Nowadays, prosperous countries pride themselves based on the state of their nation’s physical infrastructures. Infrastructures and in particular, sustainable infrastructures that have been put in place and exist in a country are usually being used to measure the advancement of the country’s economic growth, development and standard of living indicators in modern day civilisation . Poor infrastructure in a particular country portrays that the country is not doing well economically and hence, the citizens are presumed not to be prosperous and there is tendency and likelihood that they will be living below the poverty line . Therefore, a viable economy needs good and modern infrastructure for the systems of transport, energy, water and waste management and social infrastructure to make life worth living. Modern infrastructure is driver of economic growth and development . Over and above, availability of well-functioning infrastructure is required for good life and high standard of living, however, the lack of modern infrastructure amenities will produce contrary result thereof . It has been medically proven that availability of good infrastructure in a country has positive impact on the people because of their potential to improving the quality and length of human life . The Constitution of South Africa recognises this, the reason why the right to socio-economic goods, services and amenities are guaranteed in the Constitution, one of which is unhindered access to adequate clean and safe drinking water by everyone living in the country . The Constitution also provides that the government should do everything within its available resources to promote, provide, realise and fulfil the right to access water. The implications of these constitutionally guaranteed access and right to safe drinking water means that the infrastructure needed to distribute and deliver water services must also be of good quality for optimal and safe water distribution and consumption . Against the backdrop of this, water pipes being used to distribute water are expected to be in good conditions and should always be maintained so that they do not get corroded, busted and start leaking to the extent that water contained in them is contaminated and rendered unsafe for drinking and consumption . The right to access to water is holistic in that water and the infrastructure to convey and supply water must be infrastructural proper and sound. The reality
The biosand filter can be made out of local materials and the containers are typically made of either concrete or plastic. The concrete filters tend to be more durable than the plastic ones. With either type, the amount of sand and gravel needed for the filter means this is a heavy product (a concrete version can weigh up to 260 lbs) and can be labor- intensive to produce and install (South Asia Pure Water Initiative, 2011a). Consequently, biosand filters are usually made relatively close to the areas in which they will be used (Clasen, 2009). Once a BSF is installed, however, there is little to no maintenance involved beyond a periodic scouring of the top part of sand and water. The ease of use and relative lack of maintenance may be one reason that BSFs have one of the highest rates of continued use by consumers in follow-up study surveys (approximately >85%) (Sobsey et al., 2008). In a recent follow-up study of biosand filter use in the Dominican Republic, 90% of the households involved in the original intervention were found to still be using their biosand filters one year later (Aiken, Stauber, Ortiz, & Sobsey, 2011).
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This was a single-center, open-label, randomized, two- sequence, two-period crossover study. One period (treatment AB) comprised treatment A, a once-daily oral dose of lobeg- litazone (0.5 mg) for 4 days (days 1–4), and treatment B, a single oral dose of warfarin (25 mg) on day 5 and a single oral dose of lobeglitazone (0.5 mg) for 8 days (days 5–12). In the other period (treatment C), a single oral dose of warfarin (25 mg) was administered. Subjects received one of two dosing schedules: AB, followed by C, or C, followed by AB with a 10-day washout interval. The doses for all treatment periods were administered with 240 ml of water in the morn- ing following an overnight fast. Blood samples were obtained for characterization of the PK and PD and were collected at the predose and selected time points. The study (Clinical trial registration number: NCT02002611) was conducted accord- ing to the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol and any amendments were reviewed by the Institutional Review Board of Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject before enrollment in the study.
Water conservation and management is a problem that is faced throughout the world. This is mainly through lack of enough water and depletion of water resources which is a major concern to the communities living in the ASAL areas. Mwingi North district being a semi-arid area the weather is dry and hot almost all through the year. The area experiences the problem of inadequate water supply in terms of quantity, for the community utilization. Water as a resource is scarce in the area, and like any other ASAL area, challenges faced affect the performance of the community. The communities living in Mwingi are less productive in comparison to the other counties, they have very low agricultural production activities and in terms of livestock, which is their main economic activity, production is also low. The district is faced with recurrent drought periods during the dry seasons in the country. During these periods, there is a lot of reported human and animal deaths due to starvation and lack of water, disease, malnutrition and dehydration. It has become a major concern to the government to manage disaster management, but tee are challenges at the grassroots levels to implement.
