This project will provide information and data for comparison and selection of roadwearingsurface systems on glulam timber bridge decks for researchers and bridge owners, who may choose to use it to make a selection for their bridge application. Part of the role of a roadwearingsurfacesystem as previously defined, is to provide safe passage to bridge users and provide protection to the bridge below. Misrepresentation of an unsuitable product could lead to serious public safety issues, and/or lack of protection resulting in potentially serious structural damage of a bridge. Therefore it is important to provide accurate, unbiased and detailed information to give a solid and valuable foundation for those wanting to use or expand on it. Every attempt has been made to utilise quality research practices by thoroughly researching, comparing and critically analysing sound literature. The advice from currently practicing professionals in the field such as engineers at Queensland main roads, regional councils and bridge inspectors has been sought.
The RoadSurface Management System (RSMS) is a powerful tool that can provide an overview and rough estimate of a roadway system’s condition at the network level and the approximate costs for future improvements in towns and small cities. This helps municipalities and local agencies to ap- ply limited budget resources and provide the greatest road quality benefits. To control the cost of roadway surface deterioration, local agencies and municipalities need to make cost-effective deci- sions regarding the maintenance, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of the roadway network. RSMS can help in assessing the condition of the network, weighing alternatives, and establishing long- term treatment plans and budgets. In this paper, RSMS is used to evaluate a university campus road network in the state of Idaho and to establish the necessary repair methods for 10 selected sections in the campus network.
Key words: dentures, stomatitis, Candida albi- cans, biofilm, oral hygiene.
Denture stomatitis is a very common inflamma- tory reaction occurring in the carriers of the dentures and involves the mucous membrane underneath the ba- se of the denture (1, 2). The etiology of this process is multifactorial, but in 89% of cases, the occurrence of denture stomatitis is associated with infection of yeast of the genus Candida (C.) (3). Candida species are mi- croorganisms that form part of the normal microflora of the oral cavity. However, if the condition of the nor- mal flora is disturbed or the general resistance of the organism is reduced, Candida species cause inflamma- tion on the surface of mucosa, which is most often ma-
7 Executive Summary
This project provided for a laboratory and field testing of several high performance repair materials for pavements and concrete bridge decks. The main purpose was to provide ODOT with materials and procedures to shorten road and bridge closures. The project was relatively complex with several phases. First, the repair materials for testing and the locations needed to be selected. This required a thorough review of the available literature, including the practices used by other state transportation agencies. Next, the repair materials were installed on pavements and bridge decks on three separate installation projects in ODOT District 8, two by the Great Lakes Construction Company (TGLCC), and two with ODOT maintenance crews. There was a cold weather installation on bridge decks and concrete pavements in March 2014, with two products rated for low temperatures, followed by a larger installation on concrete pavement with four other products in June 2014. The first two installations were carried out by TGLCC. In June 2015, five bridge deck patches with two materials were installed by the ODOT maintenance crews.
Fig 3: Source:  Structural-Functional linkages in Kenya's Road Transport Sector
The standard systematic literature review method was employed to collect data, appraise, select and synthesize the literature. Data was collected using a manual search from the IEEE, ACM and google scholar. The former two were considered to be the leading technology based journals whereas the latter was used to integrate any other high impact journal articles which may have been published outside the two. The keywords identified in this review were “intelligent transport” and “review”. These were further refined using the time of publication, journal impact factor and inclusion of the keyword “developing nation” and finally “Kenya”.
The reflection of light is improved by the application of light-coloured aggregates in the wearing course.
Under wet weather conditions the skidding resistance of a porous asphalt wearing course (in Dutch: ZOAB) generally is not any problem because the rainwater is removed through this asphalt layer. However, under dry weather conditions a newly constructed porous asphalt wearing course may exhibit a somewhat lower skidding resistance during a certain period of time, because the aggregates are then covered with bitumen. The micro texture of the aggregates only can contribute to the skidding resistance when the bitumen has worn off. Strewing chippings for a better skidding resistance during the first months is impossible as they would disappear into the porous asphalt.
