The Grand Duchy of Lithuania

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The preposition ‘on’ and Poland Lithuania

The preposition ‘on’ and Poland Lithuania

Likewise, the well-established employment of na, when speaking of the grand Duchy of Lithuania and of Rus’, was transferred onto the nation-states of Lithuania (na Litwie) and Belarus (na Białorusi) that were founded on the former grand duchy’s territory. In 1569, when the real union was contracted between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the southern half of the grand duchy passed to the kingdom, where it became known as Rus’, or “Ruthenia” in Latin. Obviously, the preposition na continued to be employed with the name (na Rusi). Later, this usage was transferred to the name “Ukraine.” The nascent Ukrainian national movement settled for this name in order to transcend the confusing onomastic duality; the official name of “Ruthenia” for the western Ukrainian lands in Austria-Hungary and that of “Little Russia” for their eastern half in the Russian Empire. Ukraine gained the first short-lived period of independence in 1918-22, which did not register in the Polish usage that maintained the preposition na with the state’s name (na Ukrainie). Obviously in Ukrainian the preposition v (corresponding to the Polish w) is employed: v Ukraini.
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of the settlement in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 2017. The Tatars arrived from Kipchak steppes and Crimea, bringing particular culture. Influenced by the factors of the West European civilization, this culture changed and acquired new features, but at the same time Lithuanian Tatars managed to preserve partly their identity, and, most importantly – their religion (Islam). The Lithuanian Tatars entering the new Lithuanian-Belarusian-Polish environment gave it some Muslim features. The basis of the newly created tradition was the long experience of Islamic religion and culture. We can learn about this tradition from the written sources, first of all, from the manuscripts, written in Arabic script, but in Arabic, Turkic, Ruthenian, and Polish languages (kitabs, hamails) 2 ,
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Financial reporting in Lithuania

Financial reporting in Lithuania

For the first time the name Lithuania was mentioned in 1009 AD in a medieval Prussian manuscript, the Quedlinburg Chronicle. In the 13th century AD, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was created by Mindaugas who united the lands inhabited by the Lithuanians, Samogitians, Jotvingians and Couronians. In the middle ages (1392–1430), the Grand Duchy of Lithuania became the largest state in Europe. Its borders stretched from the Baltic to the Black Sea and almost to Moscow. For the next four centuries, Lithuania gradually became dominated by Poland, until 1795 when the Russian-Prussian-Hapsburg alliance made the third and final partition of Poland and Lithuania became a province of Russia. Lithuania achieved its independence only in February 1918, and between 1920 and 1923 the Republic of Lithuania had been recognized by the major countries. It remained independent until 23 August 1939, when Germany and the USSR signed the so-called Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, in which Lithuania was the first in the sphere of influence of Germany and then, following the Soviet Agreement of 28 September 1939, fell under the rule of the USSR [1]. After the occupation by Nazi Germany, the Soviet order was re-established in Lithuania in 1944 when the Red Army forced Nazi German out of Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania was the first of the Soviet Republics to declare its independence; it regained statehood and joined the community of nations. In October 2002, Lithuania was invited to join the European Union (EU), and in May 2004 it became a member of the EU. In 2003, before joining the European Union, Lithuania had the highest economic growth rate amongst all the candidate and member countries. Most of the trade of Lithuania is within the European Union. By the UN classification, Lithuania is a country with a high average income. The country boasts a well developed modern infrastructure of railways, airports and four-lane highways. As of October 2008, the unemployment rate is 4.7%. According to officially published figures, EU membership fueled a booming economy, increased outsourcing into the country, and boosted the tourism sector. Litas, the national currency, has been pegged to the euro since 2 February 2002 at the rate of EUR 1.00 = LTL 3.4528 and Lithuania is expecting to switch to the euro on 1 January 2014. Lithuania is part the EU single market.
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Mickiewicz and the Holocaust : an alternative history

