The Free Trade Zone

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New Ideas of the Reform in the View of Globalization: Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and One Belt and One Road

New Ideas of the Reform in the View of Globalization: Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and One Belt and One Road

The Establishment of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone is not just the merger in geography of the bonded area, but also policy upgrade, in order to keep inclination to the new rules on the international market, then set an example for promoting it in the nation. Specifically, the first object of approving Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone is to transform government functions, reduce the micro intervention, change the investment system of in- vestment and financing, and transform investment approval into investment regulation. Market-oriented reform is not only rely on policy dividends of the economic plan, but also release dividends of system to market stem- ming from getting rid of a slowing economy. At the same time, micro main body in the non-public economy should be strengthened, so as to break through the existing interests and break the unfair vested interests, fun- damentally reform the single investment subject and the distortion situation of the investment and financing system, promote the marketization of land, labor, capital elements comprehensively basing on the core role of the reform of financial system, and so on [3]. In order to cope with the international new situation, countries and enterprises have to accept the higher criteria of free trade and free investment, including corporate social re- sponsibility, sustainable development of environmental and energy, protection of intellectual property rights, etc. As we all know, it will have the effect of “inside the territory while outside the customs”, by simplifying proce- dures and reducing the cost. For the most concerning problems of national treatmentstate-owned enterprise competitive neutrality before joining for TPP, in particular, the contents of the TPP negotiations should be brought into Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone: cancelling the limitation such as percentage of foreign equity in banking and insurance not exceed certain ratio, state-owned enterprises participating in the competition of the market by themselves. The industry not in the list of negative management can open from the establishment of enterprise to portfolio equity, and carry out foreign development and internal development to get the perfect combination of outside the customs and within the boundary
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Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and Trade of Steel Products: Influences and Countermeasures

Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and Trade of Steel Products: Influences and Countermeasures

Second, steel trading industry is the main bearer of trade of China's steel industry and logistics, in which the proportion of small and medium sized steel enterprises accounted for more than 90%, and those steel enterprises are in charged with intermediate circulation and final users. But small and medium sized steel enterprises has high asset-liability, low sales margin and gross margin, fast asset turnover, large capital demand, and own capital cannot meet the needs of its management, so they must take financial operations. However, currently, small and medium sized steel enterprises generally face the problem of financing about the system, financing services chain is imperfect and financing system is not perfect. “Framework Plan for the SFTZ” points out that the finance sector will be fully opened to private investors and foreign invested financial institutions. Foreign-invested and Sino-foreign equity joint venture banks will be allowed to incorporate in the SFTZ. Enterprises are encouraged to leverage on both domestic and international market resources to liberalize cross-border financing. Administration on foreign debt will be further reformed to facilitate cross-border financing. With the implementation of RMB capital account convertibility, interest rate liberalization, and the cross-border use of RMB, Shanghai pilot free trade zone will attract more financial institutes and corporations to join in it; will become a gathering place of foreign and domestic capital that can provide an effective way to solve the problem of financing.
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Simulating Hybrid Power Plants in Strategic Industrial Areas in Nigeria: Solar PV Diesel Hybrid for Kano Free Trade Zone

Simulating Hybrid Power Plants in Strategic Industrial Areas in Nigeria: Solar PV Diesel Hybrid for Kano Free Trade Zone

Abstract: The review the power situation of one of Kano Free Trade Zone, one of the Federal Government of Nigeria’s own Export Processing Zones and simulated a hybrid power plant for the Zone and nearby community. It is found that, the power requirements of the Zone are current provided for through an unreliable Grid and 1MW diesel generator, which is quite expensive and unsatisfactory for a manufacturing site. The paper gathered solar resources information of the site using Global Solar Atlas and use the HOMER Grid optimization feature to simulate the most appropriate capacity to provide the recorded load of the Zone. The simulation proposed four viable systems out of which two are considered and recommended for implementation at the Zone as they provide the opportunity for the Zone to provide itself with renewable power using Grid Tied Solar-PV/Diesel hybrid and even sell more power to the grid, nearby community and installations.
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Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and Its Effect on Economic Growth: A Counter Factual Approach

Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and Its Effect on Economic Growth: A Counter Factual Approach

