The Fall of the Roman Empire

Top PDF The Fall of the Roman Empire:

Classical Food and Literature from Archaic Greece to the Early Roman Empire

Classical Food and Literature from Archaic Greece to the Early Roman Empire

of Africa after a long period of wandering. Demonstrating his leadership, Aeneas slays seven stags to feed his men as they camp and recover from hardships. They discover they are near the city of Carthage and make contact with the citizens whose Queen, Dido sends them “20 bulls 100 pigs and 100 lambs and their mothers” (Lewis, transl. Aeneid Book I, 15) as an act of hospitality. Dido then hosts a banquet for the Trojans, however, while much is made of the sumptuousness of their surroundings, Virgil is not specific about what they ate and how it was cooked. After this feast, Aeneas tells Dido and the court of the tragic fall of Troy, through the Greek’s device of the wooden horse (Book 2) and of the subsequent adventures of the Trojans. This section draws directly from The Odyssey and the corresponding guest- friendship hospitality and after-banquet accounts of Odysseus’s journeys. Despite the
Show more

29 Read more

Review Article: Ancient Galilee and the realities of the Roman Empire

Review Article: Ancient Galilee and the realities of the Roman Empire

This review article summarises and delivers comment on Religion, ethnicity and identity in Ancient Galilee: A region in transition, edited by Jürgen Zangenberg, Harold W. Attridge and Dale B. Martin and published by Mohr Siebeck in 2007. The majority of the articles in this volume testify of a ‘Jewish’ or rather Judean Galilee in the 1st century. It was a region that had cultural, economic, social, political and religious contact with surrounding areas and was thoroughly integrated into the realities of the Roman Empire. Whilst interregional contact and trade occurred freely, resistance and conflict occurred due to the proximity of ‘the Other’ that threatened the cultural and religio-political sensitivities of the Galileans. The Galileans also had strong attachments to aspects of their Judean identity, as evidenced by their enhanced musical culture, conservative epigraphic habit, participation in the revolt and the following of cultural practices also found in Judea. Based on this collection of articles, there are a few areas that need further investigation: how and when did the region fall under Hasmonean control and what was the exact nature of the local population at that time? At the time of Antipas, were Galilean peasants generally experiencing harsh economic conditions, or did his rule allow for economic participation to flourish? The exact context of Jesus’ ministry, therefore, is still a matter to be decided and invites further investigation.
Show more

12 Read more

Making Early Medieval Societies: Conflict and Belonging in the Latin West, 300 1200

Making Early Medieval Societies: Conflict and Belonging in the Latin West, 300 1200

White’s chapter acts as a fitting conclusion to the volume, for the papers collected here all to some degree employ Gluckman’s logic to challenge preconceived, tenacious narratives of the early Middle Ages. This lends the book an admirable coherence: the chapters hang together remarkably well and each ties clearly and explicitly into the volume’s key themes. The scholarship is up-to-date, and the papers have not suffered from the evident lag between their original airing in 2005 and final publication here. Cooper and Leyser are to be congratulated for marshalling a set of high-quality essays which collectively offer a powerful framework for rethinking how the social order was continuously reinforced in times of crisis and weak or dysfunctional states. In this aim, the book is an undoubted success. Another stated objective is to explore the notion of a ‘medieval privatization of power’ across the period’s two classic ruptures – the fall of Rome and the demise of the Carolingians. There is perhaps more discussion of the former with regard to this point (a reflection of recent trends in late antique scholarship), but the rich potential of this kind of comparative analysis emerges clearly when the book is contemplated as a whole. What contributors here uncover about the formation of new social bonds in the wake of the end of the Roman Empire will be of considerable interest to historians examining the transition from Carolingian to post-Carolingian Europe.(4) Going the other way, several chapters indicate that scholars may need to think much more carefully about the Carolingian reception of ancient and late antique texts: as Leyser cautions, Gregory the Great’s Register is ‘a product not of sixth- century papal administration, but of Carolingian and post-Carolingian memory and myth-making’ (p. 182). All of this is to say that the book’s broad chronological horizon is most welcome and sure to open up further avenues of research and debate. This lustrous collection promises to be of immense value to specialists and students of early medieval social and cultural history, as well as to those looking for fresh perspective on the interaction between history and anthropology.
Show more

