Related to the idea of the covenant in the New Testament is the concept of the Kingdom of God as preached by Jesus (Mt. 4:43). The Kingdom is all about the reign of God and Christ and the involvement of people in this reign due to their covenantal relation with God in Christ. In his explanation of the theology of the cross, Welker (2012) indicates that it is especially in this regard that the Reformation brought about a revolution. He shows that the events on the cross not only centre on the suffering God, as was variedly argued following the time of Bonhoeffer, but also on the God who redeems and judges. As part of this discussion, he deals with the concepts of sin and atonement. Furthermore, Welker discusses the meaning of the elevated Christ and his divine rule. His point of departure is the offices of Christ – prophet, priest and king, as emphasised by Calvin. The outward form of the reign of Christ corresponds to his offices. The reign of Christ invokes the church and frees up the dynamics of prophetic testimony and the practice of love. It is because of Christ’s office of three kinds that theology is not a spiritual matter, but has public meaning. Welker continues to describe the important balance needed between the public and the eschatological Christ. Taking his explanation of the offices of Christ as these are also transferred to believers, one can conclude that the Kingdom is also all about relations and the effect of these relations in the social sphere. The Kingdom thus also set the scene for specific relationships between God and his people and amongst believers. New relationships are also the centre of the doctrine of the covenant.
Intriguingly, Josephus describes the Temple as “the receptacle” for the sins of the Jews, which implies that Josephus believes that the Temple somehow absorbs the sins of the covenant people. This is not surprising, since there are unambiguous biblical passages that explicitly state that serious sins defiled the sanctuary (e.g., Lev 20:2–3). With this understanding, Josephus insists that the uncleanness of the Temple was so repulsive to God that he might have abandoned the sanctuary defiled by the sins of his compatriots: ‘The same wonderful sign you had also experience of formerly, when the forementioned king of Babylon made war against us, and when he took the city and burnt the temple; while yet I believe that the Jews of that age were not so impious as you are. Wherefore I cannot but suppose that God is fled out of his sanctuary, and stands on the side of those against whom you fight’ (J.W. 5.411 412; cf. Ant. 20.165–166). Hence, there are good grounds for assuming that not a few first century Jews understood the primary purpose of the blood sacrifices in the Yom Kippur rite as the cleansing of the sanctuary. 274 This point is corroborated by the observation of the actions of the high priest. By
Occupying an important military position and given access to the Solemn League and Covenant from 1644, refugee ministers gained important connections with prominent landowners who held powers of patronage. Despite the Kirk's attempts to reduce the power of lay patrons, access to a key stakeholder in a parish continued to hold significance for those wanting a permanent position in the Kirk before 1649. 106 The case of Patrick Glass, a minister who found his way to the north-east of Scotland in 1643 and had secured a position as preacher to an army garrison in Strathbogie by 1647, helps illuminate the transformation from unproven refugee to acceptable parish minister in the aftermath of the Solemn League and Covenant. 107 In the months that followed, the Hays of Rannes attempted to secure Glass a position within the regular ministry as a helper to the minister of Rathven. The Commission of the Kirk was eager for Glass to be rewarded for his proven loyalty to the Covenant, but the ministers of Fordyce Presbytery continued to hold doubts over the manner in which Glass had obtained presentation and, at one stage, revealed their opinion that Glass was a 'man thought not fitte for that place'. 108 Glass's need for a patron had divided the parish, though: the Hays of Rannes had connections with the deposed Bishop of Moray and some in the Presbytery accused Glass's backers of being 'disaffected'. 109 Glass's stock was, however, clearly on the rise as he gave a successful sermon before the Synod of Moray in April 1648 and his connections eventually bore fruit a year later when he was appointed minister of Edinkillie in nearby Forres Presbytery in June 1649. 110 Glass had proven his loyalty by taking up a position with the military, and despite some lingering doubts, had successfully obtained a permanent living in the Kirk of Scotland.