Mickiewicz and the Holocaust : an alternative history

century espousal of ethnolinguistic nationalism in Poland as the main ideology of statehood legitimation and maintenance, additionally heightens this arbitrariness by anachronistically presenting the non-national past of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as ‘national’ and exclusively ‘belonging to’ the Polish nation. However, it is enough to shift the temporal gears to a century later for the ‘greatest Polish national poet’ to become a mere hunted Jew ‘masquerading’ as a Pole. What appears to a Polish nationalist an acme of literary genius in the context of the 19 th century, a hundred years later becomes a
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Grand Isle

Grand Isle

First off, I replaced the old twin mattresses in the back room with a nice, pillow-top queen, and then I tore out the stained carpets—put in hardwood floors that matched up with the natural oak cabinets and paneling. Over time I bought new curtains and cushions, threw down for an AC unit and a TV, a DVD player and satellite television. I always kept everything as tidy as a hotel room at check in—constantly vacuuming, polishing, and sweeping—and though Sam drops hair you’d never know it from looking around. Every month I gave the hull a good bath to keep it from rusting, and—to make sure that all of the moving parts stayed in good working order— twice a year I borrowed a diesel from an old oil-patch acquaintance who now mostly worked stints contra to mine, then made a forced pilgrimage up to Lake Claiborne State Park in north Louisiana (one of the few places other than Grand Isle where I felt anything like peace). Far as I know, I owned the only Airstream that sat permanently on the island, and I had rich sports from New Orleans and Baton Rouge all the time stopping by to ask me what I wanted for it. They thought I was some coonass fool who didn’t know what he had.
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The Grand Jury Legal Advisor: Resurrecting the Grand Jury's Shield

The Grand Jury Legal Advisor: Resurrecting the Grand Jury's Shield

89 If asked for an opinion, the prosecutor should tell the grand jurors that her opinion is personal in nature and not binding on the grand jury.90 But, as noted in the Grand Jury Legal [r]

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Implementation of the Robson classification in clinical practice:Lithuania’s experience

Implementation of the Robson classification in clinical practice:Lithuania’s experience

Our results showed an increase in the number of women in group 5 in 2014. This may be attributed to the growing primary CS rate in Lithuania or possibly an improvement in data collection. According to national data, the CS rate in Lithuania nearly tripled, from 9.6% in 1995 to 26.0%, in 2012 [9]. However now by carrying out fewer CSs in nulliparous women, there will be fewer repeat CSs in the future. The CS rate in group 5 went down at the end of our study, from 80.6% (1856/2304) to 69.6% (1764/2535), but didn’t reach the “recom- mended” rate of 50–60% [8].

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Regular report from the Commission on Lithuania's progress towards accession 1999. COM (99) 507 final, 13 October 1999

Regular report from the Commission on Lithuania's progress towards accession 1999. COM (99) 507 final, 13 October 1999

Economic growth came to a halt in the second half of 1998, when the full impact of the external trade shock produced by the Russian crisis was felt in the Lithuanian economy. Unemployment rose and inflation fell to very low levels, partly because products meant for export flooded the domestic markets. In addition, the marked appreciation of the real effective exchange rate had a dampening effect on import prices. During 1998, the current account deficit continued to worsen in spite of a sharp reduction in domestic demand, but improved slightly in the first quarter of 1999. Sizeable privatisation deals boosted foreign direct investment inflows, providing the resources needed to finance the increasing external imbalance. As part of its response to the external shock, Lithuania loosened its fiscal policy. Structural reforms progressed but in some important sectors, such as energy, they remained incomplete.
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The impact of EU conditionality: the case of Bulgaria

