The Neolithic Revolution

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Long-Run Cultural Divergence: Evidence From the Neolithic Revolution

Long-Run Cultural Divergence: Evidence From the Neolithic Revolution

In this paper, we have outlined an agricultural origins-theory of cultural divergence, argu- ing that differences in norms along the collectivism-individualism dimension can ultimately be traced back to the Neolithic revolution. Due to the nature of early agricultural pro- duction, the high risk of predation from neighbouring peoples, and the high prevalence of infectious disease in the early farming villages, the population in the agricultural core region of Western Eurasia very early developed strong collectivistic cultural norms. Given the threat of extinction in the core, people with individualistic cultural norms chose to migrate and set up farming villages in frontier territories. When collectivistic norms again strengthened also in the new territories, new groups of individualistic migrants pushed the frontier towards the northwest of Europe. In this way, the most individualistic farmers self-selected into eventually occupying the northwestern periphery in Europe in current Great Britain and Scandinavia. This bias in cultural norms towards more individualism in regions that adopted agriculture relatively late, is predicted to have persisted to the present day.
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The Climatic Origins of the Neolithic Revolution: Theory and Evidence

The Climatic Origins of the Neolithic Revolution: Theory and Evidence

In revealing the climatic origins of the transition to agriculture, this research contributes to the literature on the long-run determinants of comparative economic development. The di¤erential timing of the emergence of agriculture led to the early rise of civilizations and conferred a developmental head-start of thousands of years to early agriculturalists. Diamond (1997) argues that the surplus generated by the superior agricultural mode of production made possible the establishment of a non-producing class whose members were crucial for the rapid development of written language and science, and for the formation of cities, technology-based military powers and nation states. Interestingly, Olsson and Hibbs (2005) show that geography and biogeography may, in part, predict contemporary levels of economic development through the di¤erential timing of the transition to agriculture, whereas Ashraf and Galor (2010) establish the Malthusian link from technological advancement to population growth, demonstrating the explanatory power of the timing of the Neolithic Revolution for population density in pre-industrial societies.
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The Neolithic Revolution from a price theoretic perspective

The Neolithic Revolution from a price theoretic perspective

A variety of theories has been advanced to explain the emergence of agriculture. These range from excessive hunting (Smith 1975) to warfare (Rowthorn and Seabright 2008) and climate change (Dow et al. 2009). Theories on the adoption of agriculture have been extensively surveyed by Weisdorf (2005), who also surveys the main hypotheses forwarded by anthropologists and archaeologists. Therefore, we limit this review to previous explanations for the loss of welfare that followed the Neolithic Revolution.

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The Neolithic Revolution from a price theoretic perspective

The Neolithic Revolution from a price theoretic perspective

A variety of theories have been advanced to explain the emergence of agriculture. These range from excessive hunting (Smith, 1975), to warfare (Rowthorn and Seabright, 2008), to climatic variation (Dow et al., 2009). Theories on the adoption of agriculture have been extensively surveyed by Weisdorf (2005) and Sharp and Weisdorf (2009). We will thus limit this review to previous explanations for the loss of welfare that followed the Neolithic Revolution.

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SUSTAINABILITY Of AGRICULTURE: THE NEOLITHIC DILEMMA

SUSTAINABILITY Of AGRICULTURE: THE NEOLITHIC DILEMMA

As suggested by Scott (2017), prior to The Neolithic Period, for roughly two hundred thousand years, modern humans lived as hunter-gatherers. Then, about twelve thousand years ago, came what is said to be our ascent to planetary dominance: the Neolithic revolution. This was our adoption of agricultural innovations that includes the domestication of animals including cows and pigs, and the transition from hunting gathering to planting and cultivating crops. The most important of these crops have been wheat, barley, rice and maize that remain the staples of humanity’s diet. These cereal grains allowed population growth and the birth of cities and the rise of complex societies (Lanchester, 2017) (see Figure #2). As a result of this societal shift to an agrarian society has, over time caused threats of water shortages to a quarter of humanity (see Figure #3). Worldwide, seventeen countries are currently at risk of running out of water. Climate change is making the problem worse (Sengupta & Cai, 2019).
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Toward a microbial Neolithic revolution in buildings

