Whatever the reasons and conduits for it, there can be no doubt of Ford’s interest in the Medici in general and in Medici-related plays in particular. The Fancies, Chaste and Noble (1638), in particular, clearly draws on the plot of Women Beware Women, to which it owes a character called Livio who is, as he thinks, offered a promotion at court in exchange for pandering the honour of a female member of his family, as Livio in Women Beware Women is. It also closely echoes some lines from Massinger’s The Great Duke of Florence (1636), for which Ford wrote commendatory verses, and it may well owe the character name Morosa to James Shirley’s 1635 play The Traitor, which tells the story of the assassination of Alessandro, the first Medici duke. The Fancies’ marquis of Siena might perhaps be influenced by Fynes Moryson’s account of Duke Francesco de’ Medici, husband of Bianca Cappello: Moryson says that Duke Francesco was “giuen much to his studdyes, hauing invented the melting of Cristall of the mountayne, and delighting to make Porcellana d’India which wee call China dishes, and to Cutt Jewells, and sett the false to make them appeare true” (Hughes 1903: 95). In Ford’s play, the marquis commends knowledge of jewels, saying that “’Tis a proper quality / For any Gentleman” (5.3.45-6). Finally, in Ford’s last play, The Lady’s Trial (1639), the phrase “Beso las manos” (2.1.14) echoes Massinger’s The Great Duke of Florence (III.i, sig. Gv), and Castanna is detained to see pictures while an attempt is made on Spinella’s chastity, in another obvious echo of Women Beware Women.
designers, artisans or workshops, either for practical or decorative purposes. The Armillery Sphere (inventory no. 714) designed by Antonio Santucci is arguably the most significant example of a Medici commission within the collection. Made at the bequest of Ferdinando I it was meant to represent the universal machine of the world. 8 Its opulence and grandeur displays the wealth and power of the Medicifamily and the coat of arms on the outer ring is a distinct symbol difficult to miss by those who viewed the sphere. However it was not made purely to be a decorative symbol of their worldly importance, wealth and power. It also heralds Ferdinando’s mastery of cosmography and involvement in the sciences as it was a working sphere and an astrological instrument both beautiful and practical. The sphere emphasises in particular how knowledge of the original housing of the collection and the placing of specific items is important to understanding the item itself. The sphere was originally mounted between two important globes in the room of Mathematics in the Uffizi which highlights just how treasured an item it was. This project is also significant as it marked Ferdinando’s continuation of his father’s grand cosmographic project that Francesco only partially continued. 9 Without this continuation of dedication to cosmography and astrology, the collection may not have grown to the extent that it did. The sphere then can be viewed as a symbol of the wealth Ferdinando was prepared to dedicate to these impressive scientific projects. It is this kind of dedication that continued on throughout the dynasty, seen in the 1657 founding of the Accademia del Cimento by Prince Leopoldo and the Grand Duke Ferdinand II de’ Medici. It was Europe’s first scientific society where a great level of devotion to the production of purpose-built instruments and experimentation was shown. Certain objects of the collection however were for entirely decorative rather practical purposes, which can be seen in some of the items housed in Room VI regarding the science of warfare. The more finely detailed and ornately decorated instruments were created as apparatuses of beauty intended for display and most likely never saw battle, whilst others were designed for practicality and precision. Ferdinando II dedicated much of his time to the exploration of natural sciences and experimentation in mathematics with other members of his court, so as a
This paper makes some relevant contributions to the previous business and economics literature shedding new light on financial practices and innovations at that time able to affect the real economy in following centuries. In detail we found evidence that the Banco de’ Medici was essentially a bank holding company, the first in Europe and that it facilitated both domestic and international trade with its structure and practices. It should be noticed that the Medicifamily cleverly used its holding company structure to provide strong incentives for individual bank managers to perform more effectively and to facilitate the techniques of the day that were used to circumvent very problematic usury laws. In the end, with this article we also make some relevant contributions to the accounting literature shedding new light on the adoption of double-entry accounting methods before the Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalità of Luca Pacioli and on the accounting treatment of the uncollected credits.
and family; and (c) social integration: the promotion of social integration and solidarity between generations. There has been an X-ray of the current situation of the family from the data which were collected in The World Family Map (2013). Flaquer (2002) argues that the current family change can be reduced: a decline in the birth rate, incorporation of women to the world of work and increase of the marital breakdown. The increase in the number of extramarital births, without a cohabitation link and divorce, mainly in the Americas and Europe is changing the meaning of marriage. In most cultures, marriage has been considered as the main institution for conceiving and raising children (Chapais, 2008). However, this vision of the family as the basic cell of society (Crosnoe, 2004) has been transformed. Therefore, marriage is no longer the only possibility of intimate rela- tionship between adults, becoming a majority option.