Since 1990s, the trend for liberalization, which has swept the developing world in the process of globalization and economic opening, has accelerated the estab- lishment of free trade zones all over the world. Free trade zone can bring in economic effect and welfare effect by deregulation. However, the economic ben- efit is uncertain because of negative effects caused by trade distortion and im- proper supervisory measures. Hamada (1974) used the standard two-factor, two-commodity trade model to present a theoretical framework to analyze the economic implication of a duty-free zone, where duties are exempted in order to attract foreign investments [7]. Hamilton and Svensson (1983) analyzed the connection between foreign capital in host country and its free zone and sum- marized that with sector-specific capital, import of capital into the protected sector decreases welfare and vice versa. If capital import into the export sector of the domestic zone is infeasible, there may be a case for establishing a free zone to attract capitals exclusively there and with a suitable tax policy, capital import in- to the free zone will be beneficial [8]. Grubel (1983) in his book outlined the benefits and costs of regulation and proposed that “free economic zones can as both a substitute and complement to whatever deregulation or reform is achieved” [9]. He also indicated that the creation of free economic zones raises welfare through expansion of trade and specialization and affects the supply of work, technology and entrepreneurship. However, it also may reduce welfare through the locational diversion of trade and investment and the generation of negative externalities. Miyagiwa (1986) pointed that free trade zones are often established by government subsidies designed to promote non-traditional ex- ports. He presented a model of a free-trade zone which the condition is derived under which the establishment of a free-trade zone can increase welfare regard- less of the relative factor intensity of a zone-based industry and the relative fac- tor intensity of a free-trade zone plays a crucial role in determining the change in welfare following economic growth and foreign investment [10].
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Import processing zones, tools for regional integration? The case of the free trade zone of Manaus (Brazil)

Import processing zones, tools for regional integration? The case of the free trade zone of Manaus (Brazil)

Finally, as explained by Madani (1999) the locational choice of a Free Trade Zone is an essential factor of success. According to him, a lot of Free Trade Zones failed to accomplish their goals like the “Zone Franche d’Inga” in former Zaire or the Puerto Limon Zone on Costa Rica’s Atlantic/Caribbean coast because of a poor locational choice as it is the case for the Free Trade Zone of Manaus. It is therefore very interesting to determine whether in these particular conditions the ZFM succeeded or at least contributed to the improvement of the state of Amazonas economic linkages with the rest of Brazilian states. Yücer et al. (2014) provide preliminary insights on this matter. Questioning the existence of internal vertical specialization in the Brazilian production system, they show that the state of Amazonas is quite well connected to the rest of the country. Precisely, they show that this state presents the highest import content from other Brazilian states in its international exports, and also exports more indirectly than directly its value- added notably through other Brazilian states. As interesting as these results are, they unfortunately do not provide insights on the singular role of Manaus to explain this phenomenon, nor on the existence of a potential catalytic effect of Manaus on the Rest of Amazonas.
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A Comparative Analysis of Effective Free Trade Zone Policies in Ghana: A Model from Shanghai Free Trade Zone

A Comparative Analysis of Effective Free Trade Zone Policies in Ghana: A Model from Shanghai Free Trade Zone

Despite its enormous trade volumes, the national government is encouraged to test new methods to promote international trade and foreign investments due to the slowing domestic economy. The NPC on August 30, 2013, promulgated the “Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress sanctioning the State Council to Provisionally Adjust the Applicable Adminis- trative Approval Items Set in Laws in China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone”. The four aforementioned SEZs were stated in this legislation to be merged into one single FTZ and authority was given to the State Council to create adminis- trative guidelines to set up and regulate the SHFTZ for three years. Pursuant to this document, the SHFTZ was established on October 1, 2013 [29]. The most advanced Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone (SPFTZ) in Shanghai was reinvigo- rated by the government of China in September 2013 and is seen as another key step by China towards its ambition of returning Shanghai back into a principal global trading and financial hub [35]. One purpose of setting up the free trade zone is to use it as a policy testing ground and spread it consecutively to other parts of the country when those policies and practices have fully-fledged [35].
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Cross Border Investment and Financing  Reforms in Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone

Cross Border Investment and Financing Reforms in Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone