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The main problem of widespread introduction of magnetic water treatment (MWT) in the processes of water and wastewater treatment is the lack of modern research aimed at studying the mechanisms of MWT effects, in particular the influence on the physicochemical properties of aqueous solutions. This study explains the effect of MWT taking into account the physical and chemical properties of aqueous solutions due to the presence of the quantum differences in water molecules. All of the MWT effects are related to the change in the physicochemical properties of aqueous solutions. It is due to the presence of two types of water molecule isomers and their libra- tional oscillations. The result of MWT is a violation of the synchronism of para-isomers vibrations, with the sub- sequent destruction of ice-like structures due to the receiving of energy from collisions with other water molecules (ortho-isomers). One of the most important MWT effects includes the change in the nature and speed of the physi- cochemical processes in aqueous solutions by increasing the number of more physically and chemically active ortho-isomers. The MWT parameters specified in the work allow explaining the nature of most MWT effects and require developing the scientific and methodological principles for the implementation of the MWT process and mathematical modeling of the MWT process in the water and wastewater treatment. It can be used in the design of the MWT devices taking into account the constructive and mode parameters of MWT devices.
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This study was carried out at Gadarif state in eastern Sudan to characterize sheep production practices in the state using a questionnaire for 100 owners in livestock markets in the state localities. Data was statistically analyzed using SPSS package. Results revealed that Ashgar was the main sheep breed followed by Garag and Dubasi breeds. The animals mainly reared extensively (96%) . Puberty was mainly at 10 month in males and 12 month in females and age at first mating was mainly 12 month. Most flocks lamb twice/ year. The animals relied mainly on rangeland and crop residues and grazing far from residence. Most animals grazed all the year and most owners (76%) didn’t feed concentrates due to high cost. Hafeers (Sudanese water harvest form) were the main water source. Lack of water, rangeland and extension were the main problems.
Groundwater is a vital source of water for domestic and agricultural and industrial activities in Narayankher area Medak District, Telangana due to lack of surface water resources groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking agriculture and industrial usage were evaluated. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), TH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, CO3-, and, SO4- and Chemical index like Percentage of Sodium (Na%), Chloro Alkaline Indices (CAI), Kelley’s Ratio, Magnesium hazard were calculated based on the analytical results. The chemical relationships in Piper diagram identify Ca-Na-HCO3 and mixed Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3 as most prevent water types. Alkaline earths exceed alkalies and strong acids exceed weak acids. High total hardness and TDS in a few places identify the unsuitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. Such areas require special care to provide adequate drainage and introduce alternative salt tolerance cropping.
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DCD degradation in soil has been proven to be bacterially driven so it can be expected that the most likely cause of DCD degradation in waterways will also be bacterial. These identified bacteria so far also all require a carbon source and adequate oxygen to respire, so their viability in waterways will depend on this. Therefore, the concentration of free-living bacteria in stream water is not likely to be very high due to the lack of a structured soil/organic matter matrix but there is potential for bacteria capable of degrading DCD to exist in effective concentrations in the uppermost layer of streambed sediments where an aerobic, organic matter rich layer often exists. Such degradation could also occur on the biofilms of aquatic macrophytes surfaces.
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Both yoga and physical education have not been given the due importance in the school curriculum and neither has their contribution to the health and overall development of the child been adequately acknowledged. The constraints faced by yoga and physical education is related to a number of factors that affect the quality of school education in general and health and physical education in particular. These constraints include lack of appropriate school environment in terms of physical infrastructure, furniture, lighting, ventilation, water supply etc.; lack of budgetary support lack of transport services; lack of adequately trained teachers and institutions for their training; lack of proper documentation and systematic evaluation of the area and lack of coordination between the education and health departments.
Natural temporal variability in the climate contributes to the uncertainty in the detectability of the effects of climate change in wet conditions. Therefore, according to McCabe & Wolock (1991), any potential trend in wet conditions resulting from climate warming will be inferred in a "noisy" time series due to the random variability in both variables (precipitation and temperature). The HI has a strong component of these variables, and is affected above all by the lack of normality of rainfall, which is why we had to resort to non-parametric methods to analyze its trend. The graph obtained by applying the Sen method allows to observe that the points are located above the 45° line, both for the negative values as well for the positive values of the IH, which indicates a clear upward trend in terms of succession of dry years for the series analyzed (figure 1).
