The History of the Future

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Seismic observations at the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory: history, present, and the future

Seismic observations at the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory: history, present, and the future

The main target of our paper is to document the history of seismic observations and research, including temporary ex- periments, in northern Finland, both at the UO and at SGO. In the paper, we do not repeat the scientific results of seismo- logical studies published elsewhere but mainly concentrate on such practical things as a description of instrumentation, tracing of instrument movement to alternative sites, data for- mats and data availability, and staff in charge. We also dis- cuss the future of seismology at SGO in the 21st century. The future activities include participation in European Plate Ob- serving System (EPOS) pan-European research infrastruc- ture for solid Earth geosciences, and the development of the newly established Laboratory of Applied Seismology (SEIS- LAB) taking charge of campaign measurements at SGO.
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The Future of History: Investigating the Preservation of Information in the Digital Age

The Future of History: Investigating the Preservation of Information in the Digital Age

This alerts us to the wide scope of the digital preservation issue: from international strategies, through education at all levels, to individual awareness and behaviour, and with the nature of history changed for the positive more than the negative. While there may be no single digital black hole, there is sufficient reason for concern, for active planning and implementation, and for collaboration between historians and the information professions. In light of the recent uprising in the Middle East 52 historians of the future will no doubt have a richer view of the past because the Library of Congress had the vision to archive Twitter.
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Introduction: The History and Future of the Nineteenth-Century Book

Introduction: The History and Future of the Nineteenth-Century Book

I n its focus on the history and future of the nineteenth-century book, this issue of Gramma takes up issues of cultural memory and its bibliographic forms across two major technological divides: from hand-press to industrial printing, and from analog to digital textuality. Looking both backward and for- ward, investigating a history and adumbrating a future for the printed volumes of the Romantic and Victorian eras, our contributors give us new purchase on our present moment, a time of opportunity and disruption. As our international print collections are being digitized, they are becoming more available, dynamic, and searchable; they are also at risk of occlusion by their own surrogates. Books produced during the nineteenth century are particularly involved with this tran- sition. Representing as they do the height of book culture in the west (after gen- eral literacy and before film), such books provide rich occasions for analysis of media change and the consequences for human expression and remembering across cultural contexts and historical periods.
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The American Future: a History

The American Future: a History

American exceptionalism, the idea that different rules apply to the United States than to the other nations of the world, is often seen by outsiders as an ugly and crude prejudice. Schama, who has spent half his life in the United States, astutely recognises that exceptionalism can’t be dismissed so easily. American history isn’t simply an exercise in collective self-delusion, but an excited (and sometimes overheated) recognition of America’s unusual circumstances, historical and geographical. Since the 18th century, the United States has been able to offer a standard of living that was simply unavailable to people in other parts of the world, and to sustain its growing population and power even as other nations have risen and fallen in prominence. The key to understanding the American future is to determine whether this unparalleled national success depends more on American ideas or on human and environmental factors that are themselves historically contingent. If America runs out of oil or water, or simply fails to keep up with the progress of China, will it still be able to claim a special status in the modern world?
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The European Network on Psychosomatic Medicine (ENPM) – history and future directions

The European Network on Psychosomatic Medicine (ENPM) – history and future directions

Communication between all professions in the field seems useful. The idea was born that different inter- national and European psychosomatic/behavioural soci- eties should be able to communicate in special research, health care, and psychosomatic training questions. This could be facilitated through special networks for scientific exchange. All medical/psychological societies involved in a special psychosomatic issues should be able to cooperate to maximize their strengths (and their ability to write research proposals for grants) in the competition with genetic, biochemical, pharmaceutical, cardiologic and other powerful research groups. This article describes an attempt to increase communication between the profes- sions involved in psychosomatic medicine. Beginning with the history of ECPR, following with a description of the ENPM aims and development, the combining of ENPM and EACLPP and the limited success of this cooperation (see below), future directions of the aims and ideas of ENPM are outlined at the end of this paper.
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Developing an Integrated History and future of People on Earth (IHOPE)

Developing an Integrated History and future of People on Earth (IHOPE)

