The Occult

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The Default Art of Classifying the Occult

The Default Art of Classifying the Occult

Another way to proceed is to look at the part of the incumbent term that was amputated: sciences. Did many catalogers or perhaps even just one cataloger somewhere question the applicability of the term science to the topics ranged under this heading? Though by no means undisputed, some historians of science claim that the “occult” and “occult sciences” were initially and then progressively marginalized from the seventeenth century on, with particular strength and effectiveness beginning in the 19 th century. 91 Whether or not this claim is entirely warranted, even in our narrow scope we have seen that new rules were being applied to what did and did not constitute science during this chronological window. The issue was by no means limited to historians of science. In the mid-1970s Marcello Truzzi, a sociologist, described the occult as a “residual category” or more unkindly, as a “wastebasket” for deviant knowledge claims that “do not fit the established claims of science or religion.” 92 In 1987, then, with the issue raised by at least one cataloger (who is now long since anonymous) it appears that a committee of catalogers (comprised of people equally unknown to us) were convinced that occult sciences were definitely not science or even sciences.
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Cervical lymph node metastases in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Cervical lymph node metastases in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

of patients without the number of patients with neck dis- section. Seven studies involved the cases of patients with neck dissection, 4 of which included occult metastases. The overall metastases rate was defined as the ratio between the number of pathological node positive (pN + ) cases and total cases. During the follow-up period, patients without neck dissection initially presenting with regional metastases or recurrence would also be considered as pN + cases. The occult metastases rate was defined as the ratio between the number of cN-pN + cases and total cN0 cases. 26 Detailed information
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Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm infection from August 2011 to July, 2012 in Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram). Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques were followed for this epidemiological study. The criteria to determine the occult heartworm cases were based on the dif- ferences between heartworm positive cases in PCR test and antigen ELISA test.

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Hypoglycemia Controlled by Prednisone in an Occult Insulinoma or a Nesidioblastosis

Hypoglycemia Controlled by Prednisone in an Occult Insulinoma or a Nesidioblastosis

Insulinoma is a pancreatic endocrine tumor lower in size than 20 mm in 80% of the cases and his treatment is chirurgical. However, in certain circums- tances such as an occult location or circumstances of metastases, medical treatment is called for. Observation: A 29 years old patient with no specific pathological antecedents has presented severe hypoglycemia mainly in the morning. A patient was in a generally good condition. The fasting test re- vealed an inappropriate secretion of insulin at a venous glycemia of 0.35 g/l; which was corroborated by Turner index and altered glucose insulin index that we calculated. Moreover, the 8 h cortisolemia was normal at 90.13 ng/l, the TSH was normal at 1.44 µui/l, anti-insulin antibodies were negative at 6.7 U/l; the search of hypoglycemic sulfonamides was negative. Morphologically, she had three pancreatic tomodensitometry these were normal. She also had echo-endoscopy which showed a normal pancreas. The surgical exploration with preoperative echo is advised only after surgeon’s assessment when the technical conditions are not put together. The diagnosis of the occult insuli- noma or of nesidioblastosis was retained. The medical treatment was re- tained. Due to the unavailability of diazoxide in our pharmacies and the high cost of analogs of somatostatine, she was provided with prednisone 0.5 mg/kg/24h which was 40 mg/day after common agreement. The evolution was favorable. Conclusion: It should be noticed that medical treatment can be suggested if insulinoma is not localized. This observation proves that the localization of the insulinoma can be unsuccessful. It should also be noticed that our experience is the fourth described in literature, where hypoglycemia in insulinomas is controlled by prednisone.
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Foveal structure during the induction phase of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for occult choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

Foveal structure during the induction phase of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for occult choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

No significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups (Table 1). No systemic events were observed in two groups. The age of the patients ranged from 53 to 93 years (75 ± 8 years [mean ± standard deviation]) in the IAI group and 76 ± 8 years in the IVR group (P = 0.755). The IAI group included 27 male and two female patients, and the IVR group included 59 male and 12 female patients (P = 0.339). The disc areas of the occult CNV seen on the fluorescein angiography images were 3.5 ± 2.6 in the IAI group and 4.1 ± 2.5 in the IVR group (P = 0.334). The mean logMAR BCVAs before treatment did not differ significantly (P = 0.721) between eyes treated with
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Occult hepatitis B infection: an evolutionary scenario

