Netil Market is located in Hackney, East London. Hackney is the epicentre of London’s ‘hipster’ scene and, increasingly, a renowned area for craftproduction and retail (Schreiber & Treggiden 2015). However, as rental prices in the area continue to rise there is growing financial pressure on Hackney’s creative community and Netil Market is one of several sites that has sprung up to provide affordable, albeit temporary and makeshift, space for craft makers and sellers. As Sarah, the market manager, describes it, Netil Market is ‘a space for creative professionals to conduct their work in a flexible environment 1 .’ Occupying what was once a derelict carpark the market now contains several temporary units, mostly made from shipping containers, within which these professionals work and trade throughout the week. The container units line the perimeter of the market leaving space in the middle for other traders to join the market at the weekends, setting up on traditional counter market stalls. The market is affiliated with Netil House, one of three indoor spaces run by the company ‘Eat Work Art’ who ‘transform empty buildings into studio spaces that become home to exceptional communities’ (Eatworkart 2015). The traders in Netil Market explicitly position themselves as craft makers and sellers. Their websites promote their products as unique, emphasize the careful attention to their crafting, and celebrate craft’s shift away from globalized production and retail towards the handmade (Luckman 2015; Sennett 2008; Dawkins 2011). Natalie from ‘The Worshipful Little Shop of Spectacles’ describes how she designs and crafts ‘one off handmade spectacle frames…a rare art in a world of mass, factory-line production’ (Theworshipfullittleshopofspectacles 2015) while Tatiana from the jewellery shop ‘WeAreArrow’ stresses that her jewellery is all handmade ‘in her small workshop she and her husband built inside a shipping container’ (WeAreArrow 2015).
Anne de Stecher likewise argues that the ‘contact zones’ in which colonisers and colonised meet can be viewed as sites ‘for the assertion of indigenous autonomy, agency, and distinct identity’. Her study focuses on the ‘souvenir art’ of the Huron-Wendat First Nation of Wendake, Quebec: hybrid articles of dress and objets d’art embellished with exquisite dyed-moosehair appliqué and embroidery and incorporating European artistic traditions. Though their manufacture involved the majority of the community, souvenirs were typically finished by groups of highly-skilled women, and, unusually, the names of individual female artists survive with these objects in museum collections. De Stecher considers the ways in which this specialised craftproduction could sustain collective traditions and identities over the long term, whilst playing an important role at particular moments in mediating political relations with different settler nations and cementing diplomatic alliances. De Stecher concludes that whilst there may have been ‘coercion, radical inequality in power relations and intractable conflict ... Indigenous nations did not necessarily act as
after their region of manufacture, these wares were produced in the Rhineland between the seventeenth and the twentieth centuries. Morris is said to have admired them, used them in his home and to have encouraged a fashionable taste for the richly patterned grey-and-blue stonewares still being manufactured in small, family-run workshops in the Rhineland. These continued to employ the wheel-thrown, hand-decorated methods of late medieval and early modern craftproduction, using local clays. We refer to this as a vernacular pottery tradition, in the same sense as one speaks of a vernacular building tradition: that is, utilising local craft skills and materials, making wares primarily for functional, everyday use and employing a repertoire of simple forms and, sometimes naively executed, decorative motifs. This is the largest collection of such Rhenish stonewares that the authors have identified in an historic house collection and includes a significant group of nineteenth-century, hand-decorated vessels of this distinctive, vernacular character [INSERT Figure 1 HERE].
workers’ inquiry combine with Marx’s theory of human self-development (ibid). It was the development of their ability to write for the purposes of (self) expression that most interested those interviewed. Diana Mill explained that she had “always been a writer. I’ve always written in journals and written poetry even before I was in journalism school. It’s just a significant part of me I guess. If I’m not writing I am quite unhappy.” As a self-proclaimed “creative person,” Mill was attracted to journalism because “it is an art form. Creating a story is like doing a picture … I guess I enjoy the challenge of it.” For Carmen Jamestown, part of the challenge was in “the fussing over words and trying to find just the right-phrase … I put my imprimatur on it and that is me” This source of satisfaction recognizes, at least implicitly, the sculpting power of human endeavour. What these findings reveal is that the flexibility and autonomy attendant to the status of freelance employment is a secondary consideration, trailing the opportunity to be creative. Furthermore, those interviewed for this project were also more likely to equate the writing component of their occupation with the craft traditions of journalism. David Trendle, a college instructor in Toronto, expounded on how that it was the iterative acts of editing the written product that he most likened to the craft aspects of the journalistic labour process. He described the act of editing as consisting of “refining” and “fine tuning” for the purposes of “lopping off words,” which are extraneous, in order to improve the work. He concluded by remarking on how he especially enjoyed the “sanding and polishing” of the final product.
