elite men and women knew that city would come after country. The exploration of the seasonal migrations of elite slaveholders between country and city exposes a dynamic elite, constantly on the move. This reality challenges the mythology of the OldSouth, in which cities seldom appear among the cotton fields and the magnolia trees. As this chapter reveals, however, city like country shaped elite slaveholders sense of self and sense of belonging to a community of Southern planters. Men, and particularly women, yearned for stays in urban centers such as Charleston, Savannah, or New Orleans. Instead of the isolation and boredom inherent to plantation life, urban settings were synonymous with social gatherings and proximity to kin. Cities provided the best context for cultivating the ideal of refinement to which the Southern elite aspired. In this primarily rural society, most elite men and women identified themselves first with the agricultural landscapes where their slaves cultivated rice, cotton, or sugar cane. And yet, they also recognized themselves in the urban landscape of the slaveholding South. Town and country were integral parts of their life experience. By definition a season in the city was ephemeral. After a few months of urban gatherings, it was time for the planting family to return to the plantation. Few planters, even the wealthiest, could sustain the expenses that the city and its refined sociability entailed year-round. In a region where fortunes were assessed in numbers of slaves and plantations, cash flow problems were recurrent themes of slaveholders‟ correspondence. Financial considerations therefore played a significant role in these migrations. 247
The culmination of this work has led to the development of an active transportation map distributed by the MLHU to the residents of the OldSouth neighborhood. Through an integration of survey results, neighborhood identification, paths travelled, and barriers to AT an 11”x17” foldable map available for free online or at local businesses and libraries (Appendix E). The purpose of this map was to introduce residents to the accessibility of their neighborhood, identify for them where perceived barriers to AT can be overcome through infrastructure measures such as crosswalks, and provided them with a visual aid of the frequently visited locations in the neighborhood. The desired final outcome of this map for the MLHU is to increase AT use in the OldSouth neighborhood. This study provides a vital baseline upon which future work can be completed to evaluate the effectiveness of the AT map.
Klan, Rutherford does not give a picture of what she wanted the new version of the OldSouth to look like. The Historian-General explained in “Thirteen Periods of United States History,” “The Ku Klux Klan was an absolute necessity in the South at this time. This Order was not com- posed of the ‘riff raff’ as has been represented in history, but of the very flower of Southern manhood. The chivalry of the South demanded protection for the women and children of the South.” 130 Rutherford clearly condoned any violence and intimidation methods used by the Klan because they were needed to maintain social order as the former slaves were resorting to vi- olence and alcoholism as a result of their freedom. In “Wrongs of History Righted,” Rutherford gave her interpretation of the condition of the slaves before slavery: “Savage to the last degree, climbing cocoanut trees to get food, without thought of clothes to cover their bodies, and sometimes cannibals, and all bowing down to fetishes – sticks and stones – as acts of worship.” By using such imagery in her speeches Rutherford tried to explain that slavery actually helped civilize and Christianize the slaves. And without the help of the Klan, those very people who had been savages back in Africa would terrorize the South, particularly its women and child- ren. 131 Rutherford tried to make villains out of the African Americans because her society was threatened by rising black prosperity. While the freedmen did not achieve economic equality in the early 1900s as most emancipated slaves turned toward tenant farming and sharecropping as their means of survival, more African Americans achieved economic independence than ever before. For example, Alonzo Herndon, who was born a slave but became an entrepreneur in
The two books, Uncle Remus, His Songs, and His Sayings and Nights with Uncle Remus, are embedded within the Reconstruction era context of racial tumult, published during a time when rural plantation ways of life were being threatened by industrial progress, a time when Southern “values” were being challenged by Northern policies, and a time when the nation was debating the personhood of the first generation of freed blacks. In this context of change, the minstrel show took on new significance. Born of the Jacksonian era, the minstrel show had become America’s first national popular culture genre in the 1840s. Before the Civil War, the light, humorous themes of minstrelsy helped defend slavery as a benign institution beloved by the enslaved; after the war, minstrel show narratives constructed the slave plantation nostalgically, presenting “the OldSouth” as a symbolic childhood home “where simplicity, happiness, and all the things we have left behind, exist outside of time.” 21
The results of the comparison of the employment rate between older people in Japan and South Korea indicated that each of these countries has gone through a dif- ferent path based on their unique social culture and informal system, although they share the characteristic of rapid population aging and similar system environment. It has been pointed out that the reason that East Asia, including Japan, has a weaker so- cial security system compared to the developed countries in Europe was the security provided by family members, as children traditionally look after their retired parents. However, whether such logic still applies in the case of Japan’s super-aged society needs to be verified. To do so, I have analyzed the probability of employment among older people by number of family members in the household in order to determine if the intention to work and the probability of employment declined on receiving chil- dren’s support as the number of household members increased. The results showed a statistically significant positive impact on older people being employed as the number of male household members increased, suggesting that the older parents are working to support unemployed family members, rather than receiving children’s support. In addition, comparing to South Korea, the probability of employment among women was relatively low, indicating that employment policies that ensure gender equali- ty and joint participation in the job market are required. This tendency is especially prominent in smaller workplaces where wages are relatively low. This phenomena can also be observed in the analysis of employment probability among blue-collar workers, indicating that a new human resource management system is required in addition to the existing retirement system.