Abstract. In order to find out that if it is available to apply the asphalt mixture with small particle size and large porosity to the ultra-thin wearing layer, a kind of open-graded asphalt mixture whose nominal maximum aggregate size is 4.75mm and void ratio is greater than 20% is designed in this article. The rutting test, low-temperature bending test, freeze-thaw split test, pendulum friction coefficient test, manual sand patch test and permeability test are conducted to evaluate the road performance and surface behavior like high-temperature stability, low-temperature, water stability, friction and permeability. The test results shows that the asphalt mixture’s 60℃ dynamic stability is 8201 times /mm, ultimate bending strain is 2896 με, the residual strength ratio of freeze-thaw split is 83.94%, BPN is 69, the texture depth is 0.71mm, and water permeability coefficient is 6857mL/min. It can be concluded that the asphalt mixture with small particle sized aggregate and large porosity has good road performance, whose high-temperature stability, anti-skid performance and drainage performance are excellent. Compared with road performance of OGFC-13, small particle asphalt mixture can also be used as ultra-thin wearing course.
Poverty is very often far worse in rural areas than in urban centres, as a result of lack of integration with urban centres due to lack of adequate accessibility and mobility; and local roads and tracks are often impassable, thereby proving it very difficult and in some cases nearly impossible for rural families to have access to the local rural economy. Therefore, intra-regional road linkages may always bring development within the region and improve market system and local economies especially in the developing countries. However, the moment an interregional highway is introduced, weak indigenous businesses and firms are open to strong competition from the multinational and well-established companies (from outside the region) which may overrun the market. In all, going by the words of Litman (2010), high quality public transport provides many economic benefits and so can be cost effective provided there is sufficient consumer demand and supportive land use policies.
Over the past few years, motorcycle fatalities have increased at an alarming rate in the United States. Motorcycle safety issues in Kansas are no different from the national scenario. Accordingly, this study examines motorcycle crashes in Kansas in order to identify and evaluate critical crash-related factors and subsequent impacts on motorcycle crash injury outcomes. State-level motorcycle rider fatality rates were investigated while considering various factors including helmet laws, using generalized least-squares regression modeling. A detailed characteristic analysis was carried out for motorcycle crashes, using Kansas crash data. Comparisons were made between several aspects of motorcycle crashes and other vehicle crashes. Logistic regression analyses were performed on Kansas motorcycle crash data to identify factors affecting fatal motorcycle crashes. In addition, a survey was administered to motorcyclists in order to gather information on rider behaviors and helmet usage patterns, as well as their perceptions regarding helmet laws in Kansas, potential problems associated with the law, crash-related factors, and the level of difficulty in executing various motorcycle maneuvers. Ordered probit modeling was used to identify factors contributing to the increased severity of injuries sustained by motorcycle riders involved in crashes. Results from state-based modeling showed statistically significant relations between motorcycle fatality rates in a given state and crash-related factors such as weather-related conditions, helmet laws, per capita income, highway mileage of rural roads, population density, education, demographic distributions, and motorcycle registrations in the state. States with mandatory helmet laws had 5.6% fewer motorcycle fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations and 7.85% fewer motorcycle fatalities for every 100,000 in a given population. Characteristic analysis of motorcycle crashes in Kansas revealed that motorcycle maneuvers such as overtaking, motorcyclists being older than 40 years, not using motorcycle helmets, daytime riding, crashes occurring on roadside shoulders, and influence of alcohol among the riders during crashes increased the risk of crash fatalities. Survey results showed that 71% of motorcyclist respondents perceived drivers of other vehicles as the single biggest threat to their own safety. Moreover, 64% opposed legislation that would require motorcycle riders and passengers in Kansas to wear helmets. The ordered probit model results indicate that overturned and fixed-object motorcycle crashes, not wearing a helmet, being younger in age, speeding, good weather, as well as being under the influence of alcohol significantly contributed to increased severity of motorcyclist crash-related injuries in Kansas. 17. Key Words
related with system vehicle-infrastructure- pedestrian. Literature review let to realise that more accurate real-time traffic information changing between traffic involved persons may would let to avoid pedestrians participation in accidents. According this vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) offer a promising way to achieve pedestrian-vehicle goal to avoid accident by using a group of VENET’s system: Vehicle-to- Vehicle (vehicles communicate either directly with other vehicles or through intermediary vehicles), Vehicle-to-Infrastr ucture (messages are transmitted between vehicles and road-side units located on nearby arterial road intersections or highway on- ramps), Vehicle-to-Pedestrian (messages are transmitted between vehicles and pedestrians who send and receive messages via their phones or other wireless devices). Based on the review it can be stated that from statistical analysis or surveying currently the research focus moved to ISA, BAS or AEB towards. These are the new research areas.
