The human basidiomycetous fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans serves as a model fungus to study sexual development and produces infectious propagules, basidiospores, via the sexual cycle. Karyogamy is the process of nuclear fusion and an essen- tial step to complete mating. Therefore, regulation of nuclear fusion is central to understanding sexual development of C. neo- formans. However, our knowledge of karyogamy genes was limited. In this study, using a BLAST search with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae KAR genes, we identified five C. neoformans karyogamy gene orthologs: CnKAR2, CnKAR3, CnKAR4, CnKAR7 (or CnSEC66), and CnKAR8. There are no apparent orthologs of the S. cerevisiae genes ScKAR1, ScKAR5, and ScKar9 in C. neofor- mans. Karyogamy involves the congression of two nuclei followed by nuclear membrane fusion, which results in diploidization. ScKar7 (or ScSec66) is known to be involved in nuclear membrane fusion. In C. neoformans, kar7 mutants display significant defects in hyphal growth and basidiospore chain formation during both a-␣ opposite and ␣-␣ unisexual reproduction. Fluores- cent nuclear imaging revealed that during kar7 ⴛ kar7 bilateral mutant matings, the nuclei congress but fail to fuse in the ba- sidia. These results demonstrate that the KAR7 gene plays an integral role in both opposite-sex and unisexual mating, indicating that proper control of nuclear dynamics is important. CnKAR2 was found to be essential for viability, and its function in mating is not known. No apparent phenotypes were observed during mating of kar3, kar4, or kar8 mutants, suggesting that the role of these genes may be dispensable for C. neoformans mating, which demonstrates a different evolutionary trajectory for the KAR genes in C. neoformans compared to those in S. cerevisiae.
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Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20–40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt’s adaptation of Fishman’s three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament’s measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins.
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This study found that SDO can predict risk attitude in a positive way. One of the major characteristics of people with high SDO is maintaining inequality between persons or social groups or sustaining the existing social hierarchy (Pratto, Sidanius, Stallworth, & Malle, 1994). This social hierarchy has several bases. It can be based on age (e.g.: older people have higher status than younger people), sex (e.g.: men have higher status than women), or any social group (arbitrary; e.g.: people of religion X has higher status than of religion Y, tribe X has higher status than tribe Y). In this study, women becoming IWMW are viewed to have higher status, more superior, than the out-group, i.e. non-IWMW. In this Indonesian context, SDO uses occupation or profession or role as a base. Duckitt and Sibley (2010) theorize that SDO is activated by competition. In this study, what is referred to as “competition” is the contest between women during scarcity of the opposite sex. Duckitt and Sibley (2010) use the perspective of evolutionary psychology stating that the social world is “ruthless” and triggers competition for survival by competing for resources. What is referred to as “resources” in this study are qualified men that are potential partners for IWMW. Principle of evolutionary psychology is “The strong wins in battle”, even “by using all possible means”. The way to strengthen status and position for Indonesian women, in this study, is by becoming IWMW.
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Twins reveal a great deal about human behavior just by be- ing themselves. The question of sexual attraction between opposite-sex twins reared apart has been addressed in prior issues of Twin Research and Human Genetics (Segal, 2008, 2011). A new case recently came to my attention when I attended the III Congreso des Mentes Brillantes in Madrid, Spain, in November 2012. The male member of an opposite- sex twin pair informed his spouse that he been adopted and reared apart from his twin sister. His wife conducted an extensive search to find the sister and was successful af- ter one and a half years. However, she eventually learned that her husband was having a sexual relationship with his newly found twin. Behind the shock value of this discovery is information about who we are attracted to, and why. Ac- cording to the informant, the twins recognized similarities between themselves and were possibly making up for lost time. ‘Perhaps his sister was a female version of himself ’.
Although female adolescents with both-sex and only same-sex partners were similar to each other regarding many risk behaviors, those with both- sex partners reported more risk (Table 3). Female adolescents with both-sex or only same-sex partners re- ported an earlier age of sexual debut than heterosexual female adolescents. Female adolescents were more likely to report 5 or more lifetime partners if they had both-sex partners (37.1%) or only same-sex partners (29.1%) than if they had only opposite-sex partners (14.0%) (P ⬍ .0001 for female adoles- cents with both-sex versus opposite- sex partners). Also, female adoles- cents were more likely to report 2 or more partners in the past 3 months if they had both-sex partners (26.5%) or only same-sex partners (29.4%) than if they had only opposite-sex partners (11.5%) (P ⬍ .0001 for female adoles- cents with both-sex versus opposite- sex partners). Female adolescents were more likely to report the use of alcohol/drugs with the last sexual en- counter if they had both-sex partners (23.0%) or only same-sex partners (22.3%) than if they had only opposite- sex partners (10.0%). More than one- third of female adolescents with both-sex partners reported intimate partner violence (35.8%) and forced sex (34.1%), which was signiﬁcantly higher than the prevalence among other female subgroups.
