FOISA 2002, following a lengthy consultation period (1999-2001), followed on from the UK FOIA which had received Royal Assent in 2000. Coalition meant that the composition of Scotland’s first post-devolution government involved internal balances of ministerial portfolios; the Liberal Democrat control of Justice afforded the party influence over freedom of information. The statutes, by agreement from the legislative centres and contrary to the original timetabling, both came into force on New Year’s Day, January 2005. The UK, in turn giving way to Scotland, joined a world of FOI subscribers as something of a Johnny-come-lately: decades after its US cousin (1966) and
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Some strategies are now widely agreed to offer dependable results in the control of leishmaniasis. Using deltamethrin impregnated dog collars has been shown to reduce sand fly bites (Gavgani et al., 2002). In addition, the setting of deltamethrin impregnated traps on house walls, inside chicken coops and close to sand fly populations has been shown to reduce the density of vectors, while indoor house sprays are very effective to combat indoor biting (Feliciangeli et al., 2003). In addition, an active survey is needed to identify human cases, and a health education campaign should be undertaken in endemic areas. A combination of these strategies should prove particularly effective and will be very important to resolve the on-going problem of ZVL. In addition, sampling should be undertaken for any hepatosplenomegaly patients or febrile patients in endemic areas, and when Leishmania infection is detected, treatment should be given promptly. Active case detection in endemic areas is important to identify new cases (World Health Organization, 2010).
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introducing a new product or new technology in a market.In the Kingdom of Eswatini, agriculture plays a major role in the economy; it’sa major source of food, and also employs more than 60% of the country’s population (Thomson, 2012; ISAAA, 2014). Eswatini's agriculture is mainly dependent on sugar cane, cotton and forestry.Cotton is the second biggest cash crop after sugarcane in Eswatini. It is an important cash crop for most Swazis who live in drought prone areasand smallholder farmers who are reliant on the crop for their livelihood (Central Bank of Swaziland, 2013). Eswatini farmers are still entirely reliant on conventional hybrid cotton seeds. Hybrid cotton seeds have long been used in the industry as the sole means for cotton production. Genetically modified cotton is a variety of cotton that has been modified through a biotechnological process in order to achieve a higher yield. Bollworm resistant, Bacillus Thuringiensis (BT) cotton is the most popular genetically modified cotton seed used throughout the world. Genetically modified cotton was first introduced in the early 1990s and has since been adopted by major cotton producing countries such as the USA, India, China and South Africa (James, 2011). Genetically modified cotton seeds are engineered via a biotechnological process to reproduce the soil bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis in a crystal form in order to exterminate certain types of insects and pests which damage the cotton crop and reduce farmer’s yields (Craig et al., 2008). The new genetically modified seed has outstripped its traditional hybrid counterparts in terms of yield (Brookes & Barfoot, 2013).
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Finally I think the key to maintaining interest is to persuade the audience that the subject is really important: both intellectually important as a “centre piece” of modern biology, and practically important as the source of new technologies from IVF to transplant- able stem cells. Only a minority of students will themselves become research workers, so the outcomes of the teaching are just as important for those who will work in industry, or become High School teachers, or work outside science altogether. They need to know that the subject is exciting, that it has a central position in modern biology, and that it is going to be ever more important to the outside world. (note: although this is my personal philosophy, it is not necessarily shared by the other faculty mentioned in the article!)
Schools into a School of Leisure (Studies) will result in a nervous smile and a shake of the head. Each of these Schools has a strong brand that it wants to project to the outside world (we are thrusting and dynamic and open for business), and leisure is seen as something old- fashioned. The School of Sport, as I have said, does still have leisure scholars and leisure taught content (modules, an MA in Leisure, Sport and Culture; PhD students). But as of September 2013, with the removal of BA (Hons) Sport, Leisure and Culture from the School of Sport’s portfolio, it no longer has an undergraduate course with leisure in its title.