The Integrated History and future of People on Earth (IHOPE) initiative is a global network of researchers and research projects with its International Program Office (IPO) now based at the Stockholm Resilience Center (SRC), Uppsala University, Arizona State University, Portland State University, and the Australian National University. Research linked to IHOPE demonstrates that Earth system changes in the past have been strongly associated with changes in the coupled human– environment system. IHOPE supports integrating knowledge and resources from the biophysical and the social sciences and the humanities to address analytical and interpretive issues associated with coupled human–earth system dynamics. This integration of human history and Earth system history is a timely and important task. Until recently, however, there have been few attempts at such integration. IHOPE will create frameworks that can be used to help achieve this integration. The overarching goal is to produce a rich understanding of the relationships between environmental and human processes over the past millennia. IHOPE recognizes that one major challenge for reaching this goal is developing ‘workable’ terminology that can be accepted by scholars of all disciplines.The specific objectives for IHOPE are to identify slow and rapidly moving features of complex social– ecological systems, on local to continental spatial scales, which induce resilience, stress, or collapse in linked systems of humans in nature. These objectives will be reached by exploring innovative ways of conducting interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary science, including theory, case studies, and integrated modeling. Examples of projects underway to implement this initiative are briefly discussed.
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History, development and future of cancer screening in Australia

History, development and future of cancer screening in Australia

Women with a strong family history of breast cancer, or relatives of patients with known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations are tested for the presence of these mutations to ascertain their lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. An option for those who test positive is to have screening scans more regularly. There are now panels of genes that have been found to increase the diagnostic yield. With the increasing feasibility of using whole-genome sequencing across a population, the future of breast cancer screening may well include initially identifying at-risk individuals from their genetic profiles. 40,41
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Role of State Approving Agencies History, Functions and Future

Role of State Approving Agencies History, Functions and Future

National Association of State Approving Agencies Role of State Approving Agencies.. History, Functions and Future..[r]

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The Future of History

The Future of History

Instead of proposing something new and shelving conventional historical explanation altogether, Munslow opts for various ways of modifying present practice. He deals first with the ‘responsibility’ of historians to bring their ‘ethical, moral, political and ideological values’ (p. 123) into their histories such that the product is ‘history artwork’ done by an ‘expressionist historian’. This historian imagines moving beyond competing visions of ‘the past’ to arrive at some aesthetic and ethical basis for writing that might promise new method and format. These ideas come in a relatively short section (chapter six) where he briefly mentions Derrida and other philosophers seeking similar emancipation from fixed assumptions and methods. The radical potential is glimpsed but, as already mentioned, Munslow chooses not to go there and he moves on instead to the relation of history and aesthetics, and the relation of epistemology and aesthetics (chapter seven), and thus back into the familiar language of agency and of projective, comparative outcomes. When Hayden White raised the issue of aesthetics he was making a kind of discipline-bending move, something still tragically rare in North American universities despite lip service to ‘inter/trans/multi-disciplinary’ work. Munslow does not choose this direction but turns instead to authorship, a more discipline-reinforcing move (chapter eight). He argues that his ‘reasoning requires the reinstating, rehabilitation and understanding of the self, standpoint and subjectivity within the figure of the author-historian’ (p. 148). It may be that these terms are adequate to describe a change with quite profound implications, though I suspect they are too invested in the wrong portfolio (the one being challenged) to do the work Munslow assigns to them. And the specialist invoked to carry the case, Gerard Genette, does not reassure me on this point. To say that such ‘artwork’ historians can make no truth claims seems only to repeat the problem outlined in part one, but not point toward new practice. It may even be untrue to say, as Munslow does, that ‘the emplotted history does not pre- exist in the past’ but has to be ‘turned (by telling)’ into a story (p. 155): not true in the sense that, like
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Stalin's ghost: the legacies of Soviet history and the future of Russia

Stalin's ghost: the legacies of Soviet history and the future of Russia

This nostalgia for the Soviet way of life goes a long way to explain the politics of the Putin regime, and the return of Stalin’s ghost to Russia in the past few years. From the start Putin understood the importance of historical rhetoric for his national politics particularly to play the popu- lar nostalgia for the Soviet Union. The collapse of the Soviet Union was a humiliation to most Russians. In a matter of a few months they lost everything – an empire, an ideology, an economic system that had given them security, superpower status, national pride, and an identity forged from Soviet history. Within months they had to beg for relief from the West, which lectured them about democracy and human rights. They had to confront their past, because after 1991 suddenly the television screens and the public media were having discussions about Stalin’s pride. It was very much part of the goal of Russian democrats in the 1990s that Russian society should confront its past. It was only by confronting this past that Russia could democratize.
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Honoring our history, planning our future

Honoring our history, planning our future

Our property and casualty lines protect what’s most important to our members and work to spread the mutual mission. The personalized connections we develop form the foundation for our competitive advantage and help foster deeper relationships in the future.