The present paper describes the results o f an investigation into the braking parameters o f automo biles equipped with an antilock brake system (ABS) and without an ABS. The values o f the automobile deceleration, the time o f the deceleration increase and the time o f disbraking, while braking on a dry asphalt-concrete surface, which has been fixed in the course o f the experimental investigation, are presented. The dependence o f the deceleration o f the automobiles, equipped with an ABS and without an ABS, upon the primary driving speed is reflected and substantiated. The results o f the investigation o f the braking o f the automobiles, equipped with an ABS and without an ABS, in winter conditions, i.e., on ice and snow, are presented. The cohesion characteristics and the automobile decelerations while braking on other road surfaces are presented.
Al-Qadi et al. (2002) have given a detailed review on these devices and their historical usage on measuring winter road and airport runways. Most state-of-the-art friction mea- suring devices are easy to install and operate, and continuously make measurements with the mounted vehicle driven at a normal speed. Also, they work well under a wide range of vehicle speeds, which makes the measurement more convenient and reliable. With the development of the GPS (Global Positioning System) technology, the location of the op- erating friction measuring device can be accurately tracked; therefore, each single friction reading can be easily associated with its location stamp. The CFM with high-resolution location stamps can be a powerful tool for hotspot targeting, job tailoring, resource de- ployment, and performance tracking. If the mapping between CFM value ranges and RSC types can be reliably established, it can further improve several important aspects of winter road maintenance works. First, maintenance personnel can straightforwardly apply their accumulated maintenance experiences based on visually distinguished RSC types. Second, decision makers will gain more freedom in transplanting relevant guidelines, standards and policies with different origins. Third, road travelers can easily understand what RSC they are facing. Finally, with this mapping as a translator, estimated RSC types through CFM can be compared, synthesized and combined with RSC measures from RWIS pavement sensors or CFM from other friction measuring devices. For these reasons, a number of studies have been conducted trying to reliably establish this mapping relationship.
The environmental aspects of traffic accidents partially address the following three themes: (a) oil products spillage leading to land degradation and contamination of water sources; (b) noise nuisance due to accident impact, maintenance, and repair of the salvage at poorly managed workshops; and (c) landfill effect of the accident salvage. The vehicles on the roads use fossil products such as petrol, diesel, engine oil, and brake and clutch fluids that spill on the scene of the accident upon the collision impact. The fossil products enter into the surrounding roadsurface, as well as land and water supplies. The people living within the proximity of the collision impact site who use the water may suffer from illness. The noise coming from the crash impact, maintenance, and repair of the salvage at makeshift workshops is a nuisance. The metal cut-offs, wielding fire drop offs, filler, and paint remains, as well as irreparable parts, go to the landfill. The wastes from the workshops do not decompose and are harmful to human life, leading to land degradation and contamination. Family members are hurt by the steel metal cut-offs while working on the land and get poor crop yields due to high metal concentration affecting soil composition and fertility.
An effective road transportation system is a key enabler for national and global economic growth. In the wintertime, the presence of snow and ice on road surfaces reduces roadsurface friction and can result in serious injuries and significant economic loss. Accurate road weather forecasting, focusing on when and where road slipperiness will occur, improves the efficiency of winter road maintenance activities, thus helping to ensure the safety and mobility of road users. The purpose of this thesis is to increase the understanding of the spatial distribution of roadsurface temperature (RST) and hoar frost, a common and hazardous form of road slipperiness, across a road network. The thesis consists of two parts. The first part models the influence of geographical parameters on RST distribution during times of day when most traffic uses the road network, using thermal mapping data recorded at times of day other than the latter part of the night. Using thermal mapping from times of day other than the latter part of night makes it possible to assess the feasibility of using road weather related measurements from in- car sensors (Floating Car Data) to model RST distribution. The second part of the thesis characterises the risk of hoar frost on winter roads, across the whole of Sweden, and investigates how that risk changes in a warming climate.
Participatory sensing networks rely on gathering personal data from mobile devices to infer global knowledge.