Firstly, summarizing the experience of free trade account. The pilot program of RMB capital account conver- tibility in FTZ should mainly rely on the free trade account system, which will help prevent and control financial risks. The financial account, which is an electronic fence, is able to provide convenience of cross-border capital flows and well balance the relationship between financial openness and risk prevention by making capital flows monitorable and traceable. The next step is to continue to support economic agents to carry out foreign trade and investment activities through the free trade account, encourage and support financial institutions refer to bank- ing, securities and insurance to do financial innovation business on the free trade account, allow securities and futures exchanges to take full advantage of the electronic information flow and capital flow between free trade accounts and study reform and innovation action around the free trade account system, launch a business process of integration of domestic and foreign currencies through free trade accounts, expand the function of these ac- counts, gradually increase the degree of capital account convertibility and make it more convenient for enter- prises and individuals to carry out domestic and overseas investment and financing activities.
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oa African Review - The Arusha Agreement: origins, meaning and future of association with the E.E.C.

oa African Review - The Arusha Agreement: origins, meaning and future of association with the E.E.C.

ii .the consolidation of the free trade zone as projected in Yaounde Convention. iii the conclusion of association agreem~nt between EEC and other African countries that mi[r]

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Online Full Text

Online Full Text

Ref [4] conducted a study about establishing objectives and managing approaches of SEZ in 93 countries over the world in 2008. Total of 2511 SEZs was located in 6 regions: 23 countries in Americas, 19 countries in Asia and Pacific, 12 countries in the Middle East and North Africa, 15 countries in Western Europe, 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and 14 countries in Sub- Saharan Africa. Three years later, the SEZ has increased to 3,000 zones in 135 countries around the world [10]. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the SEZ can be divided into 6 types which included the Free Trade Zone, Export Processing Zone, Enterprise Zone, Single Factories, Free Port, and Specialized Zone [5]. This section briefly describes the characteristics of each SEZ with other names that might be possible [8] – [21].
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Breaking NAFTA's Habits: The Pacific Rim Dispute and the Ongoing Challenge of Fostering Environmental Protection in the Age of  Free Trade

Breaking NAFTA's Habits: The Pacific Rim Dispute and the Ongoing Challenge of Fostering Environmental Protection in the Age of Free Trade

Free trade agreements (FTAs) are “one of the best ways to open up foreign markets to U.S. exporters.” 1 Aimed at “protect[ing] U.S. interests and enhanc[ing] the rule of law in the FTA partner countr[ies],” the agreements have the capacity to create “stable and transparent trading” environments and have proved ostensibly popular in the marketplace, given that a substantial percentage of the United States’ international trade takes place with nations which has are co-parties to such agreements. 2 Accordingly, the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), 3 initiated by President George W. Bush in 2002 and later approved in 2005, “place[d] the United States in a ‘free tradezone with Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic” in order to “reduce tariffs, limit import quotas[,] and increase legal protections for foreign investors.” 4 Despite these intended benefits, CAFTA, like its predecessor, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 5 has been roundly criticized for its role in outsourcing jobs to nations with curtailed labor representation and unionization 6 and for allowing private corporations to undermine—or even dictate—host nations’ environmental policy choices. 7 Just as legal scholars criticized CAFTA’s environmental protection in the wake of its ratification, 8 Pacific Rim Mining Corporation (Pac Rim) has recently cited arbitration arising under NAFTA’s investor protection provisions as precedent in order to sue the Republic of El Salvador for disallowing the continued exploration and mining of precious
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Assessment of Vietnam’s capacity and commitment to ratify and implement the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-Operation (OPRC), 1990

Assessment of Vietnam’s capacity and commitment to ratify and implement the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-Operation (OPRC), 1990

