The quality of housing and social exclusion

Top PDF The quality of housing and social exclusion:

Japanese Social Exclusion and Inclusion from a Housing Perspective

Japanese Social Exclusion and Inclusion from a Housing Perspective

Although ‘social exclusion’ means separation from main- stream society, it has also come to be defined as the in- ability to access essential ‘housing’, acknowledging that housing is essential for our basic well-being throughout life. To achieve a person’s basic needs, the dwelling must be habitable; providing the necessary space and func- tion, it must be barrier-free, have sufficient space for a wheelchair and other aids, and it must possess adequate utilities, such as a bathtub. Furthermore, a dwelling’s lo- cation and social relationship must support its inhabi- tants’ pre-requisite needs for social inclusion such as ac- cess to markets, to a transportation system, to commu- nications and various other agencies. A secure lifestyle is based on appropriate accommodation, a suitable lo- cation and a social and economic mechanism which sup- ports the right to housing. Moreover, we need ‘living cap- ital’ to fully realize our life (Okamoto, 2007). At times we may need social assistance from external sources, which requires the maintenance of connections to the wider so- ciety, in other words: social inclusion.
Show more

10 Read more

Japanese Social Exclusion and Inclusion from a Housing Perspective

Japanese Social Exclusion and Inclusion from a Housing Perspective

Although ‘social exclusion’ means separation from main- stream society, it has also come to be defined as the in- ability to access essential ‘housing’, acknowledging that housing is essential for our basic well-being throughout life. To achieve a person’s basic needs, the dwelling must be habitable; providing the necessary space and func- tion, it must be barrier-free, have sufficient space for a wheelchair and other aids, and it must possess adequate utilities, such as a bathtub. Furthermore, a dwelling’s lo- cation and social relationship must support its inhabi- tants’ pre-requisite needs for social inclusion such as ac- cess to markets, to a transportation system, to commu- nications and various other agencies. A secure lifestyle is based on appropriate accommodation, a suitable lo- cation and a social and economic mechanism which sup- ports the right to housing. Moreover, we need ‘living cap- ital’ to fully realize our life (Okamoto, 2007). At times we may need social assistance from external sources, which requires the maintenance of connections to the wider so- ciety, in other words: social inclusion.
Show more

9 Read more

Defining social exclusion in Western Sydney: exploring the role of housing tenure

Defining social exclusion in Western Sydney: exploring the role of housing tenure

Although the exploration of social exclusion through six dimensions presents a picture which destabilises notions of social exclusion centred on tenure alone, this reality is more complex, given the increased frequency by which public housing residents experience multiple dimensions of exclusion. Thus, while for four of the six exclusion dimensions little difference is present between areas of public and private housing, individuals in areas of public housing are significantly more likely to experience multiple dimensions of exclusion compared to residents in areas dominated by private rental and home ownership. The highest proportion of individuals who experienced no dimensions of exclusion are found in areas of private rental, together accounting for 65% of those who do not experience social exclusion (25% of private tenants surveyed) while only 35% of participants who were not socially excluded lived in public housing (14% of public tenants surveyed). Mirroring these findings, significant differences are observed between areas for residents experiencing multiple levels of social exclusion, with areas of public housing home to 62% of persons who experience multiple social exclusion (21% of public tenants surveyed), a level almost double that of private rental (12% of private tenants surveyed). While each dimension of social exclusion has significant impacts on the life chances of residents, these impacts are compounded for those residents who experience multiple exclusion – something more prevalent in areas of public housing.
Show more

46 Read more

Migrant Housing in Urban China: Based on Residential Segregation and Social Exclusion Theory

Migrant Housing in Urban China: Based on Residential Segregation and Social Exclusion Theory

