illustration o f this is German investment in ‘clean’ and ‘environmentally friendly’ technologies as a way o f addressing environmental problems. This contrasts with such methods as toxicological risk assessment, which are employed to provide evidence o f harm, an approach often used in the UK, for example.17 Additionally, in Germany, the courts play a major role in interpreting and implementing environmental regulation and in deciding whether precaution has been adequately complied with. This illustrates the diversity o f situations, due to national regulatory differences and political differences, in which the precautionary principle is required to operate. The precautionary principle, as an aspect o f the environmental debate, requires negotiation between many political, industrial and other interested bodies, and there is no fixed or established formula available whereby consensus amongst these participants can be reached. By identifying that different measures are used to advise different policy regimes in particular national contexts, Boehmer-Christiansen establishes the subjectivity involved in determining which factors are relevant to particular environmental policy decisions. This compounds the problem o f whether a set o f ground rules for assessing whether the precautionary principle has been applied can be formulated.18
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The inclusion of ignorance and uncertainty as a moral ground of action combined with the growing action ability has many implications. The (“re- straining”) responsibility for preventing possible unwanted consequences is one implication—as exemplified in the use of the principle of precaution in environmental policy. It also plays an important role in understanding the different ways that the concept of sustainability is used, as evident in the previously mentioned distinction between resource sufficiency and functional integrity. Another implication concerns the (“intervening”) responsibility to utilize the new action abilities to help and protect those in need. Here the limits of knowledge and control caution against active interference where the conse- quences of the intervention cannot be foreseen. With reference to the model of moral acting in figure 1, it is clear that the impacts on the object of moral consideration are even harder to observe than the consequences of ones acts, because the impacts depend on the interests, well-being, or integrity of the moral objects. And these cannot be fully known from outside. With respect to human welfare this problem can to some degree be circumvented by way of linguistic communication. But for other kinds of moral objects we are left with the knowledge of our ignorance as a moral ground of action.
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According to Goldim  the principle of precaution should not be regarded as an obstacle to social assistance activities, commercial, industrial activities or especially in terms of research. This is a current and necessary proposal as a way to safeguard the legitimate interests of each particular person and the society. The principle of precaution is fundamental in addressing current and important issues, such as the production of genetically modified foods, environmental contamination and the cloning of human beings. It must be recognized that there may be consequences harmful to society in the short or long term and thus it is essential to evaluate these risks on the basis of scientific knowledge, arguing that they are challenges to the global scientific community.
Interestingly, we found that a number of the participants did not call for precau- tion. These farmers felt that they themselves, or the authorities, have sufficient knowledge to decide on the technologies. Among the farmers suggesting some form of precaution, some said they have a societal responsibility and that the potential risk is part and parcel of being a farmer. Although these farmers did not necessarily dis- miss precaution, they presented a weaker version of the precautionary principle, since they fundamentally accepted some risks. By contrast, other participants urged precaution and rejected the solutions. Unsurprisingly, the farmers calling for precau- tion were concerned about the known, as well as unknown, risks to health and the environment. They adopted a stronger version of the precautionary principle on which assurances about the technologies would have to precede their acceptance. Often, however, the requirements were not limited to a call for the proponents to meet the burden of proof, but included a demand for specific structural changes in food and waste management – thus adding a more proactive approach involving changed practices to the precautionary principle.
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According to Hans Jonas, the expansion of human power through the collective practice of technology has created an ethical vacuum. And "novel powers to act require novel ethical rules and perhaps even a new ethics". 27 Jonas summarises the new duties corre- sponding to our new powers in his theory of responsibility. 28 The expansion of the range and impact of our collective actions and our increased awareness of possible far and future consequences moves the principle of responsibility into the very centre of ethics. We postpone the treatment of these systemic aspects of human action to section V, and investigate the systemic approach to moral considerability in more detail here below. J. Baird Callicott distinguished between the animal liberation movement and an envi- ronmental ethics in the tradition of Aldo Leopold's Land Ethic. 29 The extension of ethics to sentient animals in the animal rights movement is individualistic in the same way as traditional humanism. Contrary to this, the Leopoldian environmental ethics is holistic, locating ultimate value in 'the biotic community': "A thing is right when it tends to pre- serve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends to do otherwise." 30 And Leopold's extension of ethics is much more sweeping than the animal rights movement's inclusion of sentient animals, since it enlarges the boundaries of the moral community to include soils, waters, and plants as well as ani- mals.