In anticipation of increased cargo volumes which are to be attributed to the expanded Panama Canal, rapid port infrastructural developments have been undertaken. These include the inclusion of three electric straddle carriers to improve yard performance in 2015. While there are no company taxes, the Bahamas offers free zone incentives, including exemptions from stamp duty and import/export duties for qualifying transactions. (Lloyds list Maritime intelligence, 2015). Further improvements included major refurbishment to stacking areas, particularly of roadways, in order to improve straddle carrier travel efficiency and reduce potential damage to yard equipment. FCP’s operators have invested in nine post-Panamax cranes and one super-post-Panamax crane, as well as the widening of the entrance channel of the port to 16 meters in order to facilitate the larger vessels transiting the Panama Canal. The terminal also houses a free trade zone complex and a terminal that spans over 49 hectares of land which has the capacity to handle 1.5 million TEU annually. (World Port Source, 2016).
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How to Find a New Geographical Route for Economic Exchange: A Visionary Project

How to Find a New Geographical Route for Economic Exchange: A Visionary Project

The creation of the intermodal freight hub Budapest Terminal 1, with a free trade zone and a storage area for goods, and its regional production and logistics platform can really change the face of logistics, generating great investment opportunities for all companies wishing to settle and participate in this project. Through this the intermodal freight hub products and goods arrived may be processed, re-exported and distributed, in the markets of Central and Eastern Europe, with considerable savings on duties and customs procedures. This process of creation of a new geographical route for economic exchange has to be based on many elements: Free Trade Zone, highway and rail hub, infrastructure, Cargo City, Distripark and European Distribution Center (EDC), airlines.
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CHINA ANALYSIS

CHINA ANALYSIS

PENT stands for Pre-Establishment National Treatment. National treatment is the treatment standard granted by states to ensure that foreign investors have the same competitive opportunities as national companies. To date, in most BITs, national treatment has been applied in the post- establishment phase (involving management, maintenance, use, enjoyment or disposal of their investments). But since the early 1990s, some BITs have extended national treatment coverage to the pre-establishment phase. Pre- establishment covers the entry phase, which means that host states may not apply discriminatory measures towards foreign investors on market entry conditions. Unlike in the post-establishment phase, pre-establishment commitments are normally accompanied with specific exceptions, through a “negative” or “positive” list approach. In a “negative list” approach, national treatment is afforded to all sectors and activities aside from those specifically set out in the list. Han says that PENT and the negative list will have a far- reaching impact on China’s FDI regime in both positive and negative ways. On the positive side, it could help to break through the “bottleneck” (瓶颈,pingjing) of FDI system reform. To achieve this goal, China’s State Council set up a pilot free trade zone (FTZ) in Shanghai in September 2013, which offered more liberal rules for foreign investment based on a negative list approach. 21 The zone is to serve as
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Bilateral trade agreements in the Asia Pacific: wise or foolish policies?

Bilateral trade agreements in the Asia Pacific: wise or foolish policies?

In an entirely open world economy with no restrictions on the flow of goods, rules of origin would not matter because it would be irrelevant where goods originate. Today, however, the origin of a product matters, in particular in preferential agreements. All free trade areas including bilaterals require rules of origin to establish the “nationality” of a product. The reason is that in FTAs participating countries continue to have diverging external tariffs. One country might have a high tariff on, say, cars in order to protect domestic producers, whilst the other might have a low or no tariff on that product. Since only goods produced within the free trade area qualify for duty free trade, there have to be procedures that differentiate between goods produced with the FTA and goods from the rest of the world. The preferential system becomes complicated. And expensive: On average, the cost of issuing and administering certificates of origin is estimated to be five percent of the value of a product (Dieter 2004).
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国际贸易新格局下的自由贸易协定研究 ——基于新政治经济学的视角

国际贸易新格局下的自由贸易协定研究 ——基于新政治经济学的视角

[16] Gawande, K. and Bandyopadhyay. Is protection for sale Evidence on the Grossman -Helpman theory of endogenous protection[J]. Review of Economics and Statistics, 2000(82):139-152. [17] Gawande, K; Sanguinetti, P and Bohara, A.K. Exclusion for Sale: Evidence on the Grossman and Helpman Model of Free Trade Agreements[M]. Manuscript, University of New Mexico, 2001 [18] Grossman, G.M. and Helpman, E. The Politics of Free Trade Agreements[J]. American Economic Review. 1995(85):667-690.