He was the son of Margaret and Thomas Stevenson, born into a family famed for its Scottish civil engineering projects, especially lighthouses. RLS was a sickly child and, as a young adult, something of disappointment to his father. After he allowed his son to bow out of engineering and the lucrative family business, Thomas made Robert attend law school, vowing that “the devious and barren paths of literature” were not suitable. RLS, undaunted, became a writer and a bit of rogue. One of his favorite bars still stands today: Rutherford’s on Drummond Street near South Bridge Street. Determined to roam (“I shall be a nomad”) and write, he went to France where he met and later married an American, Fanny Osborne, with whom he traveled to California. Following the success of The Sea-Cook (1881), which became the ever-popular Treasure Island, Stevenson produced The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, an instant bestseller and his most famous work — thanks in no small part to later Hollywood adaptations. That was quickly followed by the classic Kidnapped (1886), his most evocative book. It reflects the troubled political times in Scotland after the failed 1745 rebellion of Bonnie Prince Charlie and the book takes its 16-year-old hero on an adventure across the Western Highlands.
of this forest loss occurred during the early European period, reckoning that some 3.3 million hectares of forest were burned in the period 1830–1873. However, despite interest from social and environmental historians there has been surprisingly little ecological research focused on this phase of New Zealand’s fire history. In some areas (e.g. the South Island high country) fire was used to clear land for ‘exploitative pastoralism’; much of this burning may have occurred in systems recovering from previous Māori fires and so probably transformed previously burned scrubland, rather than forest, to grassland (O’Connor 1982, 1984). However, Europeans also burned large areas of previously intact forest, such as the kauri (Agathis australis) forests of the far north of the North Island (Ogden et al. 1998) and the forests of Banks Peninsula (Wood & Pawson 2008), and remobilised sediments first moved during the early prehistoric period (Wilmshurst 1997; Ogden et al. 2006). Fires during the early European period were sometimes huge, persisting over days if not weeks, and burned both young successional and older less disturbed forests (Wardle 2001). The Forest and Rural Fires Association of New Zealand (2012) lists particularly significant fire events occurring in the early European period. Guild and Dudfield (2010) describe fires in the Wairarapa burning more than 8000 ha of forest (and various infrastructure) in the summer of 1897; in a similar vein McLean (1992) and Beaglehole (2012) describe significant fires in 1878 at Waimate, 1918 at Raetihi and 1946 near Taupo (under extremely dry conditions) 2 , and both highlight that such events were often
The sounds of the South can be easily differentiated from the North in just a few syllable choices. While Northerners refer to themselves with two syllables, Ah-ee; their Southern counterparts sigh, Ah. But when speaking words beginning with ―n,‖ ―d,‖ or ―t‖ followed by a ―long u,‖ Southern speech generously adds a ―y‖ turning news into nyews and Tuesdays into Tyuesdays. Then there is the substitution of the ―short i‖ for a ―short e‖ when followed by an ―n.‖ A quantity of ten becomes a drawled tin. Likewise, the writing instrument the North calls a pen becomes a pin, men are min, and to be tender is to be tinder. One might wonder how Southern min know when they are asked for a pen rather than a pin. Southern belles escape injury to their tinder fingers by clearly marking their preference with the addition of ―ink‖ to pins as in ―May Ah please have the ink pin?‖
As the separate-spheres doctrine waned and the frontier closed, many turn-of-the- century men responded by redrawing gender lines and turning what were once necessary male attributes in need of restraint—aggression, passion, combativeness, strength—into male virtues in need of cultivation; hence the vogue of martial arts, competitive athletics, and the warrior ethic. The assertion of manliness had heavy ideological import: Teddy Roosevelt presented his ideal of the ‗strenuous life‘ as a solution to the pervasive ‗sissiness‘ that threatened the vitality and future of the nation, reinventing the Progressive reformer as a man—not a woman—and a redeemer of manly virtues, and justifying imperialism and war as a means of masculine regeneration, playing on extant anxieties about manhood and helping shape them (Schlesinger 245). 96 Many of these men, Silber explains, thus ―hoped to capture a sense of masculine authority [. . .] they tried to resurrect a sense of sexual order, which was assumed to be natural and immutable, as a way to counteract what seemed to be a decaying social hierarchy and their own loss of control (167). 97 As historians emphasize, crisis situations and the ways people respond to them shape their perception of reality, and masculinity itself is constructed within a specific historical context; Thus did Southern men attempt to restore their damaged manhood after their humiliating defeat in the Civil War. Examining the postbellum world of leisure activities for men and women, Ted Ownby‘s Subduing Satan, for instance, draws a contrast between the ‗fighting‘ South and the ‗praying‘
was shown that the prevalence of malnutrition was higher in case of people who stayed in the old ages home as compared to the people who lived in their own houses. The tools used for this study included assessment using Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA), Dietary assessment- questions related to number of meals, food and fluid intake, anthropometric assessment- Height (Ht), Weight (Wt), Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC), Calf Circumference (CC), triceps skin fold thickness, Body Mass Index (BMI) and general assessment- questions related to lifestyle, medication and mobility and subjective assessment- self perception of health and nutrition 14 .