Family size has long been of interest to researchers, particularly because of the strong empirical regularity that children from larger families tend to have poorer outcomes. There is an extensive theoretical literature on the tradeoff between child quantity and quality within a family that dates back to Becker (1960) and Becker and Lewis (1973). The theory is often cited and is used as the basis for many macro growth models (see Becker and Barro (1988) and Doepke (2003)). A key element of the quantity-quality model is an interaction between quantity and quality in the budget constraint that leads to rising marginal costs of quality with respect to family size; this generates a tradeoff between quality and quantity. 1 But is this tradeoff real? In particular, is it true that having a larger family has a causal effect on the “quality” (in our case IQ) of the children? Or is it the case that families who choose to have more children are (inherently) different, and the children would have lower IQs regardless of family size?
What is certain is that the notion of resilience commits the user to a certain set of values and can be seen to be normative in nature and is based on far-reaching ontological and epistemological assumptions about the nature of the underlying system and how it is constructed and operated. Social systems are multi-layered social components within which the entity operates and governs how the system is perceived and understood. The very concept of resilience does not define what action to take to provide a suitable outcome. For example, a civilian community exposed to war could present resilience as dispersing to live in another country or seeing the conflict through to the end; both are potential solutions to an identical situation. Thus, migration can be seen as either a successful adaption or collapse. In the context of a family business, internal family or inter-family feuds or divorce between key family members or even dispute between the founder and their children can all have different interpretations of success. For example, a family member employee developing a drug dependency will have an impact on the business but also produce a much greater legacy on different family members. As such judgements depend on the values and beliefs that shape the perspective of the actor participants and potentially their broader stakeholder communities, this is an aspect that has relevance in our analysis.
15 joined the firm at the expressed request of the founder and older sibling. After demonstrating business success in addressing these issues, the second sibling still did not hold an independent leadership role in the business. He assumed a major independent leadership role after insistently requesting a major role. Analysis of the data from all of the interviews related to this case supports that it was around this point that the second sibling was viewed as trustworthy in independently making business decisions. In another succession to a family member (C1, F), the founder reported a conversation that prompted him to, for the first time, consider retirement. It was only after this decision and the process of identifying family members as successors (previously the plan had been to sell to the partners, but when the time came, the partners were also interested in retirement and not interested in buying each other out) did the founder begin to create the scenario in which the family member successor could develop business
uttered, Browne is one of the “best of men” who seems to lack a place in our current imagination. New York Review Books Classics has partially rectified this lacuna with a new combined edition of two of Browne’s most important works, Religio Medici and Urne-Buriall, edited by Stephen Greenblatt and Ramie Targoff.
ownership stake do not choose only family chair. This shows that in firms with high family ownership stake the family retains control through the position as the CEO, while the position as the chairman differs. On the one hand this indicates that the second agency problem (A2) in this particular situation is reduced seeing that the family does not exploit minority owners through taking control of the board. On the other hand the results might be due to the low number of owners in family firms, as approximately 35% of all family firms are single-owner firms (Bøhren 2011). In firms with equity of NOKM 3 or higher, the single-owner can either be the CEO or the chairman of the board, but can only hold one position at a time (Lov om Aksjeselskaper 1997). The large negative coefficient for the choice of family chair indicates for these firms it is more likely that the owner holds the position as the CEO rather the than the chairman position. However, this logic will not hold for all companies seeing that 54% of all companies in the CCGR database have the same person being the CEO and chairman of the board Berzins, Bøhren and Rydland (2008) 6 . This means that a great fraction of the population’s family
Families are a foundational structure of society that play a critical role in the health and well-being of communities. Every aspect of the American family is experiencing change, including the number of adults who marry, the number of households that are formed by married people, the number of children that are conceived, and the number of non-family households (Nock, 2005). Considering these trends, programming to strengthen family relationships is particularly relevant and urgent. Research suggests that family camps — typically a residential multi-day camp experience designed for children and family members — can play a role in enhancing family functioning (Agate & Covey, 2007).
activities are managed and organized. This implies that in the future the firm may be forced to operate under constraining organizational actions that could have been avoided by not adopting the innovation. As a result, family firms are likely to show a lower propensity to adopt innovations compared to their non-family counterparts. However, once the firm has decided to adopt an innovation, the high discretion of family firms due to the personalized control that characterizes them, lowers the barriers to integrating the innovation and its actual use. The uncertainty surrounding adoption is especially high when a firm is confronted with a discontinuous
Cultural Competence and Cultural Diversity are pro- foundly interconnected to the concept and practice of family-centered care. In fact, Cultural Competence is nec- essary in providing care to culturally diverse families. Family-centered care values the strengths, cultures, tradi- tions and expertise that everyone brings to a respectful family/professional partnership, where families feel they can be decision makers with providers at different levels, in the care of their own children and as advocates for sys- tems and policies supportive of children and youth with special health care needs. It requires culturally competent attitudes and practices in order to develop and cultivate those partnerships and to have the knowledge and skills that will enable the health care practitioners to be "family- centered" with the many diverse families that exist and they interact with. Various and untraditional strategies can also be adopted to support health system in providing proper care to sick children, including those who are hos- pitalized. For instance, building relationships with com- munity cultural brokers, is an approach that can help health care institutions and health care professionals in understanding rules and behaviors of different communi- ties [25-29].