Toward a microbial Neolithic revolution in buildings

The Neolithic revolution — the transition of our species from hunter and gatherer to cultivator — began approximately 14,000 years ago and is essentially complete for macroscopic food. Humans remain largely pre- Neolithic in our relationship with microbes but starting with the gut we continue our hundred-year project of approaching the ability to assess and cultivate benign microbiomes in our bodies. Buildings are analogous to the body and it is time to ask what it means to cultivate benign microbiomes in our built environment. A critical distinction is that we have not found, or invented, niches in buildings where healthful microbial metabolism occurs and/or could be cultivated. Key events affecting the health and healthfulness of buildings such as a hurricane leading to a flood or a burst pipe occur only rarely and unpredictably. The cause may be transient but the effects can be long lasting and, e.g., for moisture damage, cumulative. Non-invasive “ building tomography ” could find moisture and “ sentinel microbes ” could record the integral of transient growth. “ Seed ” microbes are metabolically inert cells able to grow when conditions allow. All microbes and their residue present actinic molecules including immunological epitopes (molecular shapes). The fascinating hygiene and microbial biodiversity hypotheses propose that a healthy immune system requires exposure to a set of microbial epitopes that is rich in diversity. A particular conjecture is that measures of the richness of diversity derived from microbiome next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be mechanistically coupled to — rather than merely correlated with some measures of — human health. These hypotheses and conjectures inspire workers and funders but an alternative is also consequent to the first Neolithic revolution: That the genetic uniformity of contemporary foods may also decrease human exposure to molecular biodiversity in a heath-relevant manner. Understanding the consequences — including the unintended
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A Mycorrhizal Revolution

A Mycorrhizal Revolution

Current Opinion in Plant Biology 2018, 44:1–6 The presence of symbioses with Glomeromycotina and Mucoromycotina in non-vascular and early vascular plants, in conjunction with evidence fo[r]

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Transforming the Upper Mesopotamian Landscape in the Late Neolithic

Transforming the Upper Mesopotamian Landscape in the Late Neolithic

Recent work has shown that the later seventh millennium was a period of pro- found cultural transformation (Akkermans et al. 2006; Akkermans 2013b; Nieu- wenhuyse et al. 2016c; Nieuwenhuyse in press, a, in press b). How did this affect the Late Neolithic landscape? If one were to limit the discussion to the major river systems, the available evidence would suggest a reduction in sedentary set- tlement in the later seventh millennium, followed by a slow increase in the early sixth millennium BC. Rapid changes in the styles of decorated pottery are a hall- mark of this period, allowing archaeologists to distinguish shorter time slices. In the valleys of the Euphrates, the Upper Tigris, the Balikh, and the Upper Khabur, sites dated to the pre-Halaf, Transitional, and Early Halaf (Halaf I) stages are rela- tively scarce. They are all situated in the northern parts of their respective valleys (Akkermans 1993: 172–79, figs. 5.3 to 5.5; Cruells, Molist, and Tunca 2004; Koz- be 2013; Nieuwenhuyse 2000; Nieuwenhuyse and Wilkinson 2008; Tekin 2017). Sites were mostly very small, not surpassing 1 or 2 ha in size; the occasional “cen- tral” sites reached a little more than 3.5 ha in size (Akkermans 1993: 191–203).
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Anatomy of a Revolution

Anatomy of a Revolution

like the brain of one of the lower animals; the brain being The genetics of nutrition: The remarkable develop- seated within the anterior end of the body, receiving ments in Arabidopsis research will form the vanguard impressions from the sense organs and directing the sev- of the third revolution in agriculture. As Jared Dia- eral movements.

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Romance and revolution

Romance and revolution

The editors of Manifestos suggest that revolution is needed. Is it? British academics may have been ‘subjected’ to managerialist discourses, but they have learned to work with them in a way which meshes with local practices and knowledges (Prichard and Willmott, 1997). Individual and collective resistance is one result of this; we even find attempts to sustain a ‘scholarly craft ethic’ (Barry et al., 2001). So perhaps we and the students we teach might survive after all… just like everyone else has so far under managerialism.