The impact of EU conditionality: the case of Bulgaria

Due to the rising pressure of the EU, Bulgaria initiated a constitutional change, in order to meet accession conditions. A way to by – pass the Constitutional court is found by setting up a parliamentary committee to elaborate the required amendments to the constitution. The Committee pushed on the process of judicial reform in the country and its proposals are adopted by ordinary parliament by September 2003. 100 Bulgaria amended its Constitution for the first time, marking the first significant step in the reform of the judiciary. The scope of magistrates’ immunity is limited. At the same time the power of the SJC (Supreme Judicial Council) to dismiss them for professional misconduct and involvement in criminal activity is extended. 101 Furthermore, two previously alien to the Bulgarian judicial system court positions are introduced, making the work of the courts more transparent and accountable. Positions of a court administrator to organize the courts and a court assistant to help judges with the preparation of cases and the drafting of decisions are established. 102 However, the legality of the reforms is questioned on the basis of the earlier rulings of the Constitutional court and its requirement all amendments to the Constitution to be made by a Grand National Assembly. 103 Moreover, the pre – trail phase, the work of the prosecutors and investigators and the deliberations of the SJC remain non – transparent, as no information on their proceeding is made public. 104
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Information Guide: Lithuania  January 2016

Information Guide: Lithuania January 2016

Lithuania: Lithuanian Development Agency [In Lithuanian]  Lithuania: Statistics Lithuania: Foreign Direct Investment  United Kingdom: Trade & Investment: Countries: Lithuania  United States: Commercial Service: Doing Business in Lithuania  OECD: Investment: Lithuania

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On Embedding Theorems in Grand Grand Nikolskii-Morrey Spaces

On Embedding Theorems in Grand Grand Nikolskii-Morrey Spaces

Note that the grand Lebesgue spaces L p) (G) (|G| < ∞) introduced in [5] by T.Iwaniec and C.Sbordone. After a vast amount of research about grand Lebesgue, grand Lebesgue- Morrey, grand-grand Lebesgue-Morrey, grand-grand Sobolev-Morrey spaces (with different norms) has been studied by many mathematicians, (see, e.g. [3, 4, 6–11, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21]) e.t.c.

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GRAND DESIGNS: DOES CHINA HAVE A 'GRAND STRATEGY'?

GRAND DESIGNS: DOES CHINA HAVE A 'GRAND STRATEGY'?

Jabin Jacob, a fellow at the Institute of Chinese Studies in Delhi, outlines China’s thinking on maritime strategy, which, in his view, includes the BRI as well. He refers to the 2015 White Paper, which confirms that China’s leaders are committed to “the idea of China as a maritime great power.” Jacob believes that capabilities, actions, and narratives, are all important components of the project and are reflected in China’s maritime grand strategy. He describes how these three components play out in the debate within China, such as in the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, or on the relationship with its neighbours, such as Japan. Jacob further reflects on how Chinese scholars view the US both as an adversary and as a model in China’s maritime strategy. Melanie Hart, a senior fellow and director of China Policy at American Progress, offers insights into Chinese debates on
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Prevalence and spatiotemporal distribution of African swine fever in Lithuania, 2014–2017

Prevalence and spatiotemporal distribution of African swine fever in Lithuania, 2014–2017

Recent publication about epidemiological situation of ASF in two areas in Estonia showed a temporal and spatial differences throughout the course of the epi- demic, suggesting that the first introduction of ASF may have happened several months before Estonia was offi- cially declared as affected by ASF [28]. Low prevalence and slow spread of ASFV in backyard pig holdings in 2014 was linked to wild boar infection in Latvia [12]. Similar slow spread of the disease in areas of dense wild boar populations and a primary role of wild boars in virus maintenance and repeated introductions of ASFV were published in Poland [29]. Epidemiological situation of ASF in a population of wild boars in eastern Poland in 2014–2015 was described by Wozniakowski et al. [9]. Each ASF affected country has different prevalence in pigs and wild boars due to differences in pig production sites, wild boar density and dispersion. However, existing ASF infection studies in Baltic countries and Poland are of relatively small scale. Despite the high incidence of ASF in Lithuania and several large scale outbreaks in
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LEGAL ISSUES AND REGULATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN LITHUANIA DURING THE INTER-WAR YEARS