5 Read more

Effects of land use and anthropogenic aerosol emissions in the Roman Empire

Effects of land use and anthropogenic aerosol emissions in the Roman Empire

For phryganic rangelands in Greece, it is recommended to set fire every 3 to 4 years, which allows for good herbage production and at the same time a suppression of undesirable dwarf shrub (Papanastasis, 1980). In South Africa, Oluwole et al. (2008) found that the recovery period should be 3 years for optimum productivity in the absence of grazing. In line with this, the Burning Guidelines of South Africa do not rec- ommend burning pasture every year (which some farmers do) but every 2–5 years in mesic and coastal grasslands and only when it is needed in dry Highveld grasslands (SANBI, 2014). Smith et al. (2013) found that grass richness, evenness, and diversity were high for sites with high rainfall when frequent burning was applied in the dry season (1- to 3-year return intervals), whereas Little et al. (2015) conclude that annual burning combined with intensive grazing has a detrimental effect on plant species diversity and structure. In Australia, single fires caused a short-term reduction of yield and cover of pastures in the following year, but fast recovery occurred for most burning regimes. However, perennial grasses were reduced at the expense of annual grasses, which is why burn- ing every 5–6 and 4–6 years for arid short grass and ribbon bluegrass, respectively, is recommended (Dyer, 2011). This is in agreement with the findings of Norman (1963, 1969) for native pasture on Tippera clay loam in the Katherine re- gion. For North America, the recommended fire-return inter- val of prescribed patch burning is 3 years in areas with rain- fall above ≈ 760 mm yr −1 and 4 years in drier regions (Weir et al., 2013).
Show more

27 Read more

The Franks Casket speaks back: The bones of the past, the becoming of England

The Franks Casket speaks back: The bones of the past, the becoming of England

Germanic or Roman, all the stories carved in the casket ’ s panels depict exile, violence, loss and the transformation of peoples from one state to another. The casket gathers them together and doubles them, creating a third space. The twins Romulus and Remus and the brothers Weland and Egil are exiles caught up in the fall of one order and the rise of another, as were Hengest and Horsa, the two Jutish brothers said to have led the Anglo-Saxons own migration, and seemingly referenced in the Hos panel. The parallels between these stories are not exact. The stories of long ago and distant homelands are doubled and retold in the new homeland. The casket does not provide narrative resolution, teleological histories, or closed readings. Hengest and Horsa were killed in battle against the Britons who inhabited the island before them. Or, putting it another way, they were silenced by the Britons in their attempt to silence the Britons themselves, an event that may just perhaps be signified by the muzzled and buried figures on the Hos panel. 67 Certainly this panel speaks loudest about silencing, sorrow and death.
Show more

45 Read more

Imperial legitimacy in the Roman Empire of the third century : AD 193 337

Imperial legitimacy in the Roman Empire of the third century : AD 193 337

As time passed the problems which confronted the empire on the frontiers pulled the emperors away from Rome and they rarely returned. For example, during Septimius' long rule he spent a great deal of time in Rome dealing with affairs of state there, whereas Diocletian rarely set foot in the city in spite of ruling for even longer. He was not, however, the first to base himself elsewhere. Neither Macrinus nor Maximinus had entered Rome during their reign. While neither were successful in maintaining their position, they did survive for a couple of years which showed that an emperor could rule away from Rome provided they ruled well. Unfortunately, neither of these men did so, with the severity of Maximinus' administration causing an uprising in Africa (Herodian 7.4.2). The most significant blow for Rome's status as the centre of the empire was Diocletian's tetrarchy. 127 The four emperors all chose to establish themselves in
Show more

