Colonial House Form in Igala Land (1860 - 1960) Colonization in Igala land came with some absolute realities. First it came with the principles of individualism, abolishing the age-long practice of communalism in Igala land. Communal activities such as farming which was an integral part of the people’s culture and tradition gradually suffered neglect as extended families were separated and disintegrated into nuclear units. With the arrival of the Europeans in Nigeria and the subsequent colonization of the country, several changes occurred. The influence of European culture and life style started producing a new class of elite professionals, businessmen, and politicians. Religion, education, social and family life all began to witness a hybrid of African and European styles. As people began to move away from polygamy, family sizes began to drop. Single unit houses began to appear, they were built with materials introduced by the Europeans which included clay, mud bricks, sandcrete blocks, concrete, corrugated iron roofing sheets, processed timber, metal bars and panels, glass, cement, sand, gravel, paint, mechanical and electrical fittings and appliances to mention a few. The introduction of bricks, blocks and iron roofing sheet led to rectilinear building forms and the adoption of the rectilinear house form. Through the agency of Christianity and Islam, it dealt a serious blow to traditional religion including its various categories of deities. In so many communities, the shrine phased out, also phased out was the security fence which protected the compound. The colonial or western architectural design at the time was the model which greatly influenced the Igala traditional building design in the colonial period. Modernization in the colonial era was rather in contrast with the people’s tradition and way of life (Emusa, 2018).
11 Read more
The paper is divided into 5 sections. Section 1 provides a general introduction about Hippocratic Databases (HDB) and its principles and privacy of legacy application. Section 2 describes the legacy modernization strategies where a new strategy has been proposed called „Divide and Rule Approach‟. Section 3 highlights the benefits of the HDB and its implementation in legacy applications. Section 4 identifies the challenges in implementing the HDB in Legacy Applications and Section 5 concludes the paper. This paper is an extension of the paper mentioned in references  and .
10 Read more
Management as an activity involves the implementation of a number of functions, one of which is control (Bondarenko, 2014; Gaifullin and Sadykov, 2012; Belonozhko and Skifskaya, 2011). The structure of social institutions is multifaceted: it implies the existence of roles and statuses, formal and informal rules, principles and norms governing the status-role interaction factors of management relations. Along with this sanctions should take place and control the simple implementation of prescribed roles, statuses and observance “of rules of the game”, as well as mechanisms for implementation of sanctions. One of the main tasks of management is the adjustment of the control system from the type “as is” and “as should be”, which causes the use of correction procedures, also presented in the final block.
12 Read more
“(…) some forms of comparative assessments (for example, the PISA) had spread worldwide because many peripheral and semi-peripheral countries continue to pursuit modernization goals, seduced by the prospect of progress (or of development), which are connected to the educational agenda of the central capitalist or highly developed countries (even though these agendas seem neutral or benevolent because they are advertised by prestigious international organizations such as the OECD). More specifically, it is the belief in the principles of the modernization theory and of the neomodernization (and on the demonstration-effect) that underlies this obsession with and the expansion of evaluation to which a significant number of countries of the world system adhere to, perhaps uncritically” 
The study is carried out using the inductive approach, which includes observation of phenomena, collecting data and finding out general principles and comprehensive relations between them, Using the inductive approach, the researcher begins with detailed observations of the world, which moves towards more abstract generalizations and ideas. In other words, when following inductive approach, beginning with a topic, a researcher tends to develop empirical generalizations and identify preliminary relationships as he progresses through his research. Thus observations and experiences are used in the modern sense of the words to reach the conclusions (Al Rifaiy, 1998) The researcher applies as a supporting approach, the approach of analysis of the outer (superficial) content. The results of this approach depend on the superficial form based on description (Hussain, 1993) noted that this approach is commonly applied by researchers in different research fields to describe the matter to be analyzed in form and in content depending on the research requirements.
26 Read more
An example is given in the paper of the principles of introducing type technology into production. A model of type technology was set by grouping all necessary elements, a type working plan was created and its application shown in practice. The paper also presents the development and working of an interactive program for graphical and numerical definition of the type working process and of a drawing, and the information flow necessary in applying the type working process in real conditions.
Abstract: As the health care delivery landscape changes, medical schools must develop creative strategies for preparing future physicians to provide quality care in this new environment. Despite the growing prominence of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) as an effective model for health care delivery, few medical schools have integrated formal education on the PCMH into their curricula. Incorporating the PCMH model into medical school curricula is important to ensure that students have a comprehensive understanding of the different models of health care delivery and can operate effectively as physicians. The authors provide a detailed descrip- tion of the process by which the Weill Cornell Community Clinic (WCCC), a student-run free clinic, has integrated PCMH principles into a service-learning initiative. The authors assessed patient demographics, diagnoses, and satisfaction along with student satisfaction. During the year after a PCMH model was adopted, 112 students and 19 licensed physicians volunteered their time. A review of the 174 patients seen from July 2011 to June 2012 found that the most common medical reasons for visits included management of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, gastrointestinal conditions, arthritis, anxiety, and depression. During the year after the adoption of the PCMH model, 87% were very or extremely satisfied with their care, and 96% of the patients would recommend the WCCC to others. Students who participate in the WCCC gain hands-on experience in coordinating care, providing continuity of care, addressing issues of accessibility, and developing quality and safety metrics. The WCCC experience provides an integrative model that links service-learning with education on health care delivery in a primary care setting. The authors propose that adoption of this approach by other student-run clinics provides a substantial opportunity to improve medical education nationwide and better prepare future physicians to practice within this new model of health care delivery.
