28 including discharge summaries, have been published since 2000. In 2013, a Queensland research team explored the medical record documentation practices of interns in an emergency department (ED) (Isoardi et al., 2013). At the time of the study, there was no formal documentation training for the interns. Evidence showed that although interns received high levels of support from their supervisors, the lack of formal training in documentation was instrumental in the ED interns producing medical records that were not as useful as they needed to be. The recommendation made by the researchers was that a subject based on recording clinical documentation be introduced into the intern education program. This was implemented and in 2015, a new research team led by the same principal researcher evaluated the formal medical documentation program (Isoardi, Spencer, Sinnott, & Eley, 2015). The education program targeting skills such as recording patient characteristics, clinical impressions and management plans using a customized score sheet had a positive impact on the standard of the interns’ clinical documentation. A third research group at the same hospital designed a hospital discharge summary scorecard tool to assess the quality of discharge summaries and provide feedback to interns (Singh, Harvey, Dyne, Said, & Scott, 2015). This formalized strategy provided regular opportunities to not only assess the quality of discharge summaries, but also to implement quality improvement processes through the formal feedback provided to the interns. A Western Australian research team conducted a similar discharge summary quality improvement pilot study with similar results (Tan, Mulo, & Skinner, 2015). Both discharge summary improvement studies found that they needed incentives for the interns to regularly submit discharge summaries to be assessed.
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The interns were given a total of 15 minutes to fill in the questionnaire in the form of a one page handout. The method of testing involved questions that was of the matching type (Appendix A). Five CT scan images were listed in order from A to E. There were five potential diagnoses for each image and each option could only be used once.
important when selecting their internship. Interns thought that the internship would help them to develop non-technical skills rather than practical skills when asked at the start of the programme and this was confirmed in the post-internship questionnaire. In common with recent graduates, interns identified non-technical skills as important attributes that would define a good intern. Most of the interns in university based programmes intended on entering further post-graduate training at the end of their internship. The majority of interns in these programmes would recommend internships to their peers and would repeat the experience. This is the first study to explore the expectations of interns in university based programmes.
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We also looked at how interns ranked the items about each patient, in order of importance, as a measure of how well the gravity of each item was com- municated. The postcall interns over- estimated their ability to convey the in- formation about the importance of each item. Overall, the item that post- call interns expected on-call interns to perceive as the most important was not perceived as such by the on-call interns for 60% of the patients. In fact, the most important item about a pa- tient was not mentioned at all by the on-call intern for 40% of the patients. We conducted subset analyses com- paring categorical pediatric interns, combined medicine-pediatric interns, and rotating family medicine interns. There was no difference between cate- gorical pediatric interns and com- bined medicine-pediatric interns in the percentage of items that were suc- cessfully communicated during the hand-off; however, when the postcall intern was a rotating family medicine intern, there was a signiﬁcantly lower likelihood that the most important item about a patient was communi- cated (odds ratio: 0.16 [95% conﬁ- dence interval: 0.04 – 0.75]; P ⫽ .02). In addition, the percentage of overall agreement was signiﬁcantly lower compared with pediatric interns (95% conﬁdence interval: 9.1%– 49.0%; P ⫽ .005). There was no change in effective hand-off communication between the interns, with experience over time dur- ing their internship (using indicator variables representing 2- or 3-month intervals).
A majority of the interns did not perceive a need for additional education requirements post-graduation, but did see the advantage of a residency to establish a comprehensive understanding of prescribing parameters. A few interns discussed what they felt was not emphasized didactically became evident clinically when their pharmacy rotations began. Several interns had the opportunity to work with a preceptor engaged in a collaborative practice agreement and were able to experience the process first hand. The interns found shadowing a great way to understand the extent of CPAs and to physically witness challenges to them; before then their exposure to CPAs had been limited to one or two courses briefly acknowledging their existence. All interns described prescribing roles as means to meeting a need, where their medication expertise training had the potential to fill a service niche. For example, one described a patient suffering from chronic unresolved pain for which a pain specialty pharmacist was consulted to assess the patient. The pain pharmacist recommended adjusting the patient’s current medication regimen according to type and level of pain experienced, and recommendations were written in the form of a progress note accessible to the attending physician. However, the progress note was overlooked and the patient experienced extended subtherapeutic treatment of severe pain. It was then pharmacist intern who brought the progress note to the physician’s attention after discovering the discrepancy between patient’s current medication dosages and the recommended medication dosages. The intern felt this was one instance where collaborative practice might have facilitated smoother interdisciplinary care.