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ABSTRACT: The paper examines agro-industrial contracts signed in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern region of Brazil. From the concept of efficient governance, it is aimed to understand and measure how the opportunistic behavior of agents manifests itself before those governance structures, considering the principle of contractual incompleteness. The fuzzy analysis logic is used as the central method. The behavioral assumption of opportunism, characteristic of the New Institutional Economy, is analyzed for contracts of rice cultivation, tobacco farming and swine farming. The fuzzy model elaborated for the measurement of the phenomenon is constituted of three categories of analysis: (a) trust, (b) references and (c) contractual safeguards. The results show that a higher level of formal contracting is associated with greater occurrence of opportunistic behavior. Keywords: Agroindustrial Contracts, Opportunistic Behavior, Governance Structures.
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Methods: A retrospective study was performed for all patients receiving rhAPC for treatment of severe sepsis at a tertiary academic medical center from January 2002 to June 2009. Demographic information, clinical variables, intensive care unit, and hospital outcomes were recorded. Results: Of the 156 patients that received rhAPC, 54 (34.6%) did not meet institutional criteria for safe use at baseline due to bleeding precaution or contraindication. Twenty-three (14.7%) patients experienced a major bleeding event. Multivariate analysis demonstrated baseline International Normalized Ratio $2.5 (odds ratio [OR] 3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28–10.56; P = 0.03) and platelet count #100 × 10 3 /mm 3 (OR 2.86, 95% CI: 1.07–7.67; P = 0.01)
In the present investigation, pharmacological evaluation of apigenin, a bioactive principle of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward (Turneraceae) was carried out. Apigenin was evaluated for antianxiety activity at a dose of 2 mg/kg using well established models of anxiety, the hole board test, light/dark test and mirrored chamber test. Apigenin signifi cantly increased head dipping in hole board test. Further, apigenin increased latency to leave light zone and the time spent in light compartment of light/dark model of anxiety. Apigenin also decreased the latency time to enter the mirrored chamber, and increased the total time spent/number of entries in the mirrored chamber with respect to control. All these observations confi rmed the anxiolytic activity of apigenin. At a higher dose (about 12 fold the anxiolytic dose), apigenin showed mild sedative activity in actophotometer as it decreased activity scores. It (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg) was found to be devoid of anticonvulsant, antidepressant and antistress activity in MES-induced convulsion test, despair swim test and cold swimming endurance test, respectively. In tail immersion test for six hours, apigenin exhibited excellent dose dependent analgesic activity, which was comparable to that of morphine sulphate (5 mg/ kg). Maximum activity was observed 30 min after the administration of 10 mg/kg dose of apigenin.
As I will argue in the body of the paper, this aspect of economic analysis has two important implications. First, economic analysis does have a way—in principle, at least—of answering the various second- order questions about compensation, even down to questions about the proper amount in dollars and cents. To be sure, the instrumental calculations needed to answer these questions with full precision may be too complex to be humanly manageable, at least in the present state of our knowledge. Thus, my claim is not that economics actually produces definitive answers: certainly not answers that are precise to two decimal places. Instead, my first claim is simply that economics—unlike most theories of corrective justice—at least offers a method in principle for answering those questions. As a result, economics also offers some basis against which arguments for one answer or another can be evaluated.
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ABSTRACT: The large number of people depends on cotton crop. The recognition of cotton leaf disease are of the major important as they have a cogent and momentous impact on quality and production of cotton. Cotton disease identification is an art and science. The start with collecting the images. We will consider two diseases they are Foliar, and Alternaria of cotton leaves. We have extracted the features and compare those features with the features that are extracted from the input test image they can like grey scaling, thresholding, cropping for detecting the boundary of image . Colour feature like HSV features are extracted from the output of segmentation and (ANN) artificial neural network is trained by choosing the feature value that could distinguish the healthy and disease sample. Experimental result showed that classification performance by ANN taking feature set is better with an accuracy of 80%. The present work proposes a methodology for detecting cotton leaf disease early, using image processing techniques and artificial neural network (ANN). We are also work with the current and future precaution for the cotton tree to protects it from future disease & maintain it to improve its good production as well as life.