JULY-AUG, 2015, VOL-3/19 www.srjis.com Page 560 Before SSA, infrastructure facilities of Elementary schools were not satisfactory. For drinking water Tube well was available in schools. Those school where these facilities were not available and where water is not suitable for drinking, dependent on neighbouring people for drinking water. Conditions of toilet facilities were also pitiable. Facilities for separate classrooms for different classes were available only in 49% schools. The partition system between classes was also temporary in nature. Except black board, teaching –learning materials like globes, maps were not available in all schools. Schools had no boundary walls. This finding is also consistent with the previous findings by Aggarwal (2001). Aggarwal reported that among the school infrastructure a school with boundary wall is considered safe and desirable. Over the years the proportion of schools having boundary wall has increased in all states. There are very few schools with boundary walls in the states of Assam, West- Bengal, Himachal Pradesh and Bihar. Facility of desk-bench was not available for all classes. Separate common rooms for teachers, for administrative work, for library were not available. Similar findings were found by Thakuria (1996) in his study on “problems of primary education under West Guwahati area”. In the study he found that faulty location of schools, lack of proper boundary walls, absence of drinking water facility and library, insufficient teaching-learning materials, lack of qualified and trained teachers put up a negative picture of development in primary education under sample area. Kundu (1995) in his study it was found that physical facilities of primary schools of sample area were pitiable. Some of the schools had no partition walls. 80% schools are without playground and 20% had no urinals. 35% had no drinking water facility.
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The prime objective of the present study was to evaluate the habit of drinking water and its relation to the development of diseases in the population of Farmgate slum of Dhaka city. The study has been carried out to assess the present conditions of the water supply, water-borne disease, treatment pattern, sanitation, and their overall knowledge about sanitation. The methodology of this survey consists of practical field observation and field based data collection of water supply, water-borne disease type, treatment pattern and sanitation situation through Participatory Rural Appraisal tools and questionnaire survey. During the survey, data has been collected by using a well-structured questionnaire from each households of slum. In this study 100 personnel participated where 56% population was 18-40 years age range. Their education status was below secondary level (21%) and higher level was very low (6%).The results depict that the majority of the population suffered from water related diseases such as typhoid (23%), dysentery (24%), diarrhea (91%), cholera (16%), constipation (16%), jaundice (31%), amibiasis (15%) etc. For treatment of these diseases most of them went to retail pharmacist (52%) and others went quack doctor, registered doctor, homeopathic and ayurvedic treatment. They were suffering most in rainy season (53.5%). Lack of proper knowledge about hygiene, polluted water supply, unhygienic sanitation, extreme level of poverty, dispensing medicine without the prescription are the main causes for waterborne diseases in this slum. Besides Governments, every conscious people should come forward to help them.
Quantity of water and convenience of the source are more important than quality of water for reducing diarrheal illnesses . In this study area, most of the community primarily uses water from communal stand pipes. The water is delivered to households by plastic bar- rels pulled by donkey carts. Moreover, water sources in the town are often intermittent leaving the community without water and forced to use alternative unprotected sources. This lack of accessible and consistent water sup- ply could serve as a disabling factor for mothers ’ safe hy- giene practices which could explain the higher prevalence of diarrhea in households without water.
The main purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of watershed management inter- vention in Chena Woreda. A systematic sampling technique was used to select sample micro-wa- tersheds, and random sampling method was used to select individual households from both in- tervention and non-intervention areas. Data were collected through field observation, household questionnaire survey, focused group discussion, in-depth interview and key informant interview. Moreover, physical soil and water conservation structures’ layout measurement was conducted. Descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test and participation index were used for data analyses. The study revealed that the intervention has good achievements in reducing soil erosion, improv- ing water availability and quality, developing tree plantation and diversifying household income sources in the catchment. However, poor community participation, lack of the structures design alignment with standards, inappropriate time of implementation, lack of diversified soil water conservation measures, absence of regular maintenance and management of the structures were some of the major limitation of the intervention. Therefore, this study recommends that the stake- holders should make appropriate correction measures for observed failures and further interdis- ciplinary study should be conducted to explore the problems.
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The region’s soils, with respect to the high water table and the lack of soil’s development in many reasons (the lack of the enough aeration, because of the high water table and etc, it would be induced to slow down soil’s forming processes), accumulating the sediments overlaping together, the lack of the subsurface diagnostic horizons (salic, gypsic and etc.) was classified as entisol order, aquent suborder, endoaquent great group and typic endoaquent subgroup. Finally, their’s profie was describle. At below, some of relations has been brought as different forms:
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As regards pure water-jet cutting, no correlation has been found between the roughness profiles and the pressure signal . Moreover, the pressure signal form does not have a substantial influence on the surface quality of waterjet cutting: in fact, for the process parameters used during the penetration time, the pressure can be considered continuous. The striations along the entire surface presuppose that there are other factors, the vibration of the cutting head and of the work piece , that directly influence the quality of the water-jet cutting. Although the pressure fluctuation does not have substantial effects on the WJ surface quality, it should have an influence on the depth of cut. In fact, the water pressure determines the jets power and is directly proportional to the energy transfer to the surface.