Occult hepatitis B infection: an evolutionary scenario

provided online as Additional File 1. The corresponding output of the ALASCAN server shows that the central part of core protein (amino acid residues 67–96), the N-termi- nal half of the a-determinant region (96–122) and the C- terminal part of surface protein (169–195) participate in the interface between core and surface proteins (Table 1) in order to promote the formation of an infectious virus particle. In d4 DNA, these regions display the d4-charac- teristic feature of enhanced sequence divergence. Not all of these nucleotide substitutions translate into amino acid replacements. Replacements typical for d4 HBV are G74V, I80A and Y100C in core and P111S, T123P, T125I, L175S and M197T in surface protein, respectively. These results indicate the evolutionary loss of the ability for S/C inter- face formation during the development from a "wild type" genotype D ancestor to the occult d4 phenotype. It
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Occult Head Injury in High-Risk Abused Children

Occult Head Injury in High-Risk Abused Children

Results. Of the 65 patients who met these criteria, 51 (78.5%) had a head computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging in addition to skeletal survey. Of these 51 patients, 19 (37.3%, 95% confidence interval 24.2– 50.4%) had an occult head injury. Injuries included scalp swelling (74%), skull fracture (74%), and intracranial in- jury (53%). All except 3 of the head-injured patients had at least a skull fracture or intracranial injury. Skeletal survey alone missed 26% (5/19) of the cases. Head-in- jured children were younger than non-head-injured chil- dren (median age 2.5 vs 5.1 months); all but 1 head- injured child was <1 year of age. Among the head- injured children, 72% came from single parent households, 37% had mothers whose age was <21 years, and 26% had a history of prior child welfare involvement in their families. Ophthalmologic examination was per- formed in 14 of the 19 cases; no retinal hemorrhages were noted.
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Occult Bacteremia With Group B Streptococci in an Outpatient Setting

Occult Bacteremia With Group B Streptococci in an Outpatient Setting

GBS infections remain a serious problem in the 1990’s despite existing guidelines of maternal pro- phylaxis. The frequency of late-onset occurrence has not decreased, and morbidity and mortality continue to occur among those who have sepsis and meningi- tis. Almost one-half of children with GBS disease diagnosed in the outpatient setting have occult bac- teremia, and treatment at this stage affords an op- portunity to prevent complications. However, three- quarters of the patients with occult bacteremia are under 3 months of age and are unlikely to have the typical risk factors of temperature $ 39°C and WBC $ 15 000/mm 3 . Prevention of disease in these infants
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Implementation of population screening for colorectal cancer by repeated fecal occult blood test in the Netherlands

Implementation of population screening for colorectal cancer by repeated fecal occult blood test in the Netherlands

Knowledge about screening with iFOBt will be measured using 24 statements derived from expert opinion and information obtained in the first screening round, with two response options (e.g. "the fecal occult blood test has to be repeated every 2 years" [correct-incorrect]). The number of correct items is used as the knowledge score. Attitude regarding undergoing screening will be measured by 4 items, each scored on a 7-point scale (e.g. "for me, having the screening test for colorectal cancer would be...." [a good idea-a bad idea]. Attitude items are based on the Marteau's measure of informed choice[15]. Screen- ing behaviour is measured by either participation or non- participation in the present study (i.e. returning of the iFOBt).
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Metastasis of an occult pulmonary carcinoma into meningioma: a case report

Metastasis of an occult pulmonary carcinoma into meningioma: a case report

Tumour-to-tumour metastasis is an infrequent pathological phenomenon. Meningioma is the most common intracranial tumour where metastatic deposits may be found, the majority of which arise from breast and lung cancers. We describe an unusual case of occult pulmonary carcinoma metastasis into the intracranial meningioma. A 77-year old lady presented with acutely deteriorating hemiparesis. Her previous medical history was unremarkable. Radiological imaging revealed an expansive lesion, classified as meningioma, which was located parasagittally in the right premotor area. A well-capsulated tumour attached to the dura was removed surgically. The pathological examination demonstrated a mixture of angiomatous meningioma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Possible explanations for the development of a composite tumour and pathophysiology are described.
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Hemorrhagic Neoplasms: MR Mimics of Occult Vascular Malformations