198 Read more

Boosey & Hawkes: The rise and fall of a wind instrument manufacturing empire

Boosey & Hawkes: The rise and fall of a wind instrument manufacturing empire

Bass, and also to every Bass of the old fashioned models now made in England.24 The rivalry was fierce with Hawkes claiming that their new upright ‘Emperor’ basses had won ‘golden opinio[r]

155 Read more

Boosey & Hawkes: The rise and fall of a wind instrument manufacturing empire

Boosey & Hawkes: The rise and fall of a wind instrument manufacturing empire

‘Jack Raine Special Trumpet’ and mouthpieces, which were offered in their circa 1935 catalogue. Greater demands were being placed on jazz and dance band trumpeters to play in the altissimo register through the 1930s into the 1940s, and the Raine model, ‘Designed by a Player – for a Player!’, was promoted as having ‘higher notes, increased range, speedier action and increased performance [...] Notes from top C to G above are now within the reach of the modern player.’ Raine, who was described in the catalogue as playing ‘with success an all-British made Trumpet,’ expressed his ‘admiration for the excellent interpretation of my ideas which you have successfully incorporated in this new “all in one” model’ and acknowledged the trumpet as ‘the best ever in my long and varied experience.’ 354 There is evidence that during 1928 and 1929 B&Co. had customised a few instruments for Raine, although in a circa 1931 trumpet catalogue he featured alongside other players endorsing what had been the Hawkes ‘Clippertone’. 355 However, the ‘Jack Raine’ model never caught on. From the end of 1936 the ‘Regent’, listed with a new model number, was the most frequently recorded trumpet; it also appears to have been the same as a Besson model, Boosey’s A18B, and Hawkes’ ‘Empire’.
Show more

268 Read more

Ultimate plurality: international law and the possibility of resistance

Ultimate plurality: international law and the possibility of resistance

The outcome can be encapsulated in a continuity with the mediaeval, in the mediaeval conception of empire or Empire, a conception that invested the sovereign with imperial authority. 63 With modernity, that authority is absorbed into a heightened territoriality which, as we also saw earlier, typifies the state, this being a “territorial order” which “became representative of a new order in international law.” 64 This incorporation of the illimitably imperial into the territorially delimited provides, by way of a return to Deleuze and Guattari, an instance of that transcendence generated “whenever immanence is interpreted as immanent to Something.” 65 This “sublimation of theology in the ‘world’,” as Kathleen Davis most aptly has it, is effected by “a political-theological tear” typified by the rupture between the mediaeval and the modern, a rupture “that paradoxically occupies a transcendent position by virtue of banishing transcendence.” 66 Even as that rupture serves to found a diversity of sites of power, these still operate as an imperium attuned to uniform effect. The dictates of ‘development,’ for example, are not attuned to diversity. The puzzle then becomes how that uniform effect is affirmed given the diffusion and elusion of its constituent powers.
Show more

23 Read more

Teaching history to ten-year-olds in England and Romania

Teaching history to ten-year-olds in England and Romania

However, the Romanian lesson on the end of the Roman Empire and the English lesson on Viking settlements combined whole class questioning with small group discussion.. In[r]

8 Read more

Studies in fourth and fifth century Latin literature with particular reference to Ausonius

Studies in fourth and fifth century Latin literature with particular reference to Ausonius

and in that of Rutilius Namatianus and Sidonius Apollinaris, the true spirit of the Roman Empire was at least as alive in Gaul as in Italy at this period... The poem De feriis Romanis.[r]