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employee also would not be permitted to take sick leave benefits to care for an opposite-sex, non-spouse partner. The court also stated that, because the rule does not classify or differentiate on the basis of sexual orientation, there was no denial of equal protection or due process. The court found that the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses simply require like treatment of persons who are similarly situated. Consequently, since unmarried homosexuals were treated the same as unmarried heterosexuals, the DCSB rule presented no constitutional problems.").
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We have generated a and a strains containing the same copy number of the NEO-URA5 transgene, which allowed us to examine SIS in unisexual mating and also to compare the silencing frequency between a-a unisexual and a-a oppo- site-sex mating. Progeny were isolated by microdissection from both unisexual and opposite-sex mating and analyzed for URA5 silencing based on growth or absence on SD 2uracil and 5-FOA media. When the a transgene array strain XW139 was solo cultured on V8 medium, 4 of a total of 28 progeny (14%) were auxotrophic for uracil (Figure S4 and Figure 4A). In comparison, among 31 progeny isolated from an a-a cross between strains XW105 a and XW139 a on V8 medium, 4 exhibited a ura 2 phenotype (13%) (Figure S5 and Figure 4A). We also noted that the a strain XW139 might undergo some a-a unisexual mating even when cocul- tured with an a strain in the a-a cross. To establish that the ura 2 progeny obtained are bona ﬁde progeny of an a-a op- posite-sex cross, a mating type-speciﬁc PCR ampliﬁcation assay was performed to determine the mating type of these ura 2 progeny using STE20a/a primers established in pre- vious studies (Fraser et al. 2004; Li et al. 2012). An excess of a progeny would have been interpreted as indicative of a higher level of a-a mating occurring during culture with the a partner. As shown in Figure 4B, an equal proportion of a and a progeny (1:1) were recovered, providing evidence that they are indeed derived from a-a mating. In addition, the ura 2 progeny also exhibited a neomycin sensitive (neo s )
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The fetal testes start to produce testosterone in about gestational week 8 [13, 14], and testosterone is an important hormone in male fetal development. It can pass the placenta barrier and the blood-brain bar- rier [15, 16] and influence early human brain develop- ment . The twin testosterone transfer (TTT) hypothesis [18, 19] states that testosterone from a male fetus can be transferred to an adjacent fetus via amniotic diffusion. The opposite-sex (OS) twins there- fore have an intrauterine environment that differs from that of the same-sex (SS) twins concerning sex hormones. Thus, OS female twins may be exposed to higher levels of testosterone in utero than SS females [15, 20]. Likewise, SS male twins may have slightly higher prenatal exposure to testosterone compared with OS male twins . Some studies have shown that OS female twins have masculinization of a var- iety of traits [18, 22], and OS male twins have de-masculinized features compared with SS male twins [23, 24]. A number of studies, however, did not find any notable difference among OS and SS twins regarding academic performance  and cancer risk . No clear difference was found regarding early life mortality risks either .
Above, we have seen substantial similarity in the dynamics of same-sex and opposite-sex unions, specifically with respect to the relationship between union dissolution on the one hand and education and age at union of the partners on the other. It is worth mentioning one additional way in which these two types of union resemble each other. In the How Couples Meet and Stay Together surveys, 3,009 couples in the United States were randomly selected in 2009, with an oversampling of same-sex couples (Rosenfeld 2014). They were followed in several waves thereafter. One question determined whether an individual had the approval of his or her parents for the union in which he or she was involved. The results are illustrated in Figure 5.