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Constitutionalizing the Environment: The History and Future of Montana's Environmental Provisions

Constitutionalizing the Environment: The History and Future of Montana's Environmental Provisions

Most of the state constitutions that contain environmental provisions go considerably further and award environmental rights to their citizens, require the legislature [r]

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The History of Animal Welfare Law and the Future of Animal Rights

The History of Animal Welfare Law and the Future of Animal Rights

supremacy over animals. Although some who supported Martin's Act may have intended more, the law was subsequently interpreted to prohibit animal suffering only when it is “unnecessary” to meet the demands of our needs, desires, and whims. The challenge for modern theorists is to find a way to grant animal rights within the parameters of this notion that humans are the centre of the universe. Attempting to change our thinking with the argument from marginal cases or trying to convince us that we are speciesist has not been successful. Some arguments against factory farms do raise the negative effects on humans. Runoff from animal manure pits, for instance, is objected to because it degrades the environment for us and pollutes our water. 263 Whether these consideration will lead to improvements in animal welfare, or grant animals a right to shelter adequate for their needs, remains to be seen, but more thought should be given to this approach. The third lesson from history is that sometimes it is best to simply be “expedient” in addressing an issue. I am not advocating for limited animal welfare reforms. What I am
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The Cultural Turn in U S  History: Past, Present, and Future

The Cultural Turn in U S History: Past, Present, and Future

Setting out the state of the field necessarily involves confronting one of the conundrums of cultural history: a definition of a component of its object of knowledge, ‘culture’. Here, as the authors affirm, a number of meanings contend: for example, culture defined as artistic expression (whether of the ‘high’ or ‘low’ varieties whose intersections Levine explored); culture in the anthropological sense, i.e., a common set of customs, beliefs or rituals, culture as a ‘way of life’; and culture as a phenomenon encompassing the products purveyed by Horkheimer and Adorno’s ‘culture industries’ along with the set of institutional arrangements and relationships that sustain those products’ circulation. These three examples do not exhaust the definitions that the authors enumerate, and the multiplicity of the alternate definitions poses a problem for anyone attempting to take stock of the sub-discipline: it is difficult to draw a boundary around and populate the interior of a field whose outline and contents alter depending on which definition one employs, or to determine what the practitioners of all the various kinds of cultural history have in common with one another.
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Dialogue Act Prediction of Future Responses Based on Conversation History

Dialogue Act Prediction of Future Responses Based on Conversation History

Figure 1 illustrates the design of our model, which consists of three encoders with different purposes. The Utterance Encoder encodes the utterance text into a vector, which is then inputted into the Con- text Encoder that handles the history of utterance texts. The Dialogue-act (DA) Encoder encodes and handles the sequence of DAs. Finally, outputs of the Context and DA Encoders are concatenated and input to a classifier that predicts the DA of the next response. Note that our model does not peek into the text of next response to predict the DA.

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Legumes in Finnish agriculture: history, present status and future prospects

Legumes in Finnish agriculture: history, present status and future prospects

Rainy weather conditions often hampered pea growing in Finland, so stem stiffness against lodging, earliness and high seed yield were the most important breeding objectives for field pea[r]

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Looking Back, Moving Forward: The History and Future of Refugee Protection