The court found that the application was not received in time as the instructions clearly stated that applications must be physically received by November 5, 2011 and also explicitly stated that a postmark before that date would not be sufficient. The applicant argued that while subsection 87.3(1) of IRPA authorizes the Minister to control the number of applications considered, the Minister could not stop all parent/grandparent applications because section 13 of the Act confers a right to sponsor a family member and setting the number of parent/grandparent applications at zero effectively nullifies a right granted by Parliament. The court found that the right to sponsor a parent/grandparent pursuant to subsection 13(1) can be restricted or modified by regulation, and in the absence of regulation by ministerial instruction.
The sample contains 804 family-owned and unlisted SMEs registered on an annual list of Portuguese companies, the “Estatuto PME líder” list published by IAPMEI – the Support Institute for Small- and Medium-Sized Companies and Innovation. We collected the data via a questionnaire sent out directly to the postal addresses of FBs whose headquarters were in mainland Portugal. Furthermore, we applied the following definition of FB: “the company is classified as a family-owned business when it obtains a degree of involvement in various dimensions of the company (e.g., ownership, management, experience and culture) of at least 50 percentage points on the F-PEC scale”. This definition integrates components involving the family’s influence (Astrachan et al., 2002; Klein et al., 2005), enabling the company to obtain a different ranking across each one of the dimensions. We received 169 valid questionnaires corresponding to a response rate of 21%, an acceptable value in this research field (e.g., Chrisman et al., 2012).
Conceptualizations of family are often solidified through marriages but blurred by separation, divorce, remarriage, and death (Carroll, et al., 2007; Lin, et al., 2004; Pasley & Ihinger-Tallman, 1989; Walker & Messinger, 1979). Rosenberg and Guttmann (2001) examined concepts of family among married and divorced families and found that although all children identified their mothers as part of the family, 30% of children with divorced parents did not identify their father as part of the family, while 43% of divorced mothers still identified their ex-husbands as part of the family (Rosenberg & Guttmann, 2001). Remarriages and stepfamilies further influence the complexity in defining a family. Due to changes in family formation, individuals in a family tend to have varying perspectives of family based on their personal interactions with one another and their own perspective of what defines family (Pasley & Ihinger-Tallman, 1989; Rosenberg & Guttmann, 2001; Walker & Messinger, 1979). For example, family boundary ambiguity was found to be higher among cohabiting stepfamilies than two- parent, single-parent, and married step-families (Brown & Manning, 2009). Family boundary ambiguity may be especially heightened in the case where stepfamily members do not reside in the same residence or on a full time basis (Pasley & Ihinger-Tallman, 1989; Stewart, 2005).
Salvato (2002) identifies three types of family firms, namely the founder-centred family firm, the sibling or cousin consortium with full family ownership and management, and the open family firm with a mixture of family and non-family ownership and management structures. In summarizing our discussion from the previous sections, we suggest that in each of these types of firms, financial rewards and their allocation are influenced by different configurations of altruism and trust, which in turn influence levels of stewardship or agency: In the founder-centred family firm, it may be assumed that levels of trust are high and symmetric altruism prevails, resulting in stewardship relations influencing financial reward decision. In sibling / cousin consortiums levels of trust and altruism may have decreased, warranting the need for a shift from stewardship-based towards more agency-based relationships in deciding on financial rewards. Finally, in open family firms, levels of trust and altruism may be assumed to be lower in comparison to founder-centred firms, resulting in formal regulations and mechanisms for financial rewards. This approach highlights the importance of contextualising financial rewards decisions within the family and the business, and suggests that in relation to financial rewards within family firms, stewardship and agency may be seen as a duality, with both simultaneously influencing types and allocation of financial rewards.
Chapter One shared the professional experiences as a student and a teacher that led to questioning what can be done as a Spanish-speaking teacher to help Latino families better understand their child’s literacy learning and teach them ways to further help their children. An inner city school in Minneapolis, MN started implementing “Family Read In’s” on the first Friday of each month. Families were invited to the school to read in their child’s classroom. This was just a start to getting parents involved, it was during these “Family Read In’s” that teachers realized that Latino parent involvement looked different compared to what they have viewed as normal parent involvement.
The unique differences between family and non-family firms prompted family business research and the theory of the family firm to develop. As the theory of the family firm emerged and advanced, researchers identified differences not only between family and non-family firms, but also among family firms themselves. Family involvement in business tends to vary in family firms, resulting in variant forms of family governance and, in turn, idiosyncratic family firm strategies, behaviors, and performance. For example, family governance through ownership, management, and other governance mechanisms can differentially influence firm strategies such as innovation and firm performance. Hence, there has been a strong need to study and to learn more about these differences among family firms. This Special Issue informs both theory and practice through a further investigation of family firms’ heterogeneity by taking a closer look at different configurations of family governance and how they influence family firm outcomes by drawing upon different theoretical perspectives such as SEW view, transaction cost, equity, and organizational justice theories.