South Africa remains a divided community on many levels: socially, racially and socioeconomically. This is no more evident than in the recent protests – most notably waged on university campuses and on the streets in the past year. This, the article argues, is closely related to the need to reclaim the notion of power by those who feel they remain relegated to the social and economic peripheries after over 20 years of democracy. While ‘theology and development’ praxis has been most closely associated in a post-apartheid era with welfare and charity approaches or pragmatic interaction with state and civil society (both of which have been critiqued), what has not been sufficiently addressed is the notion of power which once dominated ecclesiastical discourses. This is the proverbial ‘elephant in the room’, which the article argues must once again be revisited and re-engaged – both within scholarly reflection and within church practice – in order to address these divides.
Like Chinese boxes nesting inside each other, the classification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is subdivided into smaller and smaller subtypes on the basis of histological and molecular attributes. The latter characterizes NSCLC by its molecular alterations and the identification of inhibitors that target these cancer-specific “driver” mutations. Despite the initial promise of precision-guided therapies to inhibit a finer and finer array of molecular subcategories, despite even the curative potential of immunotherapeutic checkpoint blockade, in particular, casualties still abound and true clinical success stories are few and far between; the ever-present, if sometimes unmentioned, “elephant in the room”, is the acquisition of resistance, which, sooner or later, rears its ugly head to undermine treatment success and shorten survival. Emerging data suggests that epigenetic therapies are able to reprogram the aberrant tumor-associated epigenome and ‘tame the beast of resistance’, thereby prolonging survival. This article reviews the role of epigenetic dysregulation in NSCLC, explores PFS2 as a possible surrogate endpoint, briefly mentions possible biomarkers and highlights combinatorial treatment epigenetic strategies to “prime” tumors and reverse resistance.
Results: Extraction of DNA from samples on different dates, by different people and even using varied sample weights results in little significant difference in downstream sequencing data. A key assumption in many studies is the stability of samples stored long term at − 80 °C prior to extraction. After 2 years, we see relatively few changes: increased abundances of lactobacilli and bacilli and a reduction in the overall OTU count. Where samples cannot be frozen, we find that storing samples at room temperature does lead to significant changes in the microbial community after 2 days. Mailing of samples during this time period (a common form of sample collection from outpatients for example) does not lead to any additional variation.
(game farm, protected area or private or communal land) would not lose ownership of, or responsibility for, his or her escaped elephant. The corollary of this is that game moving onto a property that is not sufficiently enclosed would not ordinarily become the property of the owner of the land – unless this owner takes physical possession of the animals by way of shooting, capture or enclosing them by way of an adequate fence in accordance with the provisions of the Game Theft Act. It would also be counter to natural law for any person to take possession and claim ownership of an animal when it is common knowledge that the animal had recently escaped and was legally possessed by its owner. For instance, should a landowner be the sole source of elephant, and if it would be unlikely that an escaped elephant could have originated from elsewhere, the escaped elephant would be considered property of and hence would remain in the ownership of the landowner. Under such circumstances, the owner of the escaped elephant would need to be given a reasonable opportunity to recover it, as was afforded to SanParks with the escape of ‘Sylvester’ the lion from Karoo National Park (news24 2016). While this circumstance holds for recently escaped animals, the retention of ownership may not hold where it may be argued that uncommon or uniquely held wildlife have increased in numbers, causing them to reassume their wild (ferae naturae) or non-captive status such that they can move or escape into neighbouring properties (Muir 2016). In such circumstance, these animals would be considered res nullius and hence predisposed to being captured and owned by another person (Magudu Game Company v Mathenjwa 2008).
Whilst the artwork shows each elephant to be a slightly different shade of grey, Elmer is one-of-a-kind. He is not presented as part of another group. There is the group, which we may read as analogous to a class or a community, and Elmer. As such this is not analogous to multiculturalism or to the lone child of colour in a classroom who will most likely have a family. When read as an analogy of diversity, Elmer’s uniqueness makes it difficult for us to consider the relative power of different groups in society. There is no apparent power dynamic between Elmer and the other elephants, and the other elephants appear unconcerned with his colour difference. Depicted as without family, the story appears to exist independently of history, a feature shared with Whiteness discourse. There is no suggestion that elephants like Elmer have ever existed before and thus no suggestion that they have experienced differential treatment by the other elephants. Without this history, Elmer shows a colour difference without any of the common connotations that exist in real-life.
Vast differences in race, gender, ethnicity and many other variables increasingly characterize the face of the university; this diversity is generally seen as both necessary —due simply to demographics—and desirable—due to its potential for enhancing intellectual, social and per- sonal development of students . Unfortunately, neither the creation of a diverse student body nor education about diversity is simple. In response to the challenge, a social work program on a rapidly diversifying campus developed a scholarship program—The Social Work Prize: Celebrating Diversity to help undergraduates re- inforce classroom learning and promote self reflection about diversity and cultural competence. The contest charged students to articulate some “celebration” of di- versity in their own lives, and in return they could win a cash prize. Given the cash prize, organizers were aston- ished to find that few students applied for the prize. Students did not wish to participate, even when a class- room assignment corresponded exactly to the scholar- ship’s specifications. Despite student input in tweaking the prize and refining its marketing to students over a five year period, each year fewer than ten of the 150-200 undergraduate students applied. Rate of participation began to be seen as a possible bellwether of students’ comfort with the diversification of the campus and the curriculum. Consequently, it is the purpose of this paper to begin to identify the factors related to student partici-
Abstract: Background: To grasp the terrible nature and enormity of nuclear weapons is a painful exercise of the imagination. Recent political developments between different nuclear countries are quite alarming. A nuclear war would be an absolute disrespect and cruelty toward humanity and nature. Religion is simply made a scapegoat in times of wars. The psychopathology of war is “the elephant in the room.” Aim: To evaluate the different psychological, psychopathological views and para-psychodynamics of global conflicts as well as some of the future directions in peace research. Method: A selective survey of the literature, including previous reviews, to collect different understandings to help inspire and form a framework for future peace research. Results: The medical profession has a major burden in the form of physical and emotional rehabilitation after war; therefore, prevention is better than cure and rehabilitation. Psychological, political, religious, and economic factors may be at the root of war. Even though the psychopathology of war is being studied, the para-psychodynamics of global conflicts are poorly understood. Peace research without identifying the causative factors would be like treating an infection without recognizing the infecting agent. Marian apparitions offer some insight into this important aspect of peace research. In each credible, worldwide religion, there is a strong longing for peace and harmony, and mental health workers should get enlightenment from the wisdom of world religions. Both religious leaders and mental health professionals must take the helm in peace-making. The new insights gained through research into the psychopathology of global conflicts can inspire the international mental health professionals to support the existing peace campaigns to create a world without war, crimes and poverty.