Migrants are largely excluded from the mainstream housing distribution and supply system, with the linkage between household registration and urban housing being largely intact, which has resulted in the overall crowd- ing and mediocre conditions of migrant housing in urban China. For instance, the Economic and Comfortable Housings are reserved for urban residents only. Meanwhile, from the perspective of commercial housing supply in the first housing market, for real estate developers, their goal is to pursuit the profit maximization. As a result, they prefer for the high-end market and not take the relatively deprived floating population as the target market to exploit housing market. In second housing market, the filtered accommodations are the main housing source of low incomes (e.g. the migrants) even homeless [14]. Because the quality of high-income resident’s accom- modation will get aging and then will be depreciated. For pursuing better accommodations, high incomes waive their existing houses. As a result, the obsolete houses will enter into the lower lever consumer market and the low incomes could be benefited under a relatively low price. But, even in second housing market, if migrants want to loan housing, they must to face some resistance to get bank loans. Because migrants lack of housing provident fund system and collateral, the probability of success to get bank loans are slim. Renting the self-con- structed housing in suburban areas is a compromise solution for migrant. Unfortunately, the rental market is still immature, with thousands of intermediate rental agencies operating and regulations taking effect only recently.
Show more

6 Read more

Social housing, neighborhood quality and student performance

Social housing, neighborhood quality and student performance

The focus of this study is on short-term effects coming from exposure to new neighborhoods of up to three years only, and it is worth discussing this limitation a little further. Unfortunately, the research design that focuses on variation of the timing of the move, which turns out important to control for sorting, at the same time precludes any longer term analysis. It is thus not possible to draw similar conclusions regarding longer-term effects of living in highly deprived neighborhoods without making further assump- tions. Similarly, the effect of growing up in social housing neigh- borhoods remains unidentified because we have to focus on movers to find variation in neighborhood quality over time. While the latter restriction presents a challenge for neighborhood-effects research in general, some speculations can be made about poten- tial longer-term effects. In particular, since we can reject very small effects in the short run, large longer-run effects are only possible if there exist a strong non-linearity in the time it takes for neighbor- hood effects to operate. To date, I am not aware of any research that makes these claims but fully acknowledge this limitation of my approach. At least for short-run effects and for students moving into these neighborhoods, this approach allows us rejecting nega- tive effects at unprecedented precision.
Show more

20 Read more

Applying quality function deployment to social housing?

Applying quality function deployment to social housing?

Findings and Analysis - QFD Applied The host company is a Housing Association (HA) based in Greater Manchester. It aims to provide its customers with quality homes and a lifestyle that suits their individual needs. The company is a non-profit making organisation regulated by the UK Government Housing Corporation. The HA had approximately 2,500 homes for rent and sale throughout the North West of England. The homes they build and modernise are financed through public and private institutions. Their everyday running costs are funded through the rents paid by their customers. The Chief Executive stated that it is the HA’s aim to become a world class organisation by: ‘Investing in our greatest strength, our talented staff, to ensure that, through their development, training and empowerment, they have the knowledge and skills required to meet our challenging goals and the ability to deliver a service that enhances customer satisfaction’.
Show more

24 Read more

Applying Quality Function Deployment to Social Housing?

Applying Quality Function Deployment to Social Housing?

10 Findings and Analysis - QFD Applied The host company is a Housing Association (HA) based in Greater Manchester. It aims to provide its customers with quality homes and a lifestyle that suits their individual needs. The company is a non-profit making organisation regulated by the UK Government Housing Corporation. The HA had approximately 2,500 homes for rent and sale throughout the North West of England. The homes they build and modernise are financed through public and private institutions. Their everyday running costs are funded through the rents paid by their customers. The Chief Executive stated that it is the HA‘s aim to become a world class organisation by: ‗Investing in our greatest strength, our talented staff, to ensure that, through their development, training and empowerment, they have the knowledge and skills required to meet our challenging goals and the ability to deliver a service that enhances customer satisfaction‘.
Show more

30 Read more

Quality of public spaces and sustainable urban development : success and failures in fighting social exclusion

Quality of public spaces and sustainable urban development : success and failures in fighting social exclusion