A-375 cells harvested from the T-75 flasks were plated on a black flat-bottom 96-well plate at 10,000 cells per well and incubated at 37 ° C for 24 hr before being treated with the water extract of S. nigrum and its serial diluted solutions (2-, 4-, 8-, and 16-fold) for another 24 hr. Cells treated with cell culture media were used as negative control. At the end of treatment, 5 µ L DCFH-DA working solution (concentration: 0.1 mM) was added to each well and allowed to react with the cells for 30 min before being aspirated out. The cells were then washed twice with 200 µ L 1 × phosphate buffered saline (PBS) buffer; and finally 100 µ L 1 × PBS buffer was added into each well and fluorescence was read at excitation of 485 nm and emission of 528 nm using an Agilent 8453E UV-visible spectroscopy system.
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Globally, water consumption is increasing faster than population growth. In the last century, population increased fourfold but water use increased by a factor of seven (UNDP, 2004). Industrialisation in developing and transitional economies, particularly in Asia, has been linked to substantial increases in water use (WWAP, 2006); an example of this can been seen in Mongolia. The capital city of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, is likely to face a water scarcity problem in the next few years. Short term problems are largely due to increasing water demand, caused by population growth, urbanization and economic development (WRG, 2009). In the longer term, Ulaanbaatar is also likely to see a decrease in its water supply as global warming melts the glaciers, which provide most of the city’s water (Batima et al., 2008). In developing and transit economies, supply side policies have historically dominated urban water policy because they attempt to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, in Mongolia current available hydrologic sources constrain supply. In 2000, the availability of freshwater in Mongolia, was measured by Falkenmarken’s indicator as being between 1700m 3 and 1000m 3 per capita, per year, which represented a water stressed country (Smakhtin et al., 2000), and the UNEP (2002) observed that Mongolia had ‘moderate to high water stress’ (where stress is defined as the consumption of more than 10% of renewable freshwater resources). Moreover, in 2010, the sub-national map of the water stress index was assessed according to country (WASH, 2010), and showed that Mongolia, particularly Ulaanbaatar, belongs in the extreme to high risk range. According to several forecasts, including the Urban Development Master Plan of Ulaanbaatar (UDMP) to 2025, Ulaanbaatar Water and Sewerage Master Plan (UBWSMP) to 2020, and the study of Nemer et al. (2008), Ulaanbaatar will face what is formally defined as water scarcity by 2015 if the population and water usage continue to grow at the levels observed in 2005. Other evidence shows that Ulaanbaatar’s seasonal water shortages are growing ever more common, and in the next 10 years, the city will be facing a critical shortfall in water availability (Emerton et al., 2009). Evidently, Mongolia cannot continue to pursue only supply-side policies.
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The ICP analyses of the Dead Sea brine water that simulates the cases of each ten years interval indicates that the Lithium contents are low and slightly varies with time as far as the intensive water loss is naturally going on. The results revealed that the Lithium concentration is stable and will not show any significant commercial increments. It is ranging between 17 ppm and 23 ppm (Table 2). The investigated samples confront interference problems, which can be reduced by implementing high resolution spectrometers or using inter element correction factor. Other physical problems are viscosity and density; these problems can be reduced by dilution. The chemical problem facing ICP analyses is ionization of Na, K, Rb and Cs. This problem can be minimized by dilution, control plasma or calibration .
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in the pipe in this network is divided equally into two branches, the flow rate in the new branches will be 50% o f the main pipe and the non-dimensional optimum pipe diameter o f the new branches reduces about 29%. The non-dimensional total cost for new pipes is reduced by about 24%. However, the non- dimensional insulation thickness is reduced by only 9%. As a result, this figure suggests that the pipe diameters in the considered hot-water distribution- netw ork system should be reduced satisfactorily, from the energy plant to the end user. B ut the insulation thickness should not be changed too much. In addition, the ratio o f the pipe diam eter o f the branches to the main pipe diameter is about 0.707, which agrees well with the value reported in .