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If stress proved overwhelming or interns were unable to make a timely response to their supervisors, the interns were able to use an emotion-based strategy, such as avoidance. By adopting an emotion-based strategy, par- ticipants tried to avoid the stress instead of attempting to deal with it. Participant M09 said, “The stress came from my being unable to deal with a situation… I was in a rush and didn’t know what I should do. I became afraid… I felt like running away.” Participant F07 echoed that view: “When I was a clerk, I viewed clinical prob- lems as an opportunity to learn, and I thought I might be able to do something to help patients. But during my internship, I just wanted to escape and hoped I might not have anything further to do with the situation.” By using an emotion-base strategy, such as avoidance, the participant allowed stress to reduce the motivation to learn: “When I was overwhelmed [by stress], I had no interest in learning about it [the clinical problem] and received no benefit from the clinical work.”
particularly to immunocompromised patients [12,24]. In this study, awareness about the importance of rubbing with alcohol-based rub before giving an injection and after making the patient’s bed was found to be poor, whereas some studies observed a knowledge deficit in relation to the use of alcohol-based hand rubs to decontaminate hands in the health-care setting . This is important because the future health-care professional should not be misguided by false sense of safety and needs to take precautions to protect themselves to serve the patients better. The current investigation has a perception that hand rubbing causes more skin dryness. This could be one of the reasons for poor compliance and also it was found that many have a misconception that hand rubbing and hand washing are required to be performed in sequence. However, in an earlier study, during routine patient care hand rubbing with an alcohol-based solution was found to be significantly more efficient in reducing hand contamination than hand washing with antiseptic soap . In the current study, knowledge level was found to be similar between UGs and interns. However, there was significantly higher number of UGs who knew that hand hygiene after touching the patient prevents transmission of germs to healthcare workers. UGs who knew that hand washing and hand rubbing were not to be performed in sequence, significantly outnumbered the interns who knew the fact. From the above observations, it can be proposed that education about hand hygiene needs to be reinforced at regular intervals. Frequencies of correct responses for almost all points considered in the questionnaire were comparable between male and female participants However exceptionally higher number of male participants correctly agreed that hand rubbing does not cause more skin dryness than hand washing [17,19]. In this study, female participants showed a better self-assessment regarding the knowledge and adherence to hygiene guidelines in comparison to their male counterparts. The contamination rate of hands was 94.1% in those who wore ring as against 81.1% among those who did not. In a study conducted among dentists, bacteria and fungi were significantly more frequent in dentist’s hand with rings than those without rings (63% and 37% respectively) and among the isolated, potentially pathogenic microorganisms were S. aureus, E. coli,
The present study makes an important contribution to training considerations of psychology interns. It is among the first re- search endeavors to systematically examine perceptions of professional development training for psychology trainees dur- ing internship. This study demonstrated that while many interns feel they received satisfactory training in areas related to their transition into the profession of psychology, a significant subset does not. The present study also presented descriptive informa- tion regarding topics covered and time devoted to such topics during professional development provided on internship. In addition, the anonymous nature of the study allowed individuals to provide confidential feedback that TDs may use to improve the professional development experiences currently offered. Some excellent suggestions are contained in Table 6 as a sam- pling of the feedback received from respondents, many of which could easily be incorporated by TDs into future professional development internship training experiences at their sites. Moreover, the study results may help faculty at internship sites that offer extensive coverage of professional development topics have confidence that the experience is valued by their interns. Finally, as some of the participants suggested, interns may benefit from requirements imposed or oversight by the APA/ CPA or APPIC that regulate the minimum acceptable coverage within the area of professional development. Such regulation may help ensure that professional psychology interns receive adequate information and support as they transition to the next stage of their career.