In order to adapt to this developm ent the REVOZ company has decided to improve its organi zation and its functioning principles. Consequently the organization has been changed by breaking down the company’s human resources into "basic work units", in order to:
http://www.ijmr.net.in email id- email@example.com Page 290 aim for petty reasons. This is supposed to be the hard time for them during which their capacity of hard work and honesty will be tested. They are being proved to be useful for other factors of the whole society. They care only for satisfying their needs. Therefore, this class is ready to take up whatever work they have been allotted. Unfortunately there is a class of some young people who are seen to be getting addicted to some bad habits. There is huge impact of modernization and globalization on this class. So their life style has changed. They give mere importance to education.
China is continuously making effort to modernize and strengthen its national defense and its armed forces keeping in mind the strategic interests of national security and development. In January 2007, China proved its military strength by destroying its satellite in space with a ground based missile. The whole world is always keeping eyes on its military budget. In 2008, China’s military budget was $58.8 billion, an increase of 17.6 per cent over the year 2007. China is continuously increasing its expenditure on research and development, modernization of strategic and paramilitary forces and foreign arms procurement. Today China is one of the powerful country in the world in terms of its military expansion. China is developing new technologies, building of combat capabilities, improving new weapons, reforming institutional and its defense system by quality training to armed forces, diversification of sources of strong and intelligent military personnel, outsourcing common use goods for maintenance of military organization and developing new war fighting doctrines with high technologies. China is developing a new war theory with its defense R & D system and joint operations of three military services and plan to maintain strategic nuclear deterrence. The increasing responsibilities of China in the today’s world in fact urge to modernize its military factor. People’s Liberation Army(PLA) of China is a great threat to pentagon in future that the US is considering. However, bearing in mind all measure nuclear weapon countries like India, Russia and the US , China’s credible military will remain a crucial factor in future .
In the era of digital space, the enterprise applications should be accessible from mobile and different channels like SMS, IVR, email and other smart devices. Modernizing traditional existing applications to meet the demand of the increasing enterprise growth requires major shift in the focus of adopting modern technologies. Enterprise are looking for most cost effective way of modernizing their existing portfolio of application and subsequently looking for reducing the enterprise costs. Cloud and big data adoption is the must for any enterprise to do business insight modeling and by keeping their enterprise innovation strategy at par with their competitors. In order to mitigate the risk involved and to improve on the Return on Investment (ROI) it needs a systematic approach and methodology to mitigate the key risks and challenges involved. The modernization strategy should not be big bang and it should be a phase wise approach and should bring out all the relevance aspects upfront so that the modernization can be planned systematically to avoid any risk at later point. We propose a unique generic approach in doing the enterprise modernization and discuss about the key challenges, risks involved and also proposing a consolidated taxonomy for reference. The proposed approach will act as a generic methodology to perform the enterprise modernization across industry verticals.
11 Read more
The Impact of Modernization on Women of its strongest influences was the awakening of a woman‟s consciousness. With rapid economic development and the advent of the women‟s movement, the changing status women received much attention around the world. The role of women began to woman demanding for equal rights. Sovereignty and independence assuming the equally heavy career responsibilities. The impact of modernization affected the role of women. Modernization has opened up economic opportunities in some areas, alternatively it has led to a decline in traditional sources of income for many women, e.g., those engaged in the production of handmade and homemade items. Development Bank, in the agriculture division, the introduction of computerization and new technologies in general has displaced small producers and interrupted women have experienced difficulty in acquiring access to credit, improved technologies and increased services. Nevertheless, these programmes have not taken into account of women‟s specific needs and multiple role responsibilities. With more job opportunities, they have also seen a significant improvement in their living standard, education, power, social and financial status and their overall worth. In weather nations, women had been given equal access to education a long time ago. So when modernization came and changed the face of the world, women benefited since they were ready for the change and were willing to accept it. They were in an already „ready and fit‟ mode and thus as soon as technology took over and more brains were needed, women jumped in an cashed in on the mew demand for intelligent workforce.
Work theorizing the inherent risk of life, and of the uncertainty that typifies it, emerged at the same time as that on ecological modernization. Ulrich Beck was among the first to posit that ours is a risk society, involving a shift from modernization as the quest for wealth using industrialization to master external threats (often sourced in the environment) to modernization as a way to manage the inherent dangers of those very processes of industrialization. A consequence of this shift is that modern environmental risks are understood to be globally democratic insofar as the uncertain effects of threats such as climate change, pesticide residue or epidemic diseases do not (fully) recognize class differences, and therefore such differences are not able to explain the distribution of risk among the population.
Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are rapidly proliferating in different applications. Their system features significantly differ from those of linear complex systems (LCSs). Consequently, they pose novel challenges with regard to ensuring the dependability of system operation. Maintenance of CPSs raises new theoretical and practical issues. To guarantee a high level of dependability, new and efficient system maintenance principles should be explored and operationalized in various contexts. This paper reports on the first results of the authors’ work in this direction. A comprehensive literature review has been conducted with the objective of identifying the specific features of LCSs and CPSs. We analysed the major maintenance principles and approaches currently applied to complex systems to see how they can be applied to CPSs. We found that the existing maintenance principles have various relationships with CPSs: (i) some of them cannot be considered in the context of CPSs due to incongruent system features, (ii) some of them can be adapted due to certain partial congruencies, and (iii) some of them can be applied directly due to the congruency of some system features of LCSs with CPSs. It was also found and demonstrated through a number of practical examples that many specific maintenance principles need to be developed for CPSs. We assert that the system features of CPSs without parallel in LCSs primarily reveal what sort of new maintenance principles and approaches are needed. The ultimate goal of our on-going research is to define and test these new maintenance principles. In this paper, we identify and define these principles, starting from the unique system features of CPSs and aiming to develop a maintenance advisory system.
17 Read more