An important reference for the discussion of the marginalized ‘Other’ in The LeftHand
of Darkness is Wendy Pearson’s research on the queer as a traitor towards the norm. In her
research, she illustrates how the Gethenian Estraven could be interpreted as queer and therefore a traitor to the Gethenian society’s perceptions and beliefs. For instance, one of the dominant traits of Estraven, which could be considered traitorous according to Gethen, is how Estraven always treats the alien Genly Ai as an equal, and not as an outsider, and this factor will contribute to the analysis of Estraven’s identity in a later chapter. The relationship between Estraven and Genly will also be analysed to get a further understanding of their presumed ‘othernesses’. For instance, there have been divided opinions in regards to them having sexual intercourse or not; however, Pearson argues against any sexual action ever taking place since such an act “would jeopardize the reader’s ability to believe in Gethen’s androgynes” (82). Accordingly, in the perceptions of Gethenians, Genly is perceived as perverted for always having his genitals visible – just as the so considered “Perverts” and “abnormal” Gethenians – and performing sexual intercourse with him would be erroneous. Thus, the sexual desires Estraven feels for Genly deem him a traitor to his “biological sex and his appropriate gender role” (79). This emphasizes the evident factor that there is just one acceptable sexual orientation on the world of Gethen, and any other actions would go against their society’s heteronormativity. Still, since the Gethenians are by nature ambisexual, and have no fixed gender or gender roles, Pearson argues that “sexual orientation should not be at issue in The
Ursula K. Le Guin’s The LeftHand of Darkness (1969) and Joanna Russ’s The Female Man (1975) are novels that have been classified as science fiction, utopian fiction, and feminist fiction. They were both written during the period of Second Wave Feminism in the US, a period that saw an increase in speculative fiction written by women, and more specifically, feminist speculative fiction. The term “speculative fiction” as I use it here comprises science fiction as well as utopian fiction, and will be discussed further below. Le Guin and Russ’s novels are highly influential works within the field of feminist speculative fiction, and have received considerable attention, both positive and negative, from the time when they were published and until today. Discussion regarding the novels is ongoing and still added to, and it is the general aim of this thesis to extend and hopefully contribute to critical debate through my own particular perspective, which I will describe later in this introduction. Before I do so, however, I will describe some of the generic concepts I will be discussing in my thesis, and their relevance in terms of feminism.
Nicole: When (Donna) was talking about the bird, they sort of both trailed off and just look at the bird and said “For us this is an omen of a death: you know something bad has happened. So we’ll prepare for the worst and within the next couple of days, we will get the news. You held your breath. It almost felt like you’re intruding on this moment, a moment of great significance and importance. We just go (swaying her lefthand), oh yeah..,it’s a bird...oh it’s pretty… and come back to what we were doing - whereas for them it was a very important moment. From the western perspective, you know, we see and hear lots of little omens and you know that this is the sign of bad luck…but we all just laugh about it: a black cat, or a crow or a raven or whatever. All these symbols at one point would have been a really strong and (now) we just (think) it’s something silly.
and therefore the main insight of the approach can be found in Lemma 2. As Diewert (1973) concluded, “it is perhaps somewhat surprising that the [utility function] constructed from a finite body of price and quantity data . . . is continuous, increasing and concave when the decision-maker’s ‘true’ [preference] only satisfies the much weaker regularity conditions . . . thus the data will never be able to reveal backward bending indifference curves or non- convex indifference sets.” Diewert (1973) goes on to quote Samuelson (1950), who made the earlier observation that “any point where the indifference curves are convex rather than concave cannot be observed in a competitive market,” and that “such points are shrouded in eternal darkness.” What this note has highlighted is that the lack of uniqueness of a utility representation in a restricted finite data setting is largely responsible for such an equivalence. When budgets are nonlinear, however, a lack of uniqueness (say, up to affine transfor- mations) of the representation does not necessarily guarantee the equivalence. Indeed, we also require the ratios of utilities (v t 0 − v t )/(v t − v t 00 ) to be bounded from above by ra-
As contained in many literatures, motorway capacity is constrained by factors associated with traffic, ambient and road conditions. Since the study is based on the influence of darkness dry and darkness rainfall on expressway traffic flow characteristics; the primary concern is measuring the number of vehicles passing a given point on the motorway segment under off-peak periods. Peak period counts are excluded in the analysis to remove peak traffic volume effect. Motorways are divided into three sections as shown in Fig. 4.