This article concerns functioning of small and medium enterprises and in particular: craft ones. In the sector structured European Union, the abovementioned stand for 80–95% of the existing companies and moreover, they generate the biggest number of job positions and the national income. The article focuses on a selected part of SME sector: craft enterprises and especially, on fi nancing their activities. This fi nancing relates to both, fi nancing craft businesses’ investments and their current operations. In the fi rst part of the text one presents a literary query concerning the defi nition of a craft enterprise and the resulting from its characteristic functioning: conception and tools for fi nancing investments and current operations of craft enterprises. In the second part, one demonstrates the results of researches on the conception and the tools for fi nancing craft enterprises functioning on the Polish market. In the summary of the article one demonstrates conclusions concerning the ways of maintenance and (in many cases innovative) changes of the conception and the tools for fi nancing craft enterprises. The element congruous with the basic topic of the article relating to the current functioning of a craft enterprise in the real environment (both: inner and outer one), is its functioning in the digital surrounding (including with regard to the conception of fi nancing activities), which correlates with the dynamic development of ICT technologies. The aforementioned development together with digitalization determines many aspects of craft enterprises’ functioning; also the ones connected with fi nancing tools and conceptions. Referring to the things stated, it is clear that ICT technologies should be taken into account in enterprise’s current activities and in other aspects of its functioning e.g. communication, as well as eservices it provides and receives.
approach performance-craft works not only through discussions around objects, but also through a consideration of the live actions and bodies in the performances themselves. How do these works relate to other histories and practices that have centred on features of gesture, bodies, work, and time? I propose that another clear historical precedent for the work I am discussing can be found in feminist performance art works, and specifically those that address issues of women’s labour. The development of feminist art has had a significant influence on how both performance art and craft have been developed, exhibited, and theorized in the last 60 years, and is thus a site of productive inquiry and overlap that informs and influences contemporary works that combine these two fields. I argue that examining this history in light of my contemporary examples can offer productive models for analysis that centre on readings of actions and gestures, rather than objects. In particular, I will examine the significance of live and active bodies in feminist performance art, as well as the strategy of moving previously neglected forms of labour into the gallery.
I began attending Brewnettes meet-ups in 2017 as part of my research for a term paper on women and craft beer. It was at one of these events at Fort Amherst Pub that I met Terra Barrett, Stacey Pike, and Alex Stead, who later invited me to join their home brew group, Queer Beer NL. Queer Beer NL began in 2016 with four women, two of whom identified as queer. In July of 2018, Terra, Stacey, Alex and I were invited to Port Rexton Brewing to create a limited-release beer for Port Rexton’s first Pride Celebration, a day-long event that was spearheaded by Alicia MacDonald and Sonja Mills, now co- owners of Port Rexton Brewing and also a married couple. We drove out to Port Rexton and, led by head brewer Chris LaCouer, brewed a witbier 8 named “Come Out Wit Ya.” This collaboration was our first experience brewing in an actual brewery using an all- grain brewing process instead of pre-packed kit beers. It inspired us to share our love of craft beer and brewing. Our interesting group name, and the fun labels we printed for our bottles of home brewed beer, made our Instagram page surprising popular. As of 2019, the current members of Queer Beer NL are running a book club that also features beer tastings. In many places in North America, men make up the majority of craft beer consumers (see Chapman 2018; Darwin 2018). Our intention is to make craft beer more approachable to people outside this demographic.
Craft Beer Production
As the market demand for craft brewed beer continues to grow, small brewers are continuing to crop up to meet the demand. With the increasing number of small breweries also comes an increasing number of brewery closings—more than 80 since 2010. While the brewing process fundamentals can be mastered with little technical knowledge, the key to a prosperous brewery is optimizing the use of all resources in the process, especially considering rising energy costs. New brewing operations often have the choice between building their own facility from scratch, or contracting their brewing operations to an established facility. This project recommends a design for a craft brewery (BASH Brewing Co.) producing 13 varieties of beer with a 100,000 bbl/year total production capacity. The recommended design minimizes the use of external utilities by maximizing the heat integration of process streams. Rigorous economic analysis to determine the profitability of the process design was performed. The startup and operations costs for building an independent facility following this design were calculated, and from this a reasonable rate for contract brewing was determined. It was found that the construction of an independent facility would require a total permanent investment of $68MM and have a net present value (NPV) of $26MM with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 20.96% in the present year. To achieve the same returns, it was determined that contract brewing would only be a more economically viable option if the contracted production price is less than $8.72/gallon of beer.
In the following centuries the concept was further developed in forestry and forest sciences from a mere ‘‘harvest has to equal re-growth’’ approach to more complex systems including various envi- ronmental, economic and also social aspects of production. The focus was always with on the long-term existence of production systems. Surprisingly the ideas remained in the forest science and practical forest management communi- ties until the early 1970th of the 20th century, when first international institu- tions like the World Bank, the United Nations, the OECD etc. used the term sustainability increasingly in their pub- lications (Christen, 1996). It was only in 1987 based on the so-called Brundtland- Report from the than Norwegian Prime minister Gro Harlem Brundtland that the concept of sustainability entered the stage of international politics. In this report one of the famous definitions of
Developing that spatial thread, Randalls and Petrokofsky (this issue) use the case study of underwater logging to examine how the production and reproduction of expectations is contingent upon capitalist space-time activities. Archival sources are combined with state-of-the-art techniques to turn lost wood, submerged underwater for decades, into a resalable product. Value of the recovered wood is derived as much from the stories of the rare and exotic as the specific quantity/quality available. Realising that value involves turning a hidden resource into a calculable entity, economically speaking, and enrolling loggers, conservationists, regulators and consumers in a shared expectation for triple-bottom-line sustainability in forestry.