As a source of knowledge on DNR issues, medical school was reported mainly by JPs (40.2% of JPs vs 20.8% of SPs, P=0.005). This may indicate that DNR got its popularity recently forcing our medical schools to include it in their curriculum. In a study by Ury et al 20 of three consecutive cohorts (1996 – 1998) of new interns who were graduates of US medical schools, they reported very little classroom teaching, clinical observation, or clinical experience with end-of-life communication during medical school. They lacked comfort and skill in end-of-life communication.
Several studies have investigated various aspects of the use of restorative materials for restoring posterior teeth [1–3, 6, 12–15]. However, studies investigating the atti- tudes of Saudi dentists to the use of amalgam for restora- tions are relatively rare. A study in 1995 by Khairuldean and Sadig  assessed dental practitioners’ knowledge of amalgam toxicity, attitude to removal of amalgam res- torations upon the request of the patients and the opin- ion on the available alternative materials to amalgam. Considering the goals set forth by the Minamata Con- vention on Mercury , it appears prudent to investi- gate the attitudes of experienced dentists and fresh dental graduates to the use of amalgam. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of Saudi dentists and interns working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to the use of amalgam.
In this article, we confirmed that rural placements for the extended-practicum are generally viewed in a positive light by Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal post-interns alike. We draw implications from our findings for future interns, teacher education programmers, and school districts and band-school leaders. First, educational leaders need to continue to collaborate to maintain the positive aspects of rural internships. Sustaining these advantages will help attract prospective teachers to rural districts. Furthermore, teacher education institutions and rural school districts/band schools may need to explore ways to provide additional support, such as subsidizing the rural internship, by providing all interns with a monthly bursary to help defray their expenses.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) is used to teach residents. However, few studies have evaluated its clinical impact. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of an SBME session on pediatric interns ’ clinical procedural success. METHODS: This randomized trial was conducted at 10 academic med- ical centers. Interns were surveyed on infant lumbar puncture (ILP) and child intravenous line placement (CIV) knowledge and watched audiovisual expert modeling of both procedures. Participants were randomized to SBME mastery learning for ILP or CIV and for 6 succeed- ing months reported clinical performance for both procedures. ILP success was de ﬁ ned as obtaining a sample on the ﬁ rst attempt with , 1000 red blood cells per high-power ﬁ eld or ﬂ uid described as clear. CIV success was de ﬁ ned as placement of a functioning catheter on the ﬁ rst try. Each group served as the control group for the procedure for which they did not receive the intervention.
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In order to make this process acceptable and meaningful for the interns, health services need to ensure clear supervision structures are in place. Health services also need to engage supervisors and prevocational junior medical staff in the process. While the objectives of the project were communicated to all registrars and consultants by email, newsletters and memorandums, the frequent turnover of registrars meant that not all registrars knew about the project. Theatre commitments of surgical registrars proved to be one of the major barriers to their availability. Use of nurse educators to assess competence in junior medical staff may be a strategy to overcome this barrier. An online package which the supervisor could sign off in their own time after having assessed the intern is another suggestion.