Although the critic of the Saturday Review opined in 1892 that in Tess ‘Mr. Hardy leaves little unsaid’, Hardy persistently follows narrative strategies of indirection, ellipsis and limited vision in concluding the murder plots of his novels (Cox 1979, p. 189). Once Manston, Boldwood and Tess are caught, they are never seen again: they ‘wal[k] the world no more’ as ugly and intimidating carceral structures conceal their sufferings from the reader (Hardy  2000, p. 333). An ‘acting magistrate’, Hardy admitted ‘that Capital Punishment operates as a deterrent from deliberate crimes against life to an extent that no other form of punishment can rival’, but he was nonetheless deeply ambivalent about ‘the moral right of a community to inflict that punishment’ (Hardy and Hardy [1928/1930] 2007, p. 326). Fiction, as Ferguson suggests, could offer narrative resolutions that not only ‘encourage[d] debate and discussion of legal questions’ but that were ‘often more liberal and judicious than [those] provided by official law’ (Ferguson 2013, pp. 5, 21). While all three fictional murderers are punished (and Tess particularly harshly), the refusal in the novels to narrate their imprisonment and execution arguably represents Hardy’s deliberate decision to avert his gaze in distaste from the workings of a disciplinary system that blots out the protagonists’ ‘deeds of darkness’ with its own, whether in the form of capital punishment or life imprisonment (Hardy  2010, p. 96).
investigated the recurrent restlessness, the imagery of darkness as the redeeming impact of a sullen soul. The fiction of Conrad is basically a discourse on the imperial hegemony and the darkening images as its final aftermath. The story An Outpost of Progress confirms further the beaten milieu of an artist as somber as Conrad and as striking as his razor sharp, piercing claws on the myths generated by the white racism, An Outpost of Progress upholds the lonely image of the individuals recalling almost the doomed fantasies of Lucky and Pozzo.
The Road from Darkness to Light
Shann Ray Ferch
In a world often brimming with disdain, what is hope? And where does hope reside? I grew up in Montana, a state that boasts miles of open land split by the rugged and sometimes brutal heights of one hundred mountain ranges. For me, hope is found in nature, in wilderness, and in the wilderness that exists inside people. Servant-leadership, a way of being that is characterized by wisdom, freedom, health, and autonomy; it is a source of hope in all the complexity and chaos of the present day. Contrary to the hyperspeed of the contemporary age, I’ve found there are those who walk toward the dawn, and having traversed the night’s darkness they emerge unafraid. When we return from walking such roads we are never the same again.
On the other hand, the larger taxa at Sourhope – collembola, mites, earthworms, basidiomycete fungi – were not especially rich: the exceptional diversity in soils may be confined to the smallest organisms. This pattern may also reflect the physical nature of soil: as a solid medium, it displays extreme heterogeneity at a range of temporal and spatial scales, with closely adjacent patches having quite distinct characteristics (Jackson & Caldwell 1993; Fitter 1994; Ettema & Wardle 2002). One consequence is that there is the potential for many taxa to coexist in soil, exploiting different spatial locations with varying effectiveness, or reacting to temporal heterogeneity on distinct time-scales; another is that the structure of soil is fractal, and in fractal sys- tems there is fundamentally more space available to smaller organisms (Morse et al . 1985). That hetero- geneity is likely to be the key to understanding soil biodiversity is emphasized by the very different picture that emerges from studies of marine nematodes, where early expectations that the taxon would prove to be hyperdiverse are now being scaled back (Lambshead & Boucher 2003). There is a good theoretical basis for expecting diversity to be high in systems where popu- lations are aggregated, irrespective of whether they partition resources (Kouki & Hanski 1995; Harley & Shorrocks 2002), although the models have not previ- ously been applied to soil ecosystems.
Figure 1. A schematic representation of a PEO coatings: mushroom conformation on the lefthand
side and brush conformation on the right hand side.
Influence of PEO coatings on microbial adhesion. It is expected that PEO coatings are generally anti-adhesive. We found very low adhesion for 7 medical strains and also, in experiments not reported in this thesis, for the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus 138-2, the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis 168 and the oral bacterium Streptococcus mitis BA. Several microbial strains used in this thesis are able to adhere to a PEO coating, these were however specifically selected for their adhesive nature to provide more scientific insight.
The DSA recognise the importance of positioning in bends, and this is included in the road test. Novice riders preparing for the DSA test are formally taught to change their position to the left to increase visibility on a right hand bend, and to maintain a dominant (centre of lane) position on a lefthand bend, balancing visibility with the need to avoid oncoming traffic which is close to the centre line. Furthermore, novices are taught to consider the physics of the motorcycle when navigating a bend: Given that riders typically lean towards oncoming traffic on a right-hand bend, and towards road furniture on a left-hand bend, taking a severe progressive line could mean that there is more danger of the rider coming into contact with other objects, even if the wheels of the motorcycle are within the correct lane. However, despite their recent training, novices are more likely to be involved in accidents on bends, so we might expect this group to choose sub-optimal positioning and speeds around bends compared to the experienced and advanced riders. For instance, over-confidence might lead them to take a more pronounced racing line which eschews safety concerns. Alternatively, it is plausible that they try to optimise visibility but still under-estimate speed.