India is by far the largest SAARC economy and has recently been playing a decisive role in the sub-regional integration as well as in integrating South Asian economies with the rest of Asia. Although India did not emerge as a leader of the South Asian economy and had the disadvantage of having disharmonious relations with the neighbors, it was evident that what happens to the Indian economy influences the other sub-regional economies. Moving belatedly on the sub- regional economic integration front, the seven South Asian economies signed an agreement to form the South Asian Preferential Trade Area (SAPTA), which became operational in December 1995. After ten years of discussions, deliberations and negotiations, in January 2004 they agreed to forge a South Asia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA). The series of recent regional and bilateral agreements—albeit slow to come about—portend to a transformation in the mindset of the policy mandarins and new dawn in South Asia. They also presage the probability of creation of large integrated economic region in the foreseeable future stretching between Korea in the East and Pakistan in the West
Erb’s and Harriss-White’s argument that disability, including age-based disability, needs to be recognized as a social condition that is predominantly structured by class position but also by gender and caste is compelling. Yet there is a further step to be taken in the analysis of how functional age is socially structured and this is the objective of this article. To understand the processes through which people become defined as old we need to ask what is at stake in the way individuals or groups of people are defined. It is access to and control of resources that is at stake; being defined as old implies not only particular capacities, needs and rights but also confers duties of care and support on sons and, as shall be seen, these are deeply contested and context dependent. There are two registers against which old age is locally measured in the South Indian context, both of which are social in nature. One is generational ageing, whereby social identities change as succeeding generations reach specific life stages (menarche, marriage, parenthood etc). The other is functional ageing whereby people become classed as old in relation to their inability to undertake activities deemed necessary to their class, caste and gender position. Consequently not only might people find themselves defined, or define themselves, as generationally or functionally old in relation to one context yet not in another, but their location in terms of class, gender and the localized labour market will shape
A previous study conducted by Criança Segura—Safe Kids Brazil in 2010 showed that before the law only 32% of parents transported their children with safety devices . A preliminary assessment of the impact of the children safety seat law on children under 10 years old was prepared by the Institute of Applied Economic Re- search (IPEA)  from September 2009 until August 31, 2010. Five years before the entry into force of the law, it had been experienced a gradual growth of child deaths during transport. Under the law, there was a decrease of 15%, between September 2010 and August 2011, compared to the average of the previous five years (IPEA) . Despite of this reduction, this preliminary evaluation of the impact about the restraining on child deaths by car accidents in Brazil (September, 2005 and August, 2011) showed that the mortality reduction was not statis- tically significant .
socialisation in various ways. Although ideas of izzat or family honour are regularly discussed in ethnographies of South Asians (e.g. Baumann 1996, 103), there is little if any discussion about how issues of izzat might affect religious transmission. As izzat affects individuals’ standing in the community (Jhutti- Johal 2011, 67) and ‘following religious “tradition” increases and maintains one’s identity and izzat’ (ibid 116), it follows that families in which male members wear
The analyses presented in this paper are based on the Child Heart And health Study in England (CHASE). This is a population-based, cross-sectional study, set up to investigate the health of children of white European, South Asian (including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and other South Asian) and black African-Caribbean origin. The study was conducted in the cities of London, Birmingham and Leicester. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the relevant Multicentre Research Ethics Committee and it complies with the Helsinki Declaration. Details on the sampling strategy have been described elsewhere . In brief, two separate random samples, each of 100 schools, was selected, the first from schools that had a high prevalence (20-80%) of South Asian pupils, the second from schools with a high prevalence of black African-Caribbean pupils.
For most part, the share of the population in poverty covered by transfer programmes varies from country to country. This ranges from just a fraction of those in poverty in most sub-Saharan African countries, to nearly 25 percent of the total population in Brazil and Mexico, and 50 percent of households in South Africa. Scale as well as transfer size are functions of both the magnitude of poverty incidence and the budgetary and administrative capacity of governments. As illustrated in the fifth column of Table 4, budgetary capacity has contributed to making the global coverage of social assistance largely skewed towards middle-income countries, as these have more fiscal space to introduce transfer programmes to scale. Most country programmes allocate less than one percent of gross domestic product (GDP) to social transfers, although the share is conditional on the size of economy, the efficiency of tax collection systems and, naturally, the scope and scale of the intervention.
A classical presentation of BBS in very young children is rare. The presence of all the primary features of BBS, along with some of its secondary manifestation in a 3-year-old male, makes this case report very unique. There- fore, the finding of any of the primary features of this syndrome in a younger child should prompt the search for other manifestations of this disorder. This may improve earlier diagnosis of BBS, and possible improvement in disease outcome.