Hemorrhagic Neoplasms: MR Mimics of Occult Vascular Malformations

• For cryptic vascular malformation and cerebral metastasis, the number of lesions is listed separately from the number of cases because certain cases contained multiple lesions with dif[r]

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Comparison between an immunochemical fecal occult blood test and a Guaiac based fecal occult blood test in detection of adenomas and colorectal cancer

Comparison between an immunochemical fecal occult blood test and a Guaiac based fecal occult blood test in detection of adenomas and colorectal cancer

The design of the I-FOBT and the need of only one sample are probably the main reason for the higher ad- herence to this method. A meta-analysis publicized in 2012, evaluated randomized control trials comparing guaiac fecal occult blood test with fecal immunochemi- cal test participation rates. According to this meta- ana- lysis the implementation of I-FOBT is likely to increase participation in CRC screening. Four of the studies of this review concluded that participation rates in the I- FOBT group were higher because they do not have diet- ary or medicinal restrictions [18].

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PEPTIC ULCER. Prepared by AHMED HAMID

PEPTIC ULCER. Prepared by AHMED HAMID

• Bleeding is caused by the erosion of an ulcer into an artery and occurs in approximately 10% to 15% of patients.. occult (hidden) and insidious.[r]

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Occult Spinal Dysraphism: A Series of 73 Cases

Occult Spinal Dysraphism: A Series of 73 Cases

the volume of Pantopaque and the choice of cistemal or lumbar puncture depend largely on personal preference.’3 As Gryspeerdt clearly demonstrated,’2”4 the prone position allows visualiz[r]

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Occult Fractures in the Production of Gait Disturbance in Childhood

Occult Fractures in the Production of Gait Disturbance in Childhood

If the stress fracture involves the lower extremity, it wifi cause the child to have a painful limp that is gradual in onset but occasionally sudden.. The his- torian may relate that pai[r]

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Pott Puffy Tumor: A Serious Occult Infection

Pott Puffy Tumor: A Serious Occult Infection

tion, Pott puffy tumor was a subperiosteal abscess of the frontal bone.8 In 1879, Lannelongue reported that Pott puffy tumor results from progression of frontal sinusitis to osteomyeliti[r]

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Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy with Atypical Findings

Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy with Atypical Findings

According to Gass, AZOOR belongs to “white dot” syn- dromes, which is a wide spectrum of idiopathic inflammatory retinal disorders [1, 2]. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy affects mostly women, with an average age at presentation of all patients described in the literature about 37 years. Typical characteristic of the disease is the presentation with vision deterioration in an area of the visual field accompanied by photopsia. Most of the patients present with unilateral disease, but involvement of the contralateral eye ultimately appears in the majority of the cases according to the literature [1].
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Diffuse Arterial Thrombosis as a First Manifestation of Occult Malignancy

Diffuse Arterial Thrombosis as a First Manifestation of Occult Malignancy

Thromboembolic complications affect approximately 15% of the cancer patients [1]. The oldest theory of this hypercoag- ulable state was established 150 years ago, when Trousseau in 1865 first described migratory thrombosis as the first manifestation of occult gastric cancer [2]. Today this concept of “Trousseau’s syndrome” is used to describe not only migra- tory thrombosis that precedes the diagnosis of occult cancer but also any “hypercoagulable state associated with malignant cancer” [3, 4].

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Lumbar spine MRI in upright position for diagnosing acute and chronic low back pain: statistical analysis of morphological changes

Lumbar spine MRI in upright position for diagnosing acute and chronic low back pain: statistical analysis of morphological changes

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and quantify the statistical significance of variations of some anatomical parameters of the lumbosacral spine and reveal occult disc pathologie[r]

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Thrombosis and Cancer: Case Series of 25 Patients

Thrombosis and Cancer: Case Series of 25 Patients

in the screening of occult cancer in case of unexplained and particularly unusual thrombosis, in primary prevention and in the management of thrombosis in patients with cancer. Nevertheless, there remains a considerable field of unresolved clinical questions, in particular in the most valid strategy for the systematic investigation of occult cancer, the modalities of management of thromboembolic recurrences under anticoagulant and of patients with severe thrombocytopenia, the monitoring and adjustment of LMWH doses in case of renal failure, the role of anticoagulants in slowing tumor progression and in improving the survival of these patients, and in clarifying the role of oral anticoagulants in prevention and treatment of thrombosis associated with cancer.
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