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All males were sacrificed eight to nine days following tracer injection to allow for sufficient transport of CTB (Vercelli et al., 2000). During this time, males were extensively handled and habituated to the testing room. On the day of sacrifice, males were brought into the testing room and allowed to sit undisturbed for at least one hour prior to any manipulation. To determine if MeA-MePD projecting neurons respond to opposite-sex or same-sex odors, a sub- set of injected males were exposed to female (MeA n = 11; MePD n = 9) or male (MeA n = 9; MePD n = 11) sexual odors, respectively. Exposure to sexual odors consisted of placing a subject into a vacated odor donor cage; subjects were therefore exposed to both the volatile and non- volatile components of sexual odors, including those from the soiled litter, bedding, and walls of the cage. In order to minimize differences in odor quality across individual odor donors and to provide a composite source of sexual (rather than individual) odors, all stimulus cages housed 3 – 4 female or male hamsters (Maras & Petrulis, in press). Furthermore, to ensure equivalent levels of odor stimuli, all stimulus cages had not been changed for 4 days prior to use; thus, all female stimulus cages included sexual odors across the entire estrous cycle, including behavioral estrus. Finally, to provide a measure of the baseline activation of MeA-MePD projecting
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Inter-gender analysis of responses indicated that on the confidence continuum, greater number of males (n=10) opted for ‘a’ category which was ‘I feel confident’ than did females (n=4). The number of respondents who felt shy while interacting face-to-face with opposite sex was almost equal. This shows that even now when inter-gender barriers are collapsing due to communication revolution, there are some people, though small in percentages, who feel shy while communicating with opposite sex in face-to- face communication. While 20% of the respondents in the male group reported feeling confused, greater number of female respondents (40%) belonged to this category. For the category ‘I feel afraid of being misunderstood’, none of the male respondents have opted it, while 25% of the females belonged to this category.
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that are subject to certain rights and responsibilities is not a new, or necessarily conservative approach. The concept of the registered domestic partnership has been used in Nova Scotia specifically to extend rights and responsibilities to same-sex couples (although it is also open to opposite sex couples.) Registration of Domestic Partnerships Regulations, N.S. Reg. 57(01) and the Law Commission of Canada has recommended that parliament and provincial legislatures should pass laws enabling adults in conjugal relationships to register their relationships and thus bring themselves within the ambit of laws that would ascribe duties and give rights to them. See L AW C OMM ’ N OF C AN ., M INISTER OF P UBLIC W ORKS AND G OVERNMENT S ERVICES , B EYOND C ONJUGALITY : R ECOGNIZING & S UPPORTING C LOSE P ERSONAL A DULT R ELATIONSHIPS , Recommendation 31 (2001).
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For the simple Poisson case, the average number of cousins (all and male only) can be calculated analytically. For a randomly sampled individual, the expected (inclusive) sibship size is equal to n+1, where n is the mean number of children. If the number of children were constant (and uncorrelated!) across two generations, a random member of the child generation would have an average of 2 n maternal and paternal aunts and uncles, who are parents to 2 n^2 cousins, of which an average of n^2 would be of the opposite sex (here the sex ratio is assumed to be balanced) and (n^2)/2 would be parallel paternal cousins of the opposite sex. While we do not pursue the analytic approach further, since it does not allow for the interaction of the sensitivity tests below and does not provide any answer to the question of maximal matchable share (and finally because, as Le Bras notes (1973, p. 12), if in any case we need to solve the integrals of the complete analytic solution through simulation we might as well simulate the phenomenon of interest directly), it serves as a check on the baseline simulation.
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istics of students in private universities or exist- ence of a different context between private and state-run universities. However, among sexually experienced students, greater percentage of stu- dents of private universities had had their sexual debut before university entrance, compared to stu- dents of government universities (49% vs. 36%, respectively), the former explanation appears to be more justified. To examine these possibilities, the association between university context and, premarital relationships and sexual contact were assessed by using multivariate analysis after con- trolling for the socio-economic and family charac- teristics. Type of university was shown to be the predictor of only having boyfriend but not sexual contact upon controlling for socio-economic and family characteristics. In other words, the odds of having boyfriend but not sex among students of private universities even after controlling all socio-economic and familial factors was signifi- cantly greater than among students from govern- mental universities. Since, the majority (94%) of private students in the sample compared to gov- ernmental universities (72%), came from Tehran, the importance of the type of university as a pre- dictor of premarital friendship with the opposite sex reduced, when family residence of respond- ents was controlled in model 2 (Table 4). One third of students of governmental universities were from other provinces and had more close social control and more restrictive culture and norms during their adolescence compared to Tehrani students.