Considering simultaneously all the involved variables is extremely complex: P computation derives from a simplification of the reality, which, however, have the advantage to make the methodology generalizable. One of these simplifications is the description of the area from a static point of view. Of course, the study could be refined with further research, such as introducing the study of prevailing winds and orography; and it would be useful to define in more details the buffer areas; and this may be done in the future. Overall, it is impossible to know the pollution sources in more detail, as this would require lengthy and costly monitoring campaigns for each one, but this would be possible in case of application in smaller areas and to respond to very precise queries. Hence, in general the map of Precaution Index aims to highlight which areas are most at risk (hotspots) and to direct the investigation: the knowledge of potential environmental risks, and of the pollutants that may be in- volved, is very useful to drive national and regional authorities in deciding if a monitoring is necessary, and which substances may be involved. This may help in the early identification of emerging hazards to food safety -, with the aim of preventing them from becoming real risks and causing the reduction of food quality.
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The study reports increase in the knowledge scores of the Standard Precautions and compliance scores with the Standard Precautions upon application of an educational intervention based on the Social Cognitive Theory together with aspects of Thorndike Principles of Learning. Therefore, it is the submission of this study that both self-efficacy and collective efficacy of healthcare workers on any practical concept are a function of vicarious learning supported with friendly and conducive environment, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and robust cognitive understanding. Furthermore, appreciating that knowledge not used/practiced decay, it is also the proposal of this study that any educational intervention should be periodic as envisaged by Thorndike Principle of Recency. The healthcare settings should adopt a system whereby in every clinical unit there are credible models (consultants) who was charged with the noble duty of re-enforcing the best practices. This study avers that any concept introduced must also be followed up with clarification of myths/half-truths and re-enforcement of facts to avoid pitfalls of knowledge deficiency and bad practice.
This study found that thatthere was good knowledge of use of gowns/ aprons and gloves among the health care providers (67.7%), this is in compliance with the use of personal protective equipment or barrier equipment during procedures with potential exposure to blood and other body fluids such as surgery and obstetrics procedures and seemed to depend on the type of Personal Protective Equipment and type of health-care facility. The use of scrubs, aprons and gloves were generally seen or observed as standard precaution. It was practiced at all levels in the health system. This is in line with findings in other studies (Eriksen, 2005; Aisien, 2005; Oguamanam Okezie Enwere and Kelvin Diwe, 2014 and Health Facilities Infection Control, 2002). This study revealed fair knowledge and practice of wearing of surgical mask (51.4%), this is because wearing of surgical mask is seen as standard precaution and it is enforced and used at all times. There was poor knowledge of use of goggles with only about (26.6%) using goggles under circumstances that promoted contact with body-fluid and face shield (27%). Protective glasses were more likely to be worn in the tertiary centres and least likely in the general hospitals and primary health-care centres. The tertiary centres, perhaps being more sophisticated, provided protective glasses for the health care workers, corresponding with other studies, (Aisien, 2005; Foster et al., 2010 and Health Facilities Infection Control, 2002).
HCWs were also questioned about what their immedi- ate response to NSIs should be, according to Universal Precaution guidelines. It was found that 93 (47 %) were aware that blood should be allowed to flow after an NSI and 31 (15 %) that site of prick should be washed with running water. Most HCWs, that is 119 (60.1 %), said that the site of pricked should be washed with an anti- septic. 108 (54.5 %) knew that viral serology of both pa- tient and person receiving injury should be tested. Of these, the majority was the nursing staff 38 (35.2 %) and 35 (32.4 %) doctors and lab technicians each as shown in Table 12.