233 Read more

Local defence of Rome's north east frontier   third to seventh centuries AD

Local defence of Rome's north east frontier third to seventh centuries AD

operations in the area and allow ed Rom an troops, w hich w ould facilitate easy diplom atic m ilitary pressure to be applied to Ciscaucasian kingdom s, to be deployed in - positions along the Euphrates. C ontem porary w ith construction aside the E uphrates, are a num ber of fortified harbours betw een Trapezus and D ioscurias, set at intervals of one day's cruise.51 W ith C appadocia and the Black Sea routes un d er direct supervision, law lessness was curbed and local econom ies improved.52 Furtherm ore, public construction w as u n d ertak en in the heart of the C iscaucasian kingdoms.53 A fort at Gorneae near the A rm enian capital of A rtaxata was built in A.D. 51, w ith a re-installation in A.D. 76, and another garrison was in stalled a t H arm ozica. G orneae com m anded th e A raxes valley, H arm ozica guarded the D arial pass and the upper Cyrus. O ther building projects are also indicated by both archaeological and textual evidence.54 Some scholars have view ed north-eastern construction as a response to the A rm enian w ars under N ero, or a desire for a secure frontier.55 Roman efforts w ere expansionist, but it is still debatable w hether they w ere sim ply opportunistic or part of a "grand strategy".55 The scale of Flavian and later developm ent, both civic and m ilitary, is too w idespread to support a thesis w hich offers personal greed as th e p rim ary m over b eh in d im perial policies.57 In the East, city foundation appears to be lim ited, and is taken by som e as indicative of the m eanness of im perial ad m in istrato rs, adm inistrators w ho stuck to m ilitary investm ent and shirked the burden of u rb an development.55 H ow ever, this interpretation view s the East in isolation from the rest of the em pire. W hereas city developm ent in w estern provinces w as m assive, the East required redistribution of w ealth a n d p e rip h e ra l d ev elo p m en t.5 9 The g reat cities of the eastern
Show more

187 Read more

The definition and interpretation of late Roman burial sites in the Western Empire

The definition and interpretation of late Roman burial sites in the Western Empire

The majority of graves contain single forms of grave goods, with pottery, personal articles and equipment dominating the furnishing. These also dominate graves containing combinations of[r]

307 Read more

Money and Overseas Investments in the Relative Fall of British Empire

Money and Overseas Investments in the Relative Fall of British Empire

We will provide a new proof of long run British fall estimating the trend of GDP growth rate. We will use here the compromise estimate of GDP by Feinstein 22 (1972) and we will apply to it the Hodrick-Prescott Filter(HP) 23 . Our results show a mild downward trend of British GDP growth rate over 1855-1913; only after 1899 it slows down dramatically. The growth of the structural component in 1899-1913 is lower than 1855-1899 of hardly half point percent per annum. In a recent work Solomou and Ristuccia 24 (2002) got similar findings. We will report here below a comparison between our estimates obtained through HP filter and the Solomou and Ristuccia ones applying Kalman Filter to the same series.
Show more

25 Read more

Chapter 4 Absolute Monarchy.pdf

Chapter 4 Absolute Monarchy.pdf

strong Catholic state and Prussia emerged as a Protestant power; both located in the Holy Roman Empire... Prussia and Austria[r]

43 Read more

Yolanda of Flanders: Latin Woman Potentate of the Roman Empire

Yolanda of Flanders: Latin Woman Potentate of the Roman Empire

The Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476 when Odoacer, a powerful Germanic king, deposed Emperor Romulus Augustulus at Rome. The Eastern Roman Empire continued to thrive, although in time it underwent significant cultural changes. The culture which emerged included the Greek language which became the official language on all government documents by the seventh cen- tury, the emergence of the Eastern Orthodox Church, combined with Asian fea- tures and characteristics. However, the Eastern Empire preserved many customs and traditions of the Western Empire and continued to consider themselves as Romans (Goffart, 1980). Meanwhile Western Europe became an unstable mosaic of Germanic kingdoms. In order to reestablish order, stability and the rule of law in the West, in 800 Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, king of the Franks as Emperor of the Romans. This paved the way for the creation of the Holy Roman Empire in 962 with a German King, Otto I as its first emperor. The empire en- compassed a varying complex of lands in Western and Central Europe. The Eastern Roman Empire comprised Asia Minor and south Balkan Peninsula (King, 1969).
Show more