Abstract Sustainable Urban Development embeds the three pillars of sustainability: environmental, social and economic. The European Commission position on Sustainable Urban Development reflects this concept, recommending an integrated approach paying attention to several intertwined factors, including the quality of public spaces. In European cities poverty issues and exclusion are particularly acute. Inclusive growth is one of the main driver of the Europe 2020 strategy, thus, it is expected that actions for fighting social exclusion are significant in deprived urban areas. However, in the EC approach still policies for social inclusion tend to remain relegated to the socio- economic sphere, with a weak link to the physical element as specific matter of concern. This paper aims at discussing the role played by the spatial quality of public spaces in supporting social integration, by focussing on a case study in Italy. More in details, the paper discusses the effects of public policies undertaken in the 1990s by the City of Reggio Calabria to reduce poverty for Roma people, by displacing those inhabiting squalid and unhealthy camps to council housing in two neighbourhoods with a different quality of public spaces. In one area the displacement happened successfully, in the other, social issues plague the community. The paper aims at investigating the influence of the quality of public spaces on the displacement outcomes. The research methodology is mainly qualitative and is based on field work complemented by photo survey and interviews. The paper suggests that the spatial quality of the public spaces might have contributed to exacerbate social conflict and detachment in the unsuccessful case. It is therefore recommended to incorporate a significant component on public space inclusive design in any socio- economic intervention aimed at overcoming social exclusion.
Show more

13 Read more

Investigation of emotions management skills, perceived social competence, friendship quality, social exclusion and need to belong in adolescents

Investigation of emotions management skills, perceived social competence, friendship quality, social exclusion and need to belong in adolescents

Previous studies emphasize the importance of competencies in adolescents related to emotional management skills in social and academic life as well as in the family. In this context, emotional management skills gain an importance as a feature that can help adolescents become a member of a group and meet the need to belong by positively changing the perception of the social competence of the individual, increasing social harmony, and developing meaningful and supportive friendships. Research data was obtained by applying "Emotions Management Skills Scale", "Perceived Social Competence Scale", "Friendship Quality Scale", "Social Exclusion Scale", "Need to Belong Scale" and "Personal Information Form" on 431 students (195 male, 236 female) in 9th, 10th, and 11th Grades in Kadıköy district, Istanbul province. Significant differences were found in friendship quality, perceived social competence, and emotions management with respect to gender. In addition, differences were found in investigated characteristics with respect to age, grade, academic achievement, family dynamics and, a negative relationship was found between social exclusion and emotions management skills, perceived social competence, and friendship quality.
Show more

13 Read more

Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

“For some of us, an episode of mental distress will disrupt our lives so that we are pushed out of the society in which we were fully participating. For others, the early onset of distress will mean social exclusion throughout our adult lives, with no prospect of training for a job or hope of a future in meaningful employment. Loneliness and loss of self-worth lead us to believe we are useless, and so we live with this sense of hopelessness, or far too often choose to end our lives. Repeatedly when we become ill we lose our homes, we lose our jobs and we lose our sense of identity. Not only do we cost the government money directly in health, housing and welfare payments, we lose the ability to contribute our skills and economically through taxes.
Show more

15 Read more

Child social exclusion

Child social exclusion

CHILD SOCIAL EXCLUSION Gemma Crous and Jonathan Bradshaw Abstract Social exclusion has been defined as a lack of resources, an inability to participate and a low quality of life. There have been a number of attempts to study the social exclusion of adults and at a country level. This paper attempts to operationalise the concept for children and comparatively using data derived from the Children’s Worlds Survey of 12 year old children in 16 countries. It does this by adapting the Bristol Social Exclusion Matrix. Variables are selected to present sub-domains and combined using standardised scores. The results for the 16 countries are compared for each sub-domain. Analysis of the overlaps between the sub- domains is undertaken using the pooled sample and for four selected countries. The material and economic resources sub-domain explains more of the variation in the other elements of social exclusion but by no means all. Being excluded from social resources seems to be less associated with other types of exclusion in all countries. Experiences of social exclusion in childhood are linked more strongly in some countries than others and in some sub-domains than in others and these variations need further investigation. There may be limits to the extent that social exclusion can be compared across such a diverse set of countries but a multi-dimensional approach provides a more complete picture than an exclusive focus on material deprivation.
Show more

21 Read more

Unemployment and social exclusion

Unemployment and social exclusion

by the type of job loss and the duration of the unemployment spell. I contribute to the literature by analyzing the effects of becoming unemployed based on a combination of survey and administrative data and a method that allows me to ac- count for selection effects due to time-constant unobserved characteristics and reversed causality. This study makes use of the panel data set PASS-ADIAB 7515 which covers about 10,000 households per wave and includes individual information on the areas of employment, education, income, health, social life and housing. Additionally, the rich administrative data set of the Federal Employment Agency provides detailed informa- tion on job and firm characteristics and employment histories. In a first step, I estimate the probability of job loss given a large set of control variables reflecting individual and household characteristics as well as the labor market history. In a second step, I apply inverse propensity score weighting combined with a difference-in-differences approach to control for observed and permanent unobserved differences between individuals who become unemployed and those who do not.
Show more

57 Read more

Transport, social exclusion and the internet: Could virtual mobility help to alleviate social exclusion?