The most renowned aspect of the site is the Terracotta Army, which comprises around 7000 individually crafted, life-sized ceramic warriors, generals and horses, equipped with real weapons and installed in battle formation in three underground pits (Figures 1a & 2a). Several decades of research into the Terracotta Army has resulted in a good understanding of the physical sequence of constructing the statues (Ledderose 2000; Nickel 2007). Many questions still remain, however, about their production location(s), manufacturers and craft technology. For example, it is usually assumed that due to the size and weight of the figures, they were probably produced at or near to the mausoleum. No workshops or unequivocal production debris have, however, been discovered in the surrounding landscape; possible mismatches with local raw materials may suggest that they were manufactured elsewhere (e.g. Gao et al. 2003; Hu et al. 2007). Firing so many life-sized clay statues, which have a wall thickness of up to 0.1m, without large numbers of failures, would have required excellent control over temperature and atmosphere, and the careful selection and
Tu Son is a district of Bac Ninh Province, Northern Vietnam which has diversified craftproduction that occupies 70% of total industrial production value of the locale (Bac Ninh Department of Statistic, 2015). From early 2015, production in Tu Son craft villages especially steel and art woodcarving was down in comparing to earlier years. Some producers’ stores are still full of unsold products with values of billions of Vietnam dong. In steel producing villages, the amount of unsold goods increases because of raised up input cost, especially electricity cost that lowers salability and causes losses to enterprises. Since the last increase of electricity price (2015), several enterprises have changed their working time to night time, equipped electricity-saving apparatuses, changed production types and reduced production sizes in order to lower production costs and maintain their incomes. Therefore, a study to find out “how does the increase in electricity price change behaviour of households in craftproduction” is necessary to evaluate the impacts of increasing electricity price on craftproduction activities in the locale. The purpose of the study is to find out behaviors of craftproduction households against the fluctuation of electricity price, and to predict their electricity using demands. Based on that, some recommendations can be proposed to minimize the impacts of increasing electricity price on craftproduction in the studied area.
CCoI would like to express its sincere gratitude to all those who participated in the Year of Craft 2011 programme. The principle and overarching purpose of Year of Craft 2011 was to raise the profile of craft in Ireland and to create public awareness of the availability, diversity and uniqueness of what is on our doorstep and its importance both culturally and economically to our local communities. The results from CCoI’s most recent annual consumer perceptions survey conducted by Millward Brown Lansdowne in December 2011 highlight the immediate impact of the success of the Year of Craft project. Levels of interest in owning and buying craft products has increased significantly since 2011, and disinterest has plummeted. Negativity towards Irish crafts has diminished, with evidence that the public is considering them more as a purchase now than in the past, and not just seen as souvenir items. This amounts to a strong endorsement of Irish craft and builds on a solid, credible foundation from which Irish craft can continue to grow.
The popularity of DIY (do-it-yourself) is a modern response to the separation of labour and domestic skills, and the legal restrictions on making and mending anything, but specifically electronics. Using the hacker language of reverse-engineering as a learning process – taking apart your jumper or video player to learn how to fix or reuse it - is very different from buying a knitted cupcake complete with strawberry frosting, even if it is locally made. Womens’ networks such as MzTek.org in London takes a playfully serious approach to developing spaces for women to learn technical skills, balls of wool and knitting needles are replaced with arduinos and a soldering iron. Here women are learning the craft of electronics, de-black-boxing their Casio along with their wardrobe. The culture of DIY is applied to coding and knowledge production, as well as developing practical skills and resources.
When I originally started the project, I was planning to research the optimal heuristics behind the production planning of multiple batches of beer. However, since the project would definitely require a simulation model in order to come to relevant conclusions, I needed to find new supervisors that knew the ins and outs of simulation software. I don’t think I could have made a better choice than to ask Martijn Mes and by extention Berry Gerrits for this role: their enthusiastic support of the project, feedback on the simulation model and my report, patience and above all their love of beer has helped me bring this project to a successful conclusion. I extend them my sincere gratitude. As it is slightly unethical to ask one of my own colleagues to become an internal supervisor, an outside supervisor had to be found. For this I asked Rocco Chin, founder of Enschede’s friendly local brewpub: Stanislaus Brewskovitch. Although our feedback sessions have been sparsely dotted around the timeframe of the project, I still want to thank him for taking the project seriously and for his overall interest in the business.