A United Nations report on disability provided an esti- mate of 93 million children in the world with moderate or severe disability. This equates to 5 % of the global population under 15 years of age . A further report from the United Kingdom highlighted that children rep- resent the fastest growing group amongst the population of people with disabilities . Of these childhood disabil- ities, over 30% are related to mobility or coordination impairment . Mobility issues in children represent a significant social and health problem  which may re- quire appropriate physical and rehabilitation medicine interventions to assist in their daily activities [4, 5]. As- sistive devices such as orthoses, crutches and walking frames have been found to benefit individuals with mobility impairment in activities of daily living [4, 5]. Footwear is the primary interface between the individual and the ground and as such will contribute to how ground reaction forces generated in gait are applied to the foot and ankle . Considering this, it is logical that footwear has been postulated to offer a role as a mobility aid for children with locomotory impairment since the eighteenth Century [4, 7–9]. Research has shown that footwear is the key extrinsic factor affecting children’s gait with studies on conventional footwear in healthy children demonstrating that it modifies: lower limb movements, forces and sensory stimulus acting through the foot [6, 10–13]. As children are still growing and de- veloping their feet demonstrate differing structural and functional characteristics in comparison to adult feet [14–16]. These differences will also vary within child- hood depending on the developmental stage taking into account the: plasticity of the foot, growth rate, allometry, and motor ability [17–19]. It is therefore considered that foot development is a fundamental factor underlying the requirements of children’s footwear [6, 20]. However, there is still uncertainty on the long-term effects of footwear on child development and the specifics of children’s footwear design in terms of support and flexibility [6, 20, 21]. These uncertainties concerning footwear are further confounded when considering the developmental needs of children living with a physical disability [20, 22, 23].
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As with most clinical practice guidelines across the world, the United Kingdom ’ s evidence-based guidance is provided by a centralised organisation; the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). The main role of NICE is to establish balance between the bene ﬁ ts and costs of providing healthcare within the National Health Service (NHS) and the wider social care setting; people ’ s needs for such services; and the desirability of promoting innovation within them. 4 Again, as with similar organisations in other countries such as the United States, the purpose of this overarching advice is to enable a large health service comprised of numerous linked, independent bodies to provide high-quality care. NICE also undertakes Technology Appraisals which focus on the use of new and existing medicines, products and treatments in the NHS. 4 However, the way clinical guidance is presented, par- ticularly in relation to issues of medication adherence, can limit its practical application.
Abstract:- Several centuries ago, the world has known many powerful empires and kingdoms with significant powers and great leaders at the top of the monarchies. B y t h e end of the nineteenth century many of those powerful kingdoms have lost most of their powers and assignment due to democratization and the instauration of democracy. Thanks to decolonization and the strong desire of people for more freedom and liberty, kingdoms such as the powerful kingdom of Sundjata Keita in Mali, the Zulu kingdom of Chaka in South- Africa, the powerful Abomey kingdom of Behanzin, the wassangari kingdom of Nikki in the Northern part of Benin, the powerful empire of the Britain to mention but the above lost their prestige and main powers and has become symbolic monarchies. The main aim of this paper is to explore how monarchs are selected in the United Kingdom and the kingdom of Nikki in Benin Republic. The research also focuses on the system of coronation in the two kingdoms for a better understanding and for the purpose of finding the common points and disparities between the two systems of traditional government.
perception on the impact of social media in airlines industry. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the social media advertising in the airline industry. The social media advertising is done through the social media networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Snapchat. The research was conducted through a survey, using the questionnaire as the research instrument. The respondents of the study are the students and other Bahraini citizens who have used social media on airlines. The used research instrument uses the five points Likert scale. The statistical tools used in the study are Multiple Regression Analyses and weighted mean. The study provides suggestions and recommendations from customer’s perception in solving the difficulties that employers face in social media advertising on airlines in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
The proponents of the new industrial policy are aware that past interventionism has failed systematically to promote growth and prosperity all over the world, and they are very cautious to differentiate their opinions about market failure from the older view of government’s superiority. 12 Porter (2000, p. 27) argues that “a role for government cluster development and upgrading should not be confused with the notion of industrial policy” and that “the intellectual foundations of cluster theory and industrial policy are fundamentally different, as are their implications for government policy.” Rodriguez- Clare (2005, p. 29-30) holds a similar opinion, maintaining that “if one wanted to call the current proposal a sort of industrial policy, it would be a “soft” industrial policy, rather than the “hard” industrial policy implemented in previous decades, which entailed distorting prices so as to reallocate resources to certain sectors as a way to generate a new pattern of comparative advantage […] This is important because soft policies are likely to be more transparent and less costly.” Likewise, referring to the manner in which various industrial projects are to be evaluated by government officials, Rodrik (2004, p. 27) appreciates that “Proposals need to be made public, formally analyzed and evaluated by technocrats, and their fiscal impact costed out.”