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Chapter VI: Early Neolithic sites in Thessaly

Chapter VI: Early Neolithic sites in Thessaly

tural remains. As at Sesklo the Pre-Pottery stratum contained pits which had been dug into the sterile soil. All have a northeast/southwest orientation. The fact that one pit cuts through three others led the excavator to conclude that they belong to two diffe- rent phases at least. The pits were related to some postholes of unknown purpose. The excavator (Mi- lojcic 1962 p. 24) surmised that at least one of the pits served for grain storage. In the lowest Ie vel of the pottery hearing Neolithic, traces of a rectangular building have been discovered. This had a North- South orientation and measured some 4 x 5 m. The walls had been constructed with posts. Remains of a simple hearth have been found in the northwest corner. In short they are of a conception which seems slightly different from the dwellings at Sesklo.
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Revolution, or not Revolution: That is the Question: Investigating the Pedagogies of ‘Crazy English’

Revolution, or not Revolution: That is the Question: Investigating the Pedagogies of ‘Crazy English’

Although Li Yang claims that language learning is physical work, in practice CE activities also reflect learning as skill training, a stance which mirrors cognitive theory to some extent[r]

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Settlement and land use in early Neolithic Denmark

Settlement and land use in early Neolithic Denmark

The second observation is related to the func- tion of the scrapers. The range of materials worked seems to conform to the use-pattern otherwise found on Danish scrapers, with hide and wood being the most common causes of wear. However, the ratio between the two mate- rials is not the same from one site and time to the other. Thus observations on 122 scrapers found in a single ditch at the Middle Neolithic site of Sarup showed a different distribution with wood-working scrapers being by far the most dominant functional type (84%), while tra- ces of hide working were found on only 14% of the scrapers (Jeppesen in press). Likewise, analyses of samples or total collections of scra- pers from a series of Danish mesolithic sites show significant differences in the hide/wood ratio from one site to the other (Juel Jensen 1981, 1982a and b; Rasmussen 1981).
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The Mesolithic/Neolithic Transformation in the Lower Rhine Basin

The Mesolithic/Neolithic Transformation in the Lower Rhine Basin

Figure 10 Earher phases of the Neohthic in the western part of the North European Plain Ephemeral sites and stray implements from three successive stages show a growmg mtensity in contac[r]

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The knowledge revolution

The knowledge revolution

Exampl es ar e comput er s and sof t war e, t el ecommuni cat i ons and bi ot echnol ogy, ent er t ai nment and f i nanci al mar ket s, desi gn and ani mat i on, and al l ser vi ces base[r]

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A revolution for the at risk

A revolution for the at risk

Reduced engagement with social stimuli in 6-month-old infants with later autism spectrum disorder: a longitudinal prospective study of infants at high familial risk.. Journal of Neurodev[r]

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The Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution

However, as highlighted in the introductory paragraph, the combination of worsening economic conditions, political nepotism, and corruption, the increasing influence of the religious clergy as well as the emergence of vibrant protestors proved to be a lethal cocktail for the Shah ’s regime. In February of 1979 the Iranian Islamic Revolution proved to be successful and Ayatollah Khomeini was given the role of being the leader of the revolution, primarily due to the fact that there was an absence of another organized political leader. The Shah fled to Japan and Khomeini finally returned to Iran after being in exile for 15 years and was jubilantly welcomed in Iran by the people. Iran was officially declared an Islamic Republic in 1979, and the state became a theocracy in practice, demonstrated by the fact that the Quran was designated to be the constitution of the country (150).
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Biotechnology and the Politics of Truth : From the Green Revolution to an Evergreen Revolution

Biotechnology and the Politics of Truth : From the Green Revolution to an Evergreen Revolution

This paper investigates why and how issues around the diffusion of genetically modified (GM) technologies and products to developing countries have become so central to a debate which has shifted away from technical issues of cost-benefit optimisation in a context of uniform mass production and consumption in the North, to the moral case for GM crops to feed the hungry and aid 'development' in the South. This has led to a revival of discourses from the Green Revolution era of 1965-80, in which high yielding crop varieties and an associated technology/policy package were exported via an international network of agricultural research institutes and donors to Asia and Latin America.
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The digital revolution

The digital revolution

The insights gleaned from this scientific approach to talent would enable companies to not only improve the likelihood of hiring candidates who will succeed, but also develop trainin[r]

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The State and Revolution

The State and Revolution

"France  is  the  country  where,  more  than  anywhere  else,  the  historical  class  struggles  were  each  time  fought  out  to  a  finish,  and  where, consequently,  the  chan[r]

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