activities and are not necessarily neuroscience- related; these are mainly driven by the school teacher and students with minimal involvement of graduate interns (GIs). Schools were provided with the materials required for the activity of that day. Phase 2 – Neuroscience-led activities are neuroscience-related activities that actively involve GIs as the prime movers. Phase 2 activities were designed by emphasising both the theoretical transfer and hands-on experience of students in learning science. The model of neuroscience-led activities includes Anatomy of the Brain and Functions, My Brain Invention
Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favorable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers’ proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect on learning of the students. Attitude being a social construct is influenced by many factors like gender social strata, age, stream of education, type of institutions and previous experience of the job. This study deals with effect of face- to-face B.Ed. Programme on Teacher Interns Attitude towards Teaching Profession with respect to type of Institutions, academic streams, and different university System. The sample constituted of 1256 teacher interns belonging to science and humanities streams drawn from fifteen education Colleges from two universities i.e. Guru
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More importantly, ICT has the potential of delivering artificial intelligent (AI) guided supervision, especially through machine learning algorithm, to interns for many clinical circumstances. This will potentially remove the reservation of interns about the perceived conflict of power-relationship. In order to design AI guided supervision, further studies need to be conducted to document and understand common supervision scenario in order to derive algorithm support. We acknowledge that healthcare delivery is complex and not all decision or supervision could be simplified into an algorithm. As such, we advocate dual-input ICT-enabled clinical supervision to ensure complexity within healthcare system is accounted for, as demonstrated in Figure 2.
This then leads to a section outlining the ways in which the literature makes the business case for paying interns, for example, by measuring an organisation’s increased productivity. The legal case for paying interns is then considered based on the advice and suggestions on the issue of enforcement of employment law. This is followed by the practical concerns expressed over interns being the whistleblowers to trigger legal cases against organisations flouting employment law. The summary goes on to give an overview of the criteria given to measuring the quality of an internship and suggestions for an internship kitemark. The summary ends by problematising an issue inherent to internships in the arts: the expectation of paid, full-time, permanent employment. We conclude with what we term to be the proverbial elephant in the room: the case of charities and volunteer worker status, which sits outside the current National Minimum Wage (NMW) legislation and yet makes up a significant part of internships in the arts.
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Initially there are quite few people going abroad to work. There is an old Chinese saying that a doglike home is better than a golden or silver home if it’s belonging to you at your hometown. For people from the middle of China Mainland, they are usually quite conservative and reluctant to move to alien areas in contrast with coastal people such as those from Guangdong, Fujian province. While life was so tough, some adventured to Japan to be as trainees and interns in early 80s of the last century, and returned with great fortune. The returners experi- enced the better life in Japan, and they helped and ar- ranged their relatives to go abroad, their sisters, their brothers, their cousins etc. Good examples were told and happy lives were witnessed, for there they found a won- derful land to make a living. For nearly 30 years more and more young people keep on going and coming back, and the Japanese Town was formed.
This study aims to determine how the reading attitude of allied health interns influence their clinical judgment on certain clinical conditions that entail urgent action. Further, it also answers the following research questions: (1) what is the reading motivation level of interns; (2) what is the level of competency of interns on clinical judgment; (3) will there be a significant relationship between reading motivation and level of competency on clinical judgment?; (4) what motivates the students to read relevant materials on various clinical conditions and cases; (5) what feelings does the intern express about reading clinical and health related materials relevant to cases encountered in the clinical setting?; (6) what does an intern do when asked to participate in an independent reading task relevant to the clinical cases at hand?
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Fig 7 shows knowledge about how urgent professional help should be sought after avulsion injury. 50% of medical interns responded that professional help could be sought within few hours of the injury. 40% of medical interns had the view that help should be sought within the first 20mins following injury. 5% answered that help could be sought within a day’s time. 5% of medical interns had the opinion that no professional help was required if bleeding from the avulsed socket had ceased. In contrast, majority 80% of dental interns were of the opinion that professional help should be sought within first 20 minutes after the avulsion injury has occurred. 20% had the view that help should be sought within few hours after the injury. Extra oral dry time plays an important role in the prognosis of avulsed tooth. The vitality of PDL cells is important for the success of replantation. Longer extra-oral dry time causes rapid destruction of the PDL cells. The guidelines for the management of dental trauma published by the International Association for Dental Traumatology (IADT) recommend the immediate replantation of a tooth to obtain the best prognosis (Andersson et al., 2012). The results of this study indicate an important implication which is to include educational programs, campaign and seminars to broaden and increase the knowledge of medical personnel regarding emergency management of dental trauma and especially, dental avulsion injuries.