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fraud as a tool for anti-fraud in all its forms. The spotlight on corporate governance and financial fraud study will contribute significantly to creating a more comprehensive perspective to expose fraud and scandals patterns in terms of finance and accounting of the corporate in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study choose five independent variables such as board of directors size, audit committee size, ownership structure, audit firm type, board composition and Financial fraud as dependent variable. Based on this variables five hypothesis were developed.
This study made use of the descriptive and inferential method of research to examine the bank customers’ views regarding the factors affecting their intention to use mobile banking services offered by the banks located and operating in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The researchers used written survey questionnaires to gather date for this study with a sample size of 100. Using non-probabilistic sampling of 100, this allows enough data to conclude a statistical significance. The written questionnaire determines the level of knowledge in mobile banking features; the effect of the perceived usefulness, the ease of using technology; and technology fit task to behavior intention to use mobile banking technology; and, assesses the level of satisfaction of bank customers on using mobile banking technology.The researcher conducted a pretest of the instrument in order to test its understandability to the prospected respondents and the reliability was measured using the Cronbach-Alpha
The questionnaire is the major instrument of this study which is parts a pilot survey was research. A hundred forty- four (144) employees in construction sector contain in a pilot survey was. Likert scale was used in this study in order to present the questions of the questionnaire. It divided as: strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree. The population of the study consists of the construction sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The sample was chosen by stratified sampling and it consisted of 865 organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain which divided into four groups from each group chose three company and from each company take twelve employees as for the respondents of the sample, is 144. The questionnaire aimed at evaluating training effectiveness of six different training programs usually conducted to employees in the construction sector including technical and nontechnical programs.
Being an educator of young children for over twenty years, working in various public and alternative school environments and recently experiencing three major accreditation processes, I wonder what approaches would encourage experiences that cultivate positive values and compassionate attitudes toward others and the world, which is so much needed now. Our human identity and personal fulfillment is closely tied to our relationship with nature and with others to help us sustain healthy emotional, cognitive, aesthetic, and spiritual development (Wilson, 2002). The power of our need to share and create can be visualized as a web entwining through a fabric of space influenced by the interactions and connections we experience and live (Capra, 1996). These interactions start with young babies and continue throughout early childhood years helping children to adopt effective strategies that will sustain them into their adulthood (Siegel, 2012). As I witness young children’s play focused mostly on media types instead of the creative and free-flowing scheming of imaginary play scenarios, I often grieve the loss of child’s play. Children come and share with me images of movies that should have never been
the Bangalees by the Pakistan military was like the head hiding camel bird. It was Pakistani Propaganda which was mainly responsible for their attitude like this. Yahya was able to sell his ideas to the Arab leaders that Islam and the Muslims were on the verge of destruction in Pakistan due to the secessionist activities of some miscreants like Sheikh Mujibur Rahman who was directed by India. The Pakistanis used the name of a great religion of Islam for mischievous purposes to mislead the Arab countries. The animus role of the Arab world, who believed Pakistan’s campaign, was an unexpected surprise for the Bangalees. Bangladesh expected that as the liberation war of Bangladesh was totally against discrimination, despotism and injustice, which might be supported in regard to the logic of Islamic ideology. Its thinking was not building a castle in the air. But, they disappointed 7.5 million Muslims of Bangladesh. Can an innocent Muslim child be butchered by a Muslim? Can the innocent Muslim girls be raped by the Muslim soldiers of West Pakistan in the name of unity? What type of Islam it was! The Bangalees revolted against such type of Muslims and their allies.
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This study has highlighted the need for more supervised BST in United Kingdom medical schools. This exposure deficit is likely to serve as a negative determinant for their preparedness for practice and ultimately patient outcomes. The junior doctor represents a dynamic teaching source in the face of the existing time constraints and peer learning is a pragmatic solution to such pressures. Work is needed to re-establish the hospital environment as a supportive platform for student learning.