Forbes J cites this statement as authority for the proposition that there is no doctrine that inherent defects do not fall within the covenant to repair. Even if the case concerns an inherent defect, the question remains whether the work required involves giving the landlord something different in kind from what was demised (that is, whether the work is renewal or repair), and that question is a matter of degree in each case. But Lysnkey J may have erred by taking this view on the authority of Anstruther-Gough-Calthorpe v McOscar, 65 because that case did not concern an inherent defect at all; it concerned the standard of repair required under a repair covenant. The issue in that case was whether the tenants were liable to execute such repairs (taking account of the age, character, and locality of the premises) as would make the premises reasonably fit to satisfy the requirements of reasonably minded tenants of the class that would then be likely to occupy them, or whether, on the contrary, the tenants were liable for the costs of all acts necessary well and sufficiently to repair the premises so as to put them in that state of repair which they would be in were they managed by a reasonably minded owner. It was found that the latter was the requisite standard. 66 No issue concerning inherent defects was raised, or discussed, in the case. It is instructive to note that Anstruther’s case is the only case cited by Lynskey J to support his judgement. Given that he relies exclusively on the one case, and that the case relied on is off point, Southeby’s authority for the issues determined in Ravenseft must be considered questionable. It is noteworthy that Forbes J himself might be seen to acknowledge a difficulty with the judgement, when he comments that Lynskey J’s judgement: ‘is clearly to reject, or overlook, any
I n 2017 a regional partnership, consisting of Sheffield City Council, Rotherham, Doncaster and Barnsley Metropolitan Borough Councils, Sheffield Hallam University and York St John University, successfully bid for an Armed Forces Covenant Fund grant designed to strengthen the local government delivery of the Covenant. The two yearlong South Yorkshire Armed Forces Covenant project activities were designed to:
The South Yorkshire Armed Forces Covenant model is a regional community capacity building approach to strengthening the delivery of Covenant pledges. This model involved consultation with members of the community and key stakeholders in the region, a community survey-based research element, the delivery of military awareness training to frontline staff and the facilitation of Covenant Action planning activities. This report details the project activities conducted and their evaluation against project impact objectives. The graphic below illustrates the South Yorkshire model for strengthened local government delivery of the Covenant as a lasting and replicable legacy that will continue to have impact post project funding timescales.
Because Esau was the elder, he was the heir to Isaac and the covenant; however Jacob in his craftiness bargained with Esau for the birthright in exchange for sustenance (Gen. 25:19-34). In another cunning act Jacob was able to fool his father into blessing him as his heir. Jacob disguised himself as Esau to dupe his father, who knew Esau was the first born. Isaac was elderly and Jacob was deceptive and covered himself in animal skins to simulate the hair that Esau had on his arms. Isaac was deceived and granted a blessing on Jacob, “Let peoples serve you, and nations pay you homage; be master of you brothers, and may your mother’s sons bow down to you. Cursed be those who curse you and blessed be those who bless you” (Gen. 27:29-30).
When we turned our attention to the old covenant scriptures, we discovered that the Hebrew Bible contained four ‘hopes’ for that eschatological age: universal prophethood, a pouring out of Yahweh’s Spirit, a new Spirit within Yahweh’s people, and a new covenant. Each is expanded on in the New Testament, or demonstrated to be fulfilled. These hopes suggest that the presence of prophecy in the eschatological age was a consequence of something bigger —a sign of God’s self-revelation, a mark that God’s Spirit has been poured out, an indicator that the new covenant is upon God’s people. The final step was to examine the experiences of the earliest Christians, and we found that the themes prophesied about in the old covenant scriptures became reality in the lives of those men and women. These experiences not only demonstrated the presence of the eschatological age, but also accelerated the disciples understanding of what that meant in practice, particularly with regard to the inclusion of Gentiles into the covenant. This vital background information is necessary to understand New Testament pneumatology, and this chapter goes a long way in ensuring we are able to fulfil part of the third aim of the study, to develop a New Testament theology or theologies of prophecy which is informed by and consistent with the writers’ historical and theological context.
Such typologies have declined in popularity over the last thirty years, not least because, as we have seen, the complex lived reality of religious life makes it hard to find examples of the “pure” forms to which such phenomenologies give normative status. Nevertheless, they can still serve to focus significant questions. Not least, they can help sharpen the question as to what the most appropriate form of imagining and symbolizing the truth of a religion is, in which a historical covenant is a defining feature and therefore also the ideas of promise and futurity implied by the idea of covenant. Perhaps, the most concise statement of this future orientation of the promise is found in the revelation to Moses at the Burning Bush and God’s self-naming as “I will be who I will be” (Exodus 3.14). The promise that lies at the basis of the covenant with Israel is a promise reaching out into time that is not yet.
This paper seeks to examine the effects of bureaucratic corruption on human rights by constructing competing economic models that illustrate the processes by which the deleterious effects of corruption are felt by individuals and collectivities. This effort, while sympathetic to previous efforts and conclusions, acquires its novelty by looking at the same problem from a human rights perspective, and adopts a fresh approach in its inquiry into the mechanisms by which corruption affects guaranteed rights. Using the principal provisions of the United Nations’ International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, my thesis postulates that when States fail to contain and minimize the incidence of bureaucratic corruption, they necessarily breach their duties, and the obligations assumed as signatories to this convention. To test the viability of this thesis, economic models of corruption will be employed to demonstrate possible economic outcomes of different degrees of bureaucratic corruption, and the attendant impact on development and human rights.