Transport, social exclusion and the internet: Could virtual mobility help to alleviate social exclusion?

Through discussion about current use of ICTs – the telephone, mobile phones, television and computers – and patterns of Internet use – what people use the Internet for and why – the groups aimed uncover the extent to which participants are ‘virtual mobility ready’. The discussion aimed to highlight Internet access issues – who currently has access to the Internet and whether or not decisions regarding access and non-access are self-selected or are rooted in wider issues of social exclusion. We were also interested in participants’ current awareness of the full functions and possibilities of the Internet. The group discussions aimed to determine whether or not the Internet is part of everyday life, influencing quality of life or acting only as a form of entertainment. The groups introduced the concept of virtual mobility to participants, prompting discussion regarding the acceptability, accessibility, affordability and availability of virtual transport, vis-à-vis the physical alternative and the extent to which this form of mobility could enhance or possibly reduce participants’ quality of life. A topic guide was used to structure the debate around four discussion areas: to uncover the role of physical mobility in people’s daily lives; to discuss the potential impact of an increase or decrease in physical mobility; to find out about the extent of use and role of ICTs, in particular the Internet, in daily life; and to discuss the potential impact and acceptability of virtual mobility as both a substitute for and a supplement to physical travel.
Show more

12 Read more

The Subtleties of Social Exclusion: Race, Social Class, and the Exclusion of Blacks in a Racially Mixed Neighborhood

The Subtleties of Social Exclusion: Race, Social Class, and the Exclusion of Blacks in a Racially Mixed Neighborhood

“creative,” “bohemian,” and are attracted to “diversity,” which describes many white Upshaw residents particularly well. Data and Methods One of the authors conducted interviews with ten UNA board members, nine members of other neighborhood institutions such as churches and social service agencies, and eight long- time residents who have not participated in UNA recently. In- terviewees were recruited using snowball sampling. One of the authors attended general and land use UNA meetings for one year and examined their bylaws, minutes, and newsletters for six years. We include data from a neighborhood survey con- ducted by one of the authors. Sixty-three percent of randomly selected housing units resulted in 217 completed surveys. Par- ticipants were asked, among other questions, to describe their involvement (if any) with UNA.
Show more

5 Read more

The Subtleties of Social Exclusion: Race, Social Class, and the Exclusion of Blacks in a Racially Mixed Neighborhood

The Subtleties of Social Exclusion: Race, Social Class, and the Exclusion of Blacks in a Racially Mixed Neighborhood

Social Inclusion… At First Glance There are a number of reasons to think that UNA is socially inclusive of black residents. First, its stated mission is to repre- sent all residents, businesses, and organizations, whether or not they participate in UNA. In addition, UNA advocates for vague but seemingly inclusive goals such as securing adequate hous- ing, creating employment opportunities, and improving the quality of urban life. Second, all ten UNA board members who were interviewed mention the importance of social inclusion, often using the word “diversity.” They state that Upshaw is currently racially diverse and they want it to remain that way. Joe, a white homeowner and longtime UNA member, says that “I kind of prefer to have my children grow up in an area where there are actually black people and Mexican people and people from Asia and so on.” Naomi, a white homeowner, states, “You have to realize this is a racially mixed neighborhood. There’s people from all over here; you’ve got every flavor of person that you could imagine… I happen to love that; I just think it’s fun.” Finally, writers for UNA’s newsletter also discuss the importance of social inclusion and “diversity.” They wrote 17 articles during a six-year period celebrating “economic diver- sity,” “cultural diversity,” “cultural heritage,” and “ethnic di- versity.” They also wrote a number of articles highlighting longtime black residents and businesses and they sponsor sev- eral multi-cultural events at a local park.
Show more