Actually, all religions concur, whether revealed or not revealed, monotheistic or polytheistic, on being anchored in a particular position vis a vis values, and perhaps they are themselves an explicit position related to values; because their doctrines do not signify the explanation of the universe except to the extent of determining what the human must do vis a vis this universe, and the universal view of religions relies on defining the order of things and actions, for there is what is sublime and what is lower. And once this order of standing is identified the believer shall assume certain positions towards them, which could include the rituals as well as the forms of worship and worldly transactions, and this order of values culminates with an archetypal value which is the source of all values, and the source of authority and obligation, and the source of unity in all the manifestations of the universe. Accordingly, salvation or triumph in the world and the Hereafter is reckoned according to the extent of compliance with the religious values and what they command, and avoidance of what they prohibit; and because religion is a matrix of unified values which safeguards of balance of human life, it was necessary to make one value override the other in religions and making one human aspect have primacy over the other and to restore the balance of life through the solace and consoling and what
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lence, fit into the aforementioned functional categories. Cur- rently, only 16 PHI-base mutations did not fit into the identi- fied trans-kingdom themes for the negative regulation of hyper- virulence previously described. Nonetheless, these 16 PHI-base entries are of equal merit and several require discussion. The IpgB1 effector secreted by the Gram-negative bacterium, Shigella flexneri, which causes gastroenteritis and dysentery in animals, promotes bacterial entry through the ELMO-Dock180 machin- ery (Hachani et al. 2008). The absence of IpgB1 causes hyper- virulence, potentially via influencing bacteria adherence, com- munity structure and/or virulence factor delivery into the host cells. The chorismate mutase enzyme is found in bacteria, fungi and higher plants, where it catalyses a key reaction in the shiki- mate pathway involved in the biogenesis of amino acids such as tyrosine and phenylalanine. The absence of chorismate mu- tase, AroQγ , in the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and causal agent of rice leaf blight, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, resulted in hypervirulence (Degrassi et al. 2010). Interestingly, the fun- gal pathogen, U. maydis, and several root-knot nematodes se- crete a chorismate mutase into the host cell as a mechanism to prime host metabolism for subsequent infection (Bekal, Niblack and Lambert 2003; Doyle and Lambert 2003; Djamei et al. 2011), demonstrating the diversity of functions for a single enzyme in pathogenesis. Copper is a redox-active transition metal that has functions in enzymatic reactions, while excess copper can re- sult in the production of damaging hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, transition metal homeostasis is tightly regulated in host cells. Invading pathogens compete for the limited transition metals in order to colonise and replicate during infection (Schaible and Kaufmann 2004). Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) respond to M. tuberculosis infection by increasing the copper concentration in the lungs, while the absence of the mycobacterial copper transport protein, MctB, which is essential for copper tolerance, resulted in attenuated virulence (Wolschendorf et al. 2011). In contrast, the absence of the Ctr4 copper transporter in the fungal pathogen C. neoformans caused hypervirulence and an increased inflammatory response in mice (Sun et al. 2014). Overall, these 16 non-classified hypervirulent PHI-base mutations may represent species-specific biological functions and/or unidentified unify- ing themes which will become apparent as the documentation of the hypervirulent phenotype expands.
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the learning styles of the millennials regarding their preferences on the use of non-print versus print materials. The respondents were the select students from higher education institutions in the Kingdom of Bahrain during the 3 rd Trimester, SY 2017-2018. This study made use of the descriptive research method, where a questionnaire was used to find out the preferences and learning styles of the millennials in terms of print and non-print materials. The results of the study showed that: millennial respondents regardless of sex and employment status strongly agree on the importance of print materials; majority of the millennials are visual learners; both the male and female millennial respondents accepted the hypothesis of no significant difference on their preferences of the non-print and print materials. Both working and unemployed millennial respondents accepted the hypothesis of no significant difference on their preferences of the use of the print materials while for the non-print materials the respondents rejected the null hypothesis of no significant difference. Hence, the alternative hypothesis of significant difference is accepted. There were statistically significant differences on the learning styles by male and female, working and unemployed respondents. Majority of the millennials were visual learners and they associate learning by seeing, between the learning styles and the reading preferences of the respondents correlation was highly statistically significant in terms of the non-print materials and linear moderate positive correlation for the print material preferences.
When they execute a rollover, all those newbie investors who grew up in the captivity of the 401(k) plan have to learn how to survive in the (relative) wilderness of the brokerage world. They’ll have more options, but they will be slow to discover that the prices will be higher and standards of conduct lower. Prior to the fiduciary rule, the brokerage world openly celebrated the rollover trend as a “bonanza”: Trainloads of dumb money were coming to town.