Regardless of which interpretation one chooses to follow, one fact is inescapable: there are at least some times and places where the Church must appoint wise judges who can handle internal legal disputes between Christians. The question of what standard these ecclesiastical judges are to employ in making their judgments demands serious consideration. This author submits that it is reasonable to presume that the general principles of the Law that Jesus, as the Second Person of the Trinity, delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai—the principles of the same Law that Jesus reaffirmed when He came in the flesh to inaugurate the fullness of the new covenant— are the principles constituting the standard that the body of Jesus should apply in rendering judgments among its members. Jesus’ judgments are to be based on Jesus’ Law, the Law that He came to establish and confirm, not to abolish and destroy. 164
history as containing types of later antitypes, leading up to the final ful filment in the New Testament. He points out that this view is found inside the Old Testament itself, when earlier events, e.g. the deliverance from Egypt, are considered prefigurations of coming events (cf. Hos. 2 ,!6 ; Is. 1 !,15 — etc.). And the expectation that the ancient events will come true in history in later days is not only a longing back to the Golden Age. But the prophets consider the coming events, prefigured in earlier history, far greater than the past, which is only the shadow of the coming reality. As example of this BuH L takes even the word, attributed to Jeremiah, the theme of our work (Jer. 31,31 ff). The Covenant foun ded by Moses is a prefiguration of the coming Covenant, but the latter, in greater perfection, brings what the former only gave in an imperfect expression (31,33). And this is the contents of Israel's hope throughout its history. Any moment in history therefore could be conceived as the beginning of the last fulfilment, and so the prophets could always com bine their words concerning the near future with their absolute promises of the completion of the word of the Lord. From the varying circum stances of the different ages they again and again received impulses for a richer and deeper conception of the age of fulfilment, but the core was always the same, and the expectations, that salvation was immediately imminent, were always, in all ages, equally living. So the contradiction between the human, historical element in prophecy, and the divine part of it, is dissolved. T h e proclamation of the immediate imminence of sal vation is disproved by history and accordingly it cannot be directly de rived from divine revalation. The divine plan was always far greater, than the prophets perceived, and many forms which they considered indispensable, had to be broken in order to let the new contents appear in full purity. But the expectation of the near fulfilment of the hopes nevertheless was an indirect fruit of Revelation, viz. of the striving, in herent in the Old Covenant itself, for a realization of the Ideal, given in it.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights constitute a trinity which is often called the magna carta of humanity". The United Nations shows concern for human rights and the list of these rights which every human being has a right to enjoy includes: The right to life; Abolition of slavery and suppression of the slave trade; Abolition of forced or compulsory labour; Freedom from torture; Freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention or exile; Equality in the administration of justice; The right of everyone to leave any country, including his own and to return to his country; The right to a nationality; Freedom for thought, conscience and religion; Freedom of opinion and expression; Freedom of association; The right of everyone to take part in the government of his country; The realisation of economic, social and cultural rights; The right to work; The right to education; The right to health; Freedom from hunger; The right to participate in cultural life; The right to a clean environment; The right to adequate shelter and services. As women are the largest minority in the world and suffer suppression of personality, therefore, the United Nations has had to deal with the problem of justice to womenhood seriously, to remedy their many maladies. Some of the recipes are: United Nations instruments embodying the principle of equality of men and women; measures taken by United Nations bodies to implement the principle of equality of men and women; United Nations instruments dealing with problems that affect women adversely; measures taken by United Nations bodies to deal with problems that affect women adversely; Integration of women in development; Effective mobilisation of women in development. 1
However, the legal situation of women with disabilities, with regards to equality and non-discrimination, could be safeguarded if the CRPD is taken into consideration. On the one hand, the definition of discrimination is incomplete in the framework of the international legal system in which Qatar participates (since it is the Human Rights Committee, as the competent body designated by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, that is in charge of analyzing this concept in depth 11 , and Qatar has neither signed nor ratified this Covenant); but on the other hand, in addition to the definition established in the CEDAW and the CERD, Qatar, as State Party to the CRPD can also refer to the definition provided in Article 2 of the CRPD on discrimination on the basis of disability. This definition is wider than just being based upon the condition of the person. The definition of discrimination established in the CRPD raises the issue of the social construction of disability. Disability is not defined as the being the result of any “impairments” (the word used by the CRPD to refer to the individual condition of a person regardless of his/her social context), but it could potentially affect persons without “impairments” who are discriminated against for their relationship with a person with disabilities 12 or because they themselves appear to have a disability. This broader sense of the grounds for discrimination is relevant, differing from the other Conventions mentioned above. Both the CERD and the CEDAW define discrimination
inequalities and exclusion from education opportunities has left millions of vulnerable people across the globe in a disadvantaged position. Education, however, throughout human history has been a means and an end for human growth. The ity has come to realize the importance of Human Rights Education in contributing to the recognition of Human Rights and consequently international stability of the world. For this reason Human Rights Education has been incorporated in a number of international human rights instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Right (HR), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), The International Covenant on Civil, e Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Covenant on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This study service teachers at Bahrain Teachers College (BTC) in promoting y uses document analysis research methodology through analyzing service teachers) written reflections on promoting HR in classrooms. The result of the service teachers exhibited clear understanding of the importance of human rights, but also showed commitment to promote them in their classrooms. The study recommended a number of steps that need to be taken to promote Human Rights Education in