Participatory sensing has been used for real-time traffic monitoring, where the global traffic conditions are based on information provided by individual devices. However, fewer initiatives address asphalt quality conditions, which is an essential aspect of the route decision process. This article proposes Streetcheck, a framework to classify roadsurface quality through participatory sensing. Streetcheck gathers mobile devices’ sensors such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer, as well as users’ ratings on roadsurface quality. A classification system aggregates the data, filters them, and extracts a set of features as input for supervised learning algorithms. Twenty volunteers carried out tests using Streetcheck on 1,200 km of urban roads of Minas Gerais (Brazil). Streetcheck reached up to 90.64% of accuracy on classifying roadsurface quality.
Studies using bike for monitoring road condition are reported. A bike is light comparing with a car and usually does not have a sus- pension, so it can detect small step even if its speed is slow. More- over, the bike can enter a narrow street that a car cannot so that the monitoring system can cover area closely. Eisenman etal. pro- posed BikeNet which monitors cyclist experience and makes a map with several sensors mounted on the bike . This system needs to equip sensors on bie body so that there is a diﬃculty to increase participants. Reddy etal . proposed data sharing platform named Biketastic which enriches experimentation of finding good routes and sharing route information among cyclists. This system does not need specialized sensors equipped on the bike but only need smartphone to be worn by the cyclist . This system evaluates the route in terms of safety, eﬃciency, and enjoyment. Verstockt etal. proposed a method to categorize the road type using data col- lected at worn smartphone of cyclist . Their algorithm receives 5 seconds of acceleration data and calculates their magnitude and then classifies it into 6 road terrain types based on random forest of binary decision trees. Therefore, although their proposed method can be utilized for macroscopic road terrain classification, it can- not be suited for microscopic road damage monitoring like a road damage detection.
The introduction of highly automated driving functions is one of the main research and development efforts in the automotive industry worldwide. In the early stages of the development process, suppliers and manufacturers often wonder whether and to what extend the potential of the systems under development can be estimated in a cheap and timely manner. In the context of a current research project, a sensor system for the detection of the roadsurface condition is to be developed and it is to be investigated how such a system can be used to improve higher level driving functions. This paper presents how roadsurface conditions are introduced in various elements of the microscopic traffic simulation such as the actual network, the network editor, a device for detection, and an adaptation of the standard Krauß car following model. It is also shown how the adaptations can subsequently affect traffic scenarios. Furthermore, a summary is given how this preliminary work integrates into the larger scope of using SUMO as a tool in the process of analyzing the effectiveness of a roadsurface condition sensor.
The main aim of this paper is to realize a simple application, which can be installed on several devices (smartphone/tablet), that allows to use sensors piggybacked on them in order to monitor roadsurface quality. Experimental tests are carried out on urban roads of Calabria (Italy) to validate and test the mobile application. In particular, the accelerometer is used for detecting surface conditions, in terms of potholes and bumps. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is employed to know in real time the location of vehicles and of roadsurface anomalies. Five different devices were used, all placed in a test vehicle in three different placement conditions. For the validation process, only one device was used, completely bound in an utilitarian car. The algorithm developed to detect road bumps and potholes is based on the analysis of the acceleration signal in terms of high-energy events; three filters are applied on the original signal. Moreover, verification of the rate of false detections and undetected road anomalies is planned, using georeferenced photos that allow the correct localization on the map and the assessment of the correspondence between the elements, detected with the accelerometer, and real road conditions.
The Yukon River Bridge, also known as the E.L. Patton Bridge, carries the twolane Dalton Highway and the trans-Alaska oil pipeline across the Yukon River at a 6%
grade. It is 30 feet wide, with 6 spans; it was designed to withstand -60 degrees Fahrenheit temperatures, huge ice loads from the river, truck loads hauling supplies to the oil fields, the oil pipeline, and, in the future, a gas line. Over 30 years, the timber decking has been replaced several times — in 1981, 1992, 1999, and 2007. The trees that produced the original decking were massive old-growth firs, strong and close-grained. Subsequent decking has come from younger trees, which produce softer wood. As timber quality has decreased, time between replacements has also decreased, while material costs increase. Every time the Yukon River Bridge deck is resurfaced, it costs the public millions of dollars. Further, in the past only timber was used, and the quality of this material is decreasing as the cost is increasing. It is imperative that new materials for use as a wearingsurface for this bridge be identified. This research seeks to identify a material suitable for bridge decking that will last more than 15 years.