip is excised in aseptic conditions and cultured on nutrient medium. The inoculated tubes are incubated properly in light, and dark regime (24±1°C in dark conditions for 3 days, and then under standard illuminated conditions is preferable). The meristem-tip technique can be linked with heat therapy, antiviral and chemotherapeutic agents to enhance its effectualness of disease elimination to quarantine regulations [39,40]. The first demonstration of the elimination of viruses was seen from Dahlia using meristem culture . Since then, the use of meristem culture to obtain virus-free ornamental plants has been widely used (Table 4).
Broadly speaking, metaphor functions not only as ornaments but also as the poet’s conceptualization and cogni- tive means. Poetical metaphor has the rhetoric function because it offers the advantage of being at once expres- sive, compact and vivid. Cognitive function and aesthetic function of poetical metaphor make poetry convey truth and beauty at the same time. Truth and beauty are what poems aim at, also are the significance of the exis- tence of this special art-poetry. A poet has once observed that a great poem is a fountain forever overflowing with the waters of wisdom and delight. In modern times, poetry is ignored but just being studied as in school es- says. Poetry is a minority interest. However, metaphor, in its broad sense, is pervasive and essential in language and thought. It is obvious to make the fundamental distinction between the traditional and the contemporary theories of metaphor. The traditional approach studies metaphor as individual linguistic expressions or rhetorical devices: what artistic or aesthetic literary or poetic in nature. In the contemporary paradigm, on the other hand, metaphor is studied as systems of human conceptualization, operating deep in human thought and cognition and at the same time, surfacing in everyday language in a systematic manner. On this view, metaphor in poetry or in literature at large is but a special case of metaphor in general, based on the same mechanism. Therefore, our current analysis of poetic metaphors just is largely for purposes of probing into the stylistic features of a poem and the motivation of the one who creates it.