might not even suspect how much information is being collected or how much can be deduced from that which is collected. A log detailing the sources library users have consulted and how they searched for them can be studied to provide valuable insights that may be used to design innovative, new services or to improve existing services; but they also might, if combined with other records, which are often intentionally or inadvertently maintained, be analyzed to reveal the users’ identities, and clues to their thoughts, beliefs— and possibly, intentions. This may be a clear violation of an individual’s right to privacy. Further, if those logs are interpreted in error or with bias, they can damn whoever left that electronic trace. Thus, librarians who specify and implement the technological infrastructures that comprise virtual libraries will have to be extremely sensitive to the manner in which system features are—or can be—used.
220. Malone, App. No. 8691/79, Eur. Ct. H.R. para. 67 (“In particular, the requirement of foresee- ability cannot mean that an individual should be enabled to foresee when the authorities are likely to intercept his communications so that he can adapt his conduct accordingly. Nevertheless, the law must be sufficiently clear in its terms to give citizens an adequate indication as to the circumstances in which and the conditions on which public authorities are empowered to resort to this secret and potentially dangerous interference with the right to respect for private life and correspondence.”); see also General Comment No. 16, para. 8; Van Hulst v. Netherlands, U.N. Human Rights Comm., 82d Sess., Commc’n No. 903/1999, at para. 7.7, UN Doc. CCPR/C/82/D/903/1999 (Nov. 15, 2004). (“[T]he relevant legis- lation authorizing interference with one’s communications must specify in detail the precise circum- stances in which such interference may be permitted and that the decision to allow such interference can only be taken by the authority designated by law, on a case-by-case basis.”).
The concept of obscurity provides a potential bedrock for protecting privacy in Cyberspace. The proposition that there might be a developing right to obscurity in Cyberspace is related to the fundamental need “to be left alone” even in the context of online communications. As a legal concept it may go hand in hand with the recognition of the sanctity of an individual’s right to privacy. In the quest for real and verifiable measures that guarantee a level of protection to safeguard privacy in the digitalage, obscurity may be an indispensable part of reaching that goal. While the concept of privacy might be difficult to define, the concept of obscurity and the four factors that determine whether information is obscure, might facilitate the creation of standard legal guidelines to make the distinction between public and private and thereby offer real protection for privacy rights in the context of online communications. Society must find a way to adapt to new developments in order to preserve its values and its humanity. It is difficult to predict, or even to imagine future technologies, but positive strides are being made in the recognition that the protection of privacy is everyone’s concern and everyone should be involved in protecting the human values it represents.
Garfinkel (2000) has also explained that "All we need to treat personal information as a property right, and then to use existing property laws to prevent unauthorized appropriation." Governments, especially Kominfo in Indonesia, need to implement and affirm privacy rights in the era digital for the community. The Institute of Electronic Frontiers Foundation in Privacy and Security on the Internet also mentions that the key to privacy is control of personal and human data that determines which information can be known to others and which are not. Even though the internet seems to facilitate digital surveillance or trace the digital footprint of each individual, it should be noted that the internet is also created with a foundation of openness and security. Practices such as tapping in the network or making the internet a closed thing are actions that injure the foundation. Maintaining the right to privacy does not only need to be based on government law, but also yourself must be more sensitive to the tools and services used when accessing the internet in this technological era (Kemudi, n.d, p. 27).
I frame the categories of online shaming broadly, including activities that might traditionally be analyzed as distinct, particularly as some of the individuals involved are more sympathetic than others. Scholars such as Kate Klonick, for example, employ a narrow conception of shaming, differentiating shame from harassment and bullying because of the enforcement via social norms (, p. 1034). However, I suggest that shame can be an element of a wide variety of forms of abuse. In some ways, shaming is not any category, simply a tactic employed, to varying scales, in inflicting the abuse. For the purposes of this paper this broader approach is key, because by throwing open the door categorially-speaking, we can identify and untangle the appropriate differentiating factors between a shaming that might raise privacy concerns versus a shaming that merely causes offense or enforces the norms of a community. In this way, we can explore how the privacy interest might be different between a bullied child, a guy cracking sexual jokes about dongles 13 and revenge
Chapter Three deals with the Data Privacy/National Security Balance in the United States from September 11, 2001 to the present. A central theme explored in this chapter is the position adopted by the Bush Administration that at times when State security is in jeopardy, the President has the inherent power to determine what the law is when National Security issues are being addressed. The President, with the support of the legislature, assumed the authority to take whatever pre-emptive action he chose to deter and prevent acts of terrorism. The action he chose to take was to give secret orders to the National Security Agency (NSA) to engage in the mass collection of domestic phone calls and other telephony data of U.S. citizens. The NSA engaged in this process without seeking warrants or Court orders, thus violating the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. Chapter Three underlines the differences between U.S. and European practices in the context of terrorist threats to national security. It also analyses the U.S. Administration's defence of its post- 9/11 surveillance policies, and objections to these policies from scholarly sources. Normative arguments in defence of the erosion of privacy rights are also assessed, as a means of achieving a better understanding of U.S. surveillance policies post-9/11. Legislation such as the Patriot Act, which provided a number of mechanisms by which the Bush Administration could override previous legal controls on privacy-invasive methods of intelligence- gathering, is also examined.
Comprehensive knowledge of human anatomy underpins the understanding and practice of medicine. Anatomy teaching is an established part of the undergraduate curriculum. However, with a variety of tools and techniques employed to teach anatomy, there is uncertainty regarding methods to deliver optimal teaching. With rapid advancement of technology and e-learning, it is important to explore the potential of technology in delivering tailored anatomical teaching. This paper seeks to answer the question: what is the best method to teach anatomy to undergraduate medical students, including striking the right balance between use of novel tech- nologies and traditional methods. A narrative literature review was conducted to explore established methods and their ef ﬁ cacy, which informed a cross-sectional survey at a medical school in the United Kingdom.