Airborne infections like common cold, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps etc. are quite prevalent among health care workers due to their occupational exposures and inadequate compliance to infection prevention guidelines. 9 Strict adherence to infection prevention protocol is critical to avoid spread of infection among hospitalized patients and fundamental of quality of care. Sub-centres are the most peripheral and the first contact health care delivery point between health system in India and the community. To provide quality health care services strict compliance to biomedical waste management rule, universal precaution and airborne infection prevention guideline is of utmost importance as a healthy workforce and healthy practices at health care delivery point can curtail several serious environmental and health hazards to community. Adequate knowledge can promote proper practices with availability of appropriate logistics. With this background, the present study had been taken up to assess infrastructure of the sub-centres, knowledge and practices of health assistants related to biomedical waste management and infection control in a rural block of Nadia district of West Bengal. METHODS
There are several factors influencing the low compliance in applying universal precaution to nurses, namely due to lack of knowledge, lack of time, lack of skills, discomfort, skin irritation, and lack of training. 4 Based on previous research, it is stated that the factors associated with the application of universal precaution in the inpatient room are, nurse knowledge, discipline, supervision and availability of supporting facilities in the hospital. 5 Knowledge and attitudes of nurses influence the prevention of nosocomial infections. The level of one's knowledge can influence individual practices, where the better the knowledge, the better the practice of a person to prevent nosocomial infections. Attitudes can be formed through personal experience, the influence of others that are considered important, cultural influences, mass media, educational institutions and emotional influences. Positive nurse attitudes in the form of beliefs, abilities, and tendencies to carry out universal precautions in all patients do not look at the disease or diagnosis to prevent transmission of infection through blood and body fluids. 6
What would it mean for attackers or defenders to apply proportionality considerations to their precautionary obligations? It seems logical that they should weigh the justification for acting without taking a precaution against the expected harms of not taking that precaution to determine whether the latter are disproportionate in comparison to the former. If choosing differ- ent weapons or tactics would place civilians at much less risk and would place soldiers at only slightly greater risk, then they must be chosen. Con- versely, if choosing different weapons or tactics would place civilians at only slightly less risk and would place soldiers at much greater risk, then they need not be chosen. When the risks on each side are more closely bal- anced, military commanders must exercise reasonable judgment based on the information available to them at the time.
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Although an independent measure of the deterrence effect associated with burglar alarms does not exist, evidence of their deterrence has been documented. Blackstone and Hakim (1997) describe a burglar alarm system as “the single most effective precaution one can take” because of its ability to deter, prevent, and detect burglary. They also establish burglar alarm installation as a necessary condition for an effective security package. Using a household questionnaire and review of police files in Philadelphia’s metropolitan area in 1992, Buck and Hakim find that among homeowners who take at least three minor private precautionary measures, such as deadbolt locks, non-alarmed homeowners are 5.2 times more likely to be burgled than alarmed homeowners. This is an especially informative statistic regarding deterrence because it controls for the fact that some homeowners may be more careful than others, as well as for differences between neighborhoods that may make homeowners more likely to take minor precautionary measures. A separate study in Cedar Rapids, Iowa in 1972 shows that there is a 55% percent reduction in burglaries and a reduction in financial losses in alarmed residences, compared to non-alarmed homes. Between 1979 and 1981, a police department in the affluent Scarsdale, New York finds that 90% of burgled homeowners do not have alarm systems; the other 10% have disabled or incomplete systems.
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and calculation of insecticides for preparation of bed nets and curtains, safe use and judicious use of in insecticides and precaution measures, space spraying, ULV, thermal fog, different parts and function of Hudson pump and ther- mal fog, measurement and calculation of in- secticides for impregnation of bed nets and curtains (practical work), practical work for in- door residual spraying at the station, collection of sand flies by aspirator from the villages, car- rying out insecticide susceptibility tests by WHO standard method on collected sand flies, re- sults of susceptibility tests on sand flies: record- ing and analysis, suggestion of a control pro- gram for an Anthroponetic Cutaneous Leish- maniasis (ACL) focus, suggestion of a control program for a Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishman- iasis (ZCL) focus, suggestion of a control pro- gram for a Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) focus.
Weighed quantity of the shade dried powder of Glycyrrhiza glabra (5 g) was macerated with 100 ml petroleum ether in a closed flask for 24 h, with frequent shaking for the first 6 hrs and allowed to stand for 18 hrs. After that, it was filtered rapidly taking precaution against loss of petroleum ether due to its volatility. Evaporate 25 ml of filtrate in a porcelain dish and dried at a temperature of 105°C and weighed. The percentage of petroleum ether soluble extractive was calculated with reference to the shade dried plant powder.