6 Read more

Poverty and social exclusion in Britain

Poverty and social exclusion in Britain

In the case of several necessities shown in Table 15, deprivation rose between 1990 and 1999. The number of households unable to afford a ‘damp-free home’, ‘two pairs of all-weather shoes’ and ‘new, not second-hand clothes’ all increased. In each case this rise followed a fall in the 1980s. The long-term health consequences of damp housing are now well documented. Children who suffered from multiple housing deprivation are 25 per cent more likely to become seriously ill by the age of 33 than the rest of the population after allowing for other major causes of ill health (Marsh et al., 1999).
Show more

103 Read more

Transport, social exclusion and health

Transport, social exclusion and health

Information. Poor quality travel information may mean that people do not know which services are available (Balcombe and Vance, 1998). This can be difficult for infrequent travellers, people who need to reach new areas (for example, the newly employed) and disabled people. Travel information can be provided in the form of timetables, maps and route information. It can be provided both prior to travel and in the course of the journey, either on paper or electronically via the internet on home computers or mobile devices such as phones. Whilst electronic information has advantages because it can be provided at low marginal cost, people on low incomes may not be able to afford the technology, many older people grew up before the technology became common and so do not use it, and many devices are not suitable for use by some disabled people.
Show more

18 Read more

Mental Health and Social Exclusion

Mental Health and Social Exclusion

Initiatives to help people find employment Outreach and partnership working between agencies 15. There is increasing evidence that marketing and delivering employment support in a range of settings can improve employment rates for people with mental health problems. 272 Increased partnership working between Jobcentre Plus offices, health and social care organisations, and the voluntary sector would create greater opportunities for people to seek employment support from organisations that they know and trust. 273 This would also allow organisations to see the individual’s employment needs in the context of their health, housing and social needs, and work to address barriers to employment that were not work related. The forthcoming Social Exclusion Unit report on Jobs and Enterprise in Deprived Areas will include proposals on outreach for clients with complex needs. The benefits of outreach for clients with multiple disadvantages have also emerged from the Social Exclusion Unit’s Impacts and Trends project. The lessons learned by Impact and Trends in relation to outreach, and a range of other delivery issues, are informing the Department for Work and Pensions’ strategy for helping the most disadvantaged clients.
Show more

151 Read more

Schools, Education and Social Exclusion

Schools, Education and Social Exclusion

likely to attain qualifications and are more likely to report playing truant than those living in other forms of accommodation (Bosworth, 1994). However it is important to note that this does not necessasrily imply causality. On the basis of current research, it is unclear if social housing exerts an indpendent effect on educational attainment. Poor housing, in particular overcrowding, access to basic amenities, and temporary accommodation are also associated with lower educational attainment. Such conditions adversely effect upon a child’s health, development and access to friends and social networks, which are likely to affect school attendance and performance. Homelessness more specifically has been examined by Whitty et al. Exploring the processes which translate homelessness into poor educational outcomes Whitty et al. (1999) highlight “the nature and organisation of current services and professional responses…were often as much part of the problem as the solution”. The authors highlight a lack of formal policy mechanisms, to ensure the priority of the education of homeless children. Data derived from a survey of LEAs on the administrative arrangements relating to the education of homeless children, revealed high levels of confusion, inconsistency and a lack of clear lines of communication and responsibility. For example, homeless parents who elect to continue their child’s education at their existing school may incur additional financial costs for transport.
Show more

50 Read more

Social Exclusion and the Future of Cities

Social Exclusion and the Future of Cities

Minorities are disproportionately represented among those with incomes below the officially designated poverty line The political fragmentation of many metropolitan areas in the United States has contributed to the problems of joblessness and related social dislocations of the inner-city poor. As David Rusk (1993), the former mayor of Albuquerque has pointed out, because the older cities of the East and the Midwest were unable to expand territorially through city-county consolidation or annexation, they failed to reap such benefits of suburban growth as the rise of shopping malls, offices, and industrial parks in new residential subdivisions. As areas in which poor minorities live in higher and higher concentration, these cities face an inevitable downward spiral because they are not benefiting from suburban growth. Rusk argues, therefore, that neighbourhood revitalisation programs, such as community development banks, non-profit inner-city housing developments, and enterprise zones, will not be able
Show more

34 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...