LEGAL ISSUES AND REGULATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN LITHUANIA DURING THE INTER-WAR YEARS

It should be noted that all constitutions of the inter-war Lithuania somehow provided for the possibilities to restrict the constitutional human rights and freedoms. They prescribed on the constitutional level for the imposition of emergency rule which was a key instrument to restrict the citizens’ democratic rights and freedoms. A possibility to impose the emergency rule and principle consequences of such imposition were included in the base laws of the country: Article 16 of the Provisional Constitution of Lithuania of 10 June 1920 prescribed for a freedom of press, expression, assembly, associations for all citizens of Lithuania; however it also established that during war, or to remove the imminent threat to the State the constitutional guarantees may be suspended by way of laws; Article 32 of the Constitution of Lithuania of 1922 established that a President of the Republic may impose martial law or any other emergency rule not only in case “of war, armed uprising”, but also in case of “other dangerous upheavals” and this act must be approved by the Seimas. The Extraordinary State Protection Statutes 2 of
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In April 2007, the Leader of the House of Commons wrote to the incumbent Cabinet Office minister, the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, expressing grave concern that documents were[r]

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COLLOQUE SUR LA RADIOPROTECTION Mondorf les Bains (Grand Duché de Luxembourg) 31 mai   2 juin 1967 EUR 3740 = CONFERENCE ON RADIATION PROTECTION Mondorf les Bains (Grand Duchy of Luxembourg) 31 May   2 June 1967 EUR 3740

COLLOQUE SUR LA RADIOPROTECTION Mondorf les Bains (Grand Duché de Luxembourg) 31 mai 2 juin 1967 EUR 3740 = CONFERENCE ON RADIATION PROTECTION Mondorf les Bains (Grand Duchy of Luxembourg) 31 May 2 June 1967 EUR 3740

Dr JAMMET France Cette solution n'est peut être pas très prudente, car en matière d'accidents du travail et de maladies professionnelles, l'expérience que nous avons est très satisfaisan[r]

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Proposal for a Council Regulation (EC) on the conclusion of an Agreement on Fisheries Relations between the European Community and the Republic of Lithuania (presented by the Commission). COM (96) 356 final, 18 July 1996

Proposal for a Council Regulation (EC) on the conclusion of an Agreement on Fisheries Relations between the European Community and the Republic of Lithuania (presented by the Commission). COM (96) 356 final, 18 July 1996

HAVING REGARD to the fact that Lithuania has asserted fisheries jurisdiction over waters within which Lithuania exercises sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring, exploiting, conse[r]

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Rimantas Antanas Stanikunas, Arunas Burinskas, The Impact of
EU Competition Rules on Lithuanian Competition Law

Rimantas Antanas Stanikunas, Arunas Burinskas, The Impact of EU Competition Rules on Lithuanian Competition Law

The competition law of Lithuania authorises its NCA to challenge anti- competitive measures introduced by public administration bodies. Lithuanian law provides that when carrying out their assigned tasks related to the regulation of economic activity, public administration bodies must ensure the freedom of fair competition. Article 4 LC prohibits the abuse of administrative powers by banning public administration from adopting and carrying out acts that grant privileges or discriminate that may give rise to differences in the conditions of competition. In this context, the NCA has the power to require such body to abolish or amend the contested measure in order for it to conform to competition rules. Most infringements of Article 4 LC concern violations the non-competitive manner of awarding procurement contracts by municipalities, and most of these illegal awards have now gone.
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The Religious ‘Persecutions’ in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and British Sympathy for Italian Nationalism, 1851–1853

The Religious ‘Persecutions’ in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and British Sympathy for Italian Nationalism, 1851–1853

imprisonment had ‘created much sensation’ among the British community in Tuscany, not only because of its similarity to the Madiai affair but also because of her nationality and the possible severity of her punishment of five-to-ten years in prison. The Tuscan police were reported (inaccurately) as having been so active that Cunninghame’s trial had commenced before the British officials at Florence knew anything of it. Scarlett was praised as having been very active in attempting to secure her release. The grand duke was criticized for refusing to interfere, and for allegedly being ‘quite delighted at having the opportunity of venting his grudge against the English Government for their zeal in the Madiai business’. The Times also argued that the law against proselytism in Tuscany had been enacted in contradiction of the 1848 constitution, which had granted religious freedom and which Leopold had no right to recall. Most vociferously, The Times suggested that:
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