In the novel An Area of Darkness India seems to be Naipaul’s area of Darkness. Here, the question arises, what are the main issues which trouble him most as presented in this novel. The story of this novel is a semi autobiographical account of Naipaul’s Journey in India in 1964. He spent almost a year in different parts of India. He seems to have a pre-determined conviction of speaking all against India. He depicts the plight of the Eastern world, not only of India, but of Africa as well. The writer who to full of preconceived notions about India expresses a bitter experience of his one year stay in India. It seems to me that he has written the book An Area of Darkness with a set temperament of criticizing India and its people. The picture of India, which he describes during his visit, was too severe and cruel for him and he could not maintain
Being attached to Judaism in the Israeli center-left and left is a rather new phenomenon. The historic labor left in Israel was mostly secular, and saw the Jewish sacred texts as a source of inspiration only. There used to be a clear dividing line between the right and left according to the individual’s religiosity, with the left being secular and the right being more traditional and orthodox. This dividing line is becoming less clear with many voices on the left reclaiming Judaism. Carrie, who is a MK from a centrist party is a scholar of Talmud, being elected to fight for a more inclusive definition of Judaism in the Knesset. Parker, who is a scholar of religion, is a strong voice of the Israeli left, which is supplanted in his understanding of Judaism and religion. Garry and Goldie are unwilling to let go of the struggle for their Jewish identity, while trying to constantly redefine the labels themselves. Zeke works for an internationally lauded Human Rights organization and insists on keeping kosher and being a Masorti (Tradition- al) Jew even though his surroundings are mostly secular. These individuals who made a conscious decision to ques- tion and define their personal relationship with Judaism, also insisted, in our interviews, to base their opposition on not only political explanations, but on religious ones too. Garry explained that the Israeli left’s politicians funda- mentally don’t understand religion and religious people - “they don't understand what they're about; they can't un- derstand what they're about. They do not have the basic educational tools to read an essay by Shlomo Aviner, by Avi Haimasnky, or Tzvi Yehuda Kook [Rabbis of the Israeli Right] … . And you want them to understand the dis- tinction between a liberal protestant and a conservative protestant, and a conservative protestant and a fundamental- ist? A dispensationalist and a non dispensationalist, and a pre-millenialist and a post millenialist, give me a break! So they just don't get it.” The interviewees who had taken the time to explore their religion felt that they did “get it”, and felt that their explanation to their opposition was broad and nuanced. Most of them, even if they were not scholars of Christianity, insisted on making nuanced points and refused to use a monolithic definition of the evan- gelical community, but were opposed only to the vocal evangelicals who support Israel in a way they were opposed to.
Thus, the verification of the existence of a solution of the problem (11) and its finding reduces to solving two problems of quadratic programming (13) and (14). In the case when a solution of the problem (11) does not exist, the improper problem (10) can be approximated by the LP problem with a nonempty admissible set by correction matrix of the left-hand side of constraints with a norm arbitrarily close to the value (12) under ||x|| → ∞. Thus the resulting LP problem again is not a proper one (if hc, xi → ∞).
The Nile is the world's longest river. It is over 4000 miles long! It is shaped like the lotus flower so often seen in ancient Egyptian art. Each spring, water would run off the mountains and the Nile would flood. As the flood waters receded, black rich fertile soil was left behind. The ancient Egyptian called this rich soil The Gift of the Nile. Fertile soil for crops was not the Nile's only gift. The Nile gave the ancient Egyptians many gifts. Thanks to the Nile, these ancient people had fresh water for drinking and bathing. The Nile supported transportation and trade. It provided materials for
The European colonialist has brought diseases with him to Africa which accentuates darkness instead of lightness. The condition of Africa was portrayed miserable on account of “pestilence” has not left any place in it without decentralising and obliterating it completely. For instance, the real image of the Congo is an example of the European colonization. Marlow discovers once the bad effects of imperialism in the “grove of death” (35). Throughout the existence of colonisation in Africa(France & Belgium for example), the portrait of health has declined. That is to say, diseases and pains only exist and coexist with the natives of Africa. This indicates the ruthlessness and cruelty of the colonisation. Is it fair to live an incessant life upon the other’s one? Actually, I think that the African natives have nothing to do with the European conquerors, for this (defeating the colonisers) needs “only brute force” that will make the oppressed populations to regain their kidnapped identity, history and home (19).