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I conducted an ethnographic study of a temple that is quite peculiar be- cause of the fact it is inserted in an urban space in which homosexuality is outside the closet. I observed that among the male youth with affective and sexual desire for people of the opposite sex who come from the periphery, the modes of thinking about homosexuality are in a process of reconfigura- tion based on an encounter with the other in the church and in the street. The young man who came to the church who had been repulsed by dissident subjects and practices was socialized by the pastors and leaders in an attempt to have him place his repulsion to the subjects in the closet in order to not interfere with the institutional “goal” of welcoming to transform and not ap- pear to be a “square” church. In the street, the spiritualizing or psychological ways of thinking, are at times placed in the closet so that the mobility of the city can provide them prestige and host their own dissidences. At the same time, that youth who came to have an “emotional” eye for the subjects and their dissident practices, needed to keep his new way of thinking in the closet in order to remain united with the community of faith and to the compulsory nature of affective and sexual desire 24 . In these factors, all of these youths are
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The effects on aggression of target sex and relationship with the target were investigated using self-report data. One hundred and seventy-four participants (115 female) reported on acts of direct aggression in the last two years towards: intimate partners, known and unknown same-sex targets, and known and unknown opposite-sex targets who were well known, and opposite-sex targets. Women’s self-reported aggression was higher towards partners than other targets, replicating previous findings regarding women’s intimate partner aggression. Women’s aggression was consistently higher towards same-sex than opposite-sex targets, but the effect of knowing the target was inconsistent. Men’s self-reported aggression was more frequent towards same-sex than opposite-sex targets – including intimate partners – and more frequent towards known than unknown targets. Results are discussed with reference to a partner-specific reduction in women’s fear, and sex differences in threshold for classifying someone as ‘known well.’ Limitations of the present sample and suggestions for future work are discussed.
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Most ungulates are gregarious species and outside the mating season are typically observed in single-sex groups. However little is known about the mechanisms underlying social segregation between sexes. We investigated the effect of conspecific attraction on individual spacing between unrestrained merino sheep Ovis aries and confined conspecifics. We considered differences between males and females and whether attractiveness of the confined conspecifics depends on their sex. A series of binary choice experiments was conducted in a large outdoor arena, located in pastures. One or two stimulus animals were placed in small individual cages (1.5·m ⫻ ⫻ 1·m) on opposite sides of the arena. Sheep were tested with one fixed peer of the same or opposite sex vs an empty cage, and with two fixed peers of either the same sex as themselves, or one male and one female. Sheep in a control condition were exposed to two empty cages. In all
The majority (>95%) of ART twins result from the implantation of multiple embryos and are dizy- gotic/dichorionic irrespective of sex similarity. Accordingly, the distribution of sex concordance among ART twins in our study was consistent with random male/female pair- ing. By contrast, in SP twins there were significantly more same-sex (both male–male and female–female) pairs than expected under random pairing, likely due to monozygos- ity. To account for differences in the distribution of sex pairing, the association between sex concordance and the composite outcome was assessed separately in ART and SP twin pairs. Although odds ratio estimates comparing the composite outcome between same-sex (male–male and/or female–female) and opposite-sex pairs were notably higher in ART than SP twin pairs, the interaction between sex con- cordance and mode of conception was not statistically sig- nificant in our data (results not shown). Higher composite outcome in same-sex versus opposite-sex pairs conceived using ART suggests a mechanism independent of zygos- ity/chorionicity. Further study is warranted to tease out the relative effects of sex concordance, zygosity, and chorionic- ity on neonatal outcomes in ART twins.
ADHD is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, with genetic factors predominant [19,20]. The same can be said, interestingly, of the aetiology of same-sex attraction [21,22]. Regarding the association of parent psychopathy with child ADHD, Margari and colleagues suggest that “the presence of executive cognitive functions deficit in parents leads to a lower management of the behavioral problems of ADHD children, aggravating the clinical picture and the general functioning of children”. However it is not known whether parent psychopathy is “connected to biological underpinnings of this disorder or impaired parenting in the management of their children” . Similarly, we could ask whether higher ADHD risk for children with same-sex parents results from impaired parenting or a direct biological link. The findings of the present study that ADHD prevalence in same-sex families was lower than in opposite-sex families with psychologically distressed parents and among adopted children, suggest that genetic rather than environmental factors influence child ADHD with same-sex parents, perhaps through a direct association, that is, a correlation between same-sex attraction and parent ADHD. On the
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marriage will lose its opposite-sex character. If gender reassignment surgery does not in reality turn a man into a woman but that “man” is permitted to marry a man, then the very nature of marriage is altered - it is opened up to same-sex couples (so long as one of the men has had his penis chopped off first). Lord Hope let the mask slip with a remarkable misinterpretation of the result in Goodwin v. UK. He says this “[The] problem would be solved if it were possible for a transsexual to marry a person of the same sex, which is indeed what the European Court of Human Rights has now held should be the position in Goodwin”. 36 The European Court held no such thing. Recognising
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