Looking Back, Moving Forward: The History and Future of Refugee Protection

History tends to repeat itself. With refugee protection reform proposals there is a sisyphean tendency to roll and repeat. Little ever changes. New refugees emerge, solutions fail to be found, and situations become protracted. Constantly focused on the most recent crisis, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has been accused of “lack[ing] institutional memory and … always reinventing itself.” 1 Looking further past UNHCR’s institutional foundation, a “historical perspective” is urged to recognize that “mass refugee movements are neither new nor exclusive to specific regions [but rather] [t]hey have been an enduring and global issue throughout the twentieth century.” 2 This article offers the rarely undertaken historical review and begins by looking back to the refugee agreements made during the first half of the twentieth century. The argument is that, from its origin, the international regime of refugee protection has been as much about bringing refugees to safety as refusing to return them to danger. The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951 Convention), the cornerstone of refugee protection, is thus seen to create a schism in protection by its focus on non-refoulement over resettlement. 3 From here, the article moves forward to review the most recent international statement on resettlement – the concept of “Convention Plus.” The “Plus” arose out of recognition of the 1951 Convention’s inadequacy as a complete tool for protection. Flowing from the review of the historical commitment to the movement of refugees, however, the resettlement strand of
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Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar: history, present and future

Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar: history, present and future

faced a rather lukewarm attitude: to construct such an in- stallation in the harsh Polar Circle climate was a far from a simple case. There was significant doubt, but Zherebtsov started preparation work. He talked to representatives of the USSR electronic industry and arranged expeditions to se- lect the future radar location. Works on IS radar construc- tion near Norilsk were interrupted in 1973 when Zherebtsov got his appointment as deputy director of the institute and moved to Irkutsk for the full-time employment. The new job and new wide range of responsibilities put the idea of constructing the IS radar on hold, but Zherebtsov had no doubt: sooner or later, the IS radar for ISTP would be con- structed, and this meant that they needed to master a com- plex technique of processing IS signals and to develop spe- cial research equipment for this purpose. By happy fortune it turned out that for experiments in this area, they could possi- bly use one of the existing military “Dnepr” radar systems (space surveillance and early warning radar system) near Irkutsk (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dnestr_radar, last ac- cess: 13 August 2019). After negotiations, the military gave their permission to use this system for episodic scientific ex- periments. In 1975, Zherebtsov initiated a special laboratory at the institute, where they designed and constructed the first 40-channel analog spectrograph (see Fig. 2) and developed methods and programs to process data of incoherent scatter- ing.
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Playing the Future History of Humanity:Situating Fallout 3 as a Narratological Artefact

Playing the Future History of Humanity:Situating Fallout 3 as a Narratological Artefact

historical event, as with Fallout 3. Scattered throughout The Wastelands are many micro- narratives, which range in size from vignettes that show the fate of a single family to more elaborate representations, such as readable journals and side-quests, and “while many locations do not offer much in terms of quest opportunities or loot they often present a variety of atmospheres and embedded stories” (Iverson), which aid the player’s construction of the global narrative. Sarah Grey also perceives the atmospheric qualities of the landscape in this game, noting that it invokes “a sense of helplessness, pathos, and fear,” encouraging the player to engage in “philosophical contemplation” (Grey). As an entirely constructed environment, everything in the game reflects the narrative the designers have invested it with with no exception, meaning that all the elements of the landscape have meaning, and is spread over more than 140 locations, which allows the player to discover the past narrative of this future Washington.
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Malignant pleural mesothelioma: history, controversy and future of a manmade epidemic

Malignant pleural mesothelioma: history, controversy and future of a manmade epidemic

ABSTRACT Asbestos is the term for a family of naturally occurring minerals that have been used on a small scale since ancient times. Industrialisation demanded increased mining and refining in the 20th century, and in 1960, Wagner, Sleggs and Marchand from South Africa linked asbestos to mesothelioma, paving the way to the current knowledge of the aetiology, epidemiology and biology of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Pleural mesothelioma is one of the most lethal cancers, with increasing incidence worldwide. This review will give some snapshots of the history of pleural mesothelioma discovery, and the body of epidemiological and biological research, including some of the controversies and unresolved questions. Translational research is currently unravelling novel circulating biomarkers for earlier diagnosis and novel treatment targets. Current breakthrough discoveries of clinically promising noninvasive biomarkers, such as the 13-protein signature, microRNAs and the BAP1 mesothelioma/cancer syndrome, are highlighted. The asbestos history is a lesson to not be repeated, but here we also review recent in vivo and in vitro studies showing that manmade carbon nano fi bres could pose a similar danger to human health. This should be taken seriously by regulatory bodies to ensure thorough testing of novel materials before release in the society.
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