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Tomorrow’s Silk Road: Assessing an EU China Free Trade Agreement

Tomorrow’s Silk Road: Assessing an EU-China Free Trade Agreement

The rules, controls and inspections on food safety and on animal and plant health – SPS measures – tend to be relatively costly owing to the great sensitivities about public health and in many cases the need to minimise the risks of products causing disease and its contagion. The WTO SPS Agreement has set basic principles on what can and cannot be done in the SPS area. It is somewhat similar to the TBT Agreement when it comes to disguised barriers to trade, non-discrimination and proportionality, but insists on scientific evidence in a proper risk analysis prior to taking (justified) measures. As China and the EU are WTO members and hence adhere to the SPS Agreement, they are therefore on par, in principle. Both China and the EU (and the member states) are members of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (for maximum tolerance levels, e.g. in water, food and other such standards), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). Nonetheless, there are costly SPS barriers between China and the EU. An SPS barrier is not the same as justified, yet costly measures that are inevitable for public and animal health. In this context, a barrier is creating additional costs for market access beyond what is necessary and justified for consumer and other safety, or in extreme cases, a barrier might refer to a ban, temporary or for an undetermined period, for which the justification is not given, not based on science or spurious. A free trade area between China and the EU should be able to greatly reduce or (ideally) eliminate the extra costs of the two SPS regimes for imports beyond measures that are justified and inevitable. Section 10.1 discusses at some length the main Chinese SPS barriers maintained on exports of EU agro-food into China, which are partly product-specific but for the most part systemic. Section 10.2 discusses the problems as perceived or experienced by third countries when trying to export food, feed, plants or live animals to the EU, with a special emphasis on China where possible. Section 10.3 proposes some guidelines for solutions in the framework of a future FTA.
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Universal Free Trade

Universal Free Trade

This association proposes as its object, *' by uniting the scattered influence of various countries, to advance the progressive reform of tariffs, and by all legal and peaceable means to[r]

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The ethics of globalisation, free trade and fair trade

The ethics of globalisation, free trade and fair trade

Suppose I am considering buying a cup of coffee made from beans that were supplied by Nestlé, or suppose I am considering buying a chocolate bar from a corner store made by Nestlé 60 as opposed to a fair trade equivalent. Two major forces are at work driving down the price of those goods: first fierce competition with other free trade companies. 61 Secondly, Nestlé utilises economies of scale considerably to decrease its costs compared to other smaller but otherwise similar companies. 62 The first benefit we are removing from the equation, because whatever price Nestlé pays for the cocoa or coffee beans is what we are assuming is the market price, and we are only comparing the aid component of fair trade goods, because we are assuming that the people who benefit from the aid component of a fair trade good are indeed the people who are producing it, and it is those people who Nestlé is paying for the coffee or cocoa in question. However, the second „economy of scale savings‟ that Nestlé enjoys, part of which it passes on to its customers to make itself at least as competitive, if not more competitive, than its competitors, is lost in the fair trade transaction. For the sake of argument, let‟s assume that the economies of scale savings that Nestlé benefits from, compared to its fair trade competitors, which it passes onto the consumer, is 20p per cup of coffee sold, and this directly comes off the price of the cup of coffee. 63 It is this that is being lost from the fair trade equation.
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Symposium on market access. Summary of proceedings. Brussels, 12 November 1996

Symposium on market access. Summary of proceedings. Brussels, 12 November 1996

Bilateral agreements, such as the negotiation of a free trade agreement with South Africa or the completion of free trade agreements with Mediterranean countries are also very important [r]

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DAC EC peer review 2007. Memorandum submitted by European Commission services. Staff working paper. SEC (2007), 1 February 2997

DAC EC peer review 2007. Memorandum submitted by European Commission services. Staff working paper. SEC (2007), 1 February 2997

Together with the national administrations of the Member States, the European Commission seeks within its areas of competence to strengthen the coherence of the different aspects of EU external relations, to develop its commitment to effective multilateralism and to help the European Union to fulfil its potential as a major political actor in the international community. There is a need for strong and sustained efforts to develop synergies between EU external and internal policy objectives (including security, development, Human Rights, trade, agriculture, energy, environment, migration, dealing with global pandemics) and to enhance the complementarity of the various activities of the Union at both EU and Member State level. Good progress has been made in this direction and various measures in the pipeline are expected to further enhance the coherence, efficiency and visibility of EU policies and instruments.
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