8 Read more

Language Contact and Identity in Roman Britain

Language Contact and Identity in Roman Britain

Discussions regarding language in the Roman provinces often involve literacy, precisely because the best source of primary evidence of provincial language is the epigraphic record which of course required literate individuals in order to be produced. In addition, the Roman Empire introduced literacy for the first time to many of its subjects, so the spread of literacy is one way in which the effects of Roman imperialism can be examined. Harris’ influential work on the topic of ancient literacy is now considered overly pessimistic in regards to literacy rates, which he estimated could not have exceed 10% of the population in the western provinces of the Roman Empire. 57 Alan Bowman reassess the suitability of Harris’ objective which was to realize the extent of literacy in the Greco-Roman world in terms of sheer numbers. 58 Bowman emphasizes that although literacy in the ancient world can not be described as ‘mass literacy’, the sort where most people can read and write, there is an impression of ‘widespread literacy’, which refers to the presence of writing in most regions and social contexts. Harris proposed that the spread of literacy in the Roman Empire was the result of exposure to the written word, but that the rural poor who comprised the majority of the empire’s population had little exposure. 59 Harris believed that the majority of documents that were not produced by the educated elite were produced by a class of literate craftsmen who were literate as a result of their professional experience, while other social groups such as women and peasants were mainly illiterate. 60 To Harris the Latinization of the western provinces was both a result and an instrument of their Romanization, and he thought that this led to the spread of literacy from the Romanized elite down the social spectrum to a limited degree. 61
Show more

109 Read more

Coussens_unc_0153M_14647.pdf

Coussens_unc_0153M_14647.pdf

This thesis began with a problem. During the Herodian period, shortly after Rome gained political control over Palestine, the Jewish inhabitants of the region developed new material habits. Some abandoned previous consumption habits, although the archaeological evidence showed the goods remained economically and physically available; many adopted new local traditions such as the use of chalk vessels; and some embraced new Greco-Roman practice and/or increasingly invested in older Hellenistic forms. The underlying question of the field concerns how to understand these changes. As observed in Chapter Two, the field has been divided over these changes, their causes, and their meanings. Many of the debates can be attributed to the difficulty of the subject. The processes of change are complex, involving intersections of economy, power, socio-cultural relations, and religion. Others can be attributed to problematic ideas of what culture change entails. This thesis has proposed another method of understanding the change going on Herodian Palestine, and while it should not be considered a final solution to the problem, it may suggest a way forward.
Show more

138 Read more

Rome and its Frontier in the North: the Role of the Periphery

Rome and its Frontier in the North: the Role of the Periphery

In accordance with the themes of the conference, this will be done from two points of view: the different integration into the Roman empire of native societies in areas which became part[r]

16 Read more

Reflections on the Global Water Crisis in Dialogue with Revelation 17: harlot, hegemony and H2O

Reflections on the Global Water Crisis in Dialogue with Revelation 17: harlot, hegemony and H2O

The dried-up river finds its literary reversal and apocalyptic transformation in God’s vision of a renewed Earth—New Jerusalem—characterised as ‘a river of living water, sparkling like crystal, flowing from the throne of God and the Lamb, down the centre of the main street of the city’ (22:1–2a). This is a political image. Unlike the governance and economy of Babylon-Rome, with its insatiable rulers, fat merchants and frenetic markets of buying and selling, the New Jerusalem offers ‘a gift economy’ (Rossing: 152). The Roman waters of death that made people dependent upon a distribution system and the state that created it—rather than on nature and God—is replaced by an inexhaustible source of fresh water, fruit, and medicine (the tree’s ‘healing leaves’, Rev 22:2) made available without cost to all inhabitants of the city.
Show more

17 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...