In order to understand why this is problematic, we need to return to the original formulation of the right to privacy at the end of the nineteenth century, by Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis. In what is now recognised as one of the most influential law articles ever published, they propose to ground the right to privacy in the ‘immunity of the person’ (Warren and Brandeis, 1984 : 83). The rationale behind this particular approach is that they hope to establish such a right independent of already existing (intellectual) property and copyright laws (ibid.: 79- 81) as well as available slander and libel laws (ibid.: 77-78; Post, 1991; Barbas, 2015; The Harvard Law Review Association, 1981). The right to privacy ideally encompasses the whole of a person’s bodily integrity, feelings, thoughts and peace of mind, his or her dignity as a person. Doing so, Warren and Brandeis rely on the concept of ‘immunity’ as the legal and political halo that surrounds the person and protects it from outside intrusions that may impede upon its autonomy (Blackstone, 1899: 223). In his treatise on torts to which Warren and Brandeis refer, justice Thomas M. Cooley defines the right to one’s person in terms of privacy as ‘a right of complete immunity: to be let alone’ (Cooley, 1880: 29). For the American sociologist Edward Shils as well, ‘Intrusions on privacy are baneful because they interfere with an individual in his disposition of what belongs to him. The “social space” around an individual, the recollection of his past, his conversation, his body and its image, all belong to him’ (1966: 306).
The academic and special libraries have to serve at all educational levels, from primary school to research level students. It is very disgusting situation for visually impaired users that there are a few commercial publishers who are publishing their text books. So that it is the duty of the institutional libraries to fulfill their demands and provide the out put facility in a required form. Networking in between these libraries can play a vital role to full fill their demands, because they are very much dependent on an effective library services with links to other libraries that can provide the better resources and inter library loans. To provide the digital library facility to these users, a sufficient work stations / computer terminals should be installed with appropriate adaptive technology. These libraries should also provide guidance to use of library resources, associated peripherals, adaptive technologies and use of portals linked each other.The users of higher academic, research and special libraries are mission oriented people and accordingly library professionals should develop the collection and accordingly provide the services to these users as per their higher or specialized need and formats.
India is a largest democratic country in this world with the 1.21 crores people (Census Report of India, 2011). But one of the major problems of this country is that 42.1% of people are suffering from inequality in education here (United Nations Development Programme - UNDP, 2014). For this reason, the position of India (India‟s HDI Rank-135) is too behind than the other developed countries like, U.S.A., Japan, and China in respect to Human Development Index (HDI) (UNDP, 2010). After 68 years of independence, India is not able to provide minimum level of education to its all citizen till now. According to the Indian Census Report (2011), only 74.04 % people are literate in India. It means that almost 25.96% people are illiterate in our country India still now. In this background, the Right to Education Act (2009) has taken by the Indian Government is a historical and
To achieve the objectives of political communication, the process of political communication also requires the right strategy. From the explanation above, it appears that the role of the leader as a political communicator has adapted the approach of political communication strategies from Anwar Arifin (2011) which states that in the political communication strategy there are at least three suggested ways, including: 1) Personnel and Institutionality. The first step in a political communication strategy is to maintain the persona and establish the institution, meaning that the persona of a politician and the stability of the political institution in society will have their own influence in communicating, 2) Creating Togetherness. To achieve the goal of political communication, efforts are needed to create togetherness between politicians and the public (the people) by holding and composing homophile messages to the public, and 3) The third strategic step that must be taken to achieve the goal of political communication, namely to build a good consensus between politicians in one political parties and between politicians and different parties. (Anwar, 211: 235).
Right of Privacy A Look Through the Kaleidoscope SMU Law Review Volume 46 | Issue 1 Article 4 1993 Right of Privacy A Look Through the Kaleidoscope Arthur R Miller Follow this and additional works at[.]
Before we had a developed legal system, in earlier days an illegitimate invasion of privacy was recognized as tort. Such act would be deemed to be a wrongful under the wrongs of trespass or assault. It is known that the concept of right to privacy as a unique concept was firstly accepted in the field of tort law. The term „tort‟ means a twisted or crooked act of a person for which appropriate remedy is an action under civil law. Under the tort law, it gave right to cause of action for a remedy in damages. In India though the right to privacy is not specifically guaranteed, the concept is not new and does give rise to legal action. As such, the right to privacy is protected under two distinct laws, viz. private law and public law. Private law talks about the general rules of privacy that are provided under tort law and Public law talks about the constitutional acknowledgment given to the right of privacy which aims to protect personal privacy against unauthorized government incursion.
Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a global health concern and the leading cause of vision loss in the developed world. Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy has revolutionized the treatment of neovascular AMD, but there are still challenges with delivery of care and treatment burden with currently available medications. Brolucizumab is a single-chain antibody fragment inhibitor of all isoforms of VEGF-A. Its small molecular weight allows for high solubility and tissue penetration. Brolucizumab has most recently been evaluated in 2 parallel phase 3 randomized controlled trials which demonstrated its safety and ef ﬁ cacy in an extended dosing regimen. The present review summarizes the safety, visual and anatomic outcomes, and durability of brolucizumab in the treatment of neovascular AMD and discusses some of the extended dosing regimens explored with currently approved medications and other therapies still under clinical investigation.
Patients and methods: A retrospective study was conducted on deceased patients whose diagnosis included bronchitis from 2010 to 2016. Patients were separated into two groups accord- ing to the age of onset (Group I, age #50 years old; Group II, age .50 years old). Information regarding disease course, smoking history, death age, number of admissions per year, Hugh Jones Index, and self-reported comorbidities of the patients was recorded.