The Role of the Government

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The Role of the Dumai City Government in the Use of Reducing Poverty

The Role of the Dumai City Government in the Use of Reducing Poverty

population since time immemorial were below the poverty line. This situation caused many Indonesians to take improper actions, such as stealing, begging and others so on. A study of the role of the City Government in its efforts to reduce poverty in Dumai City also needs to be done, because the City of Dumai has become one of the cities in Riau Province which has developed since becoming a Municipality. However, the development and potential possessed by the City of Dumai is not in line with the condition of its people, where the poverty rate has increased. In addition, the efforts of the Dumai City Government in its efforts to reduce poverty in the research area also need to be done, considering that even the City Government's policies have been implemented but have not provided maximum results in improving the living standards of the local poor. The interests of this study are expected to provide a positive umbangan s mainly in providing input to its common centres P he Government and Local Government in usu kh snya against poverty. In addition, this study is expected to produce the best analysis to see the extent of the success of the role of the Dumai City Government in its efforts to reduce poverty in the regions research.
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Jostling for Position: The Future of Regional Power-Sharing and the Role of the Pacific Islands Forum

Jostling for Position: The Future of Regional Power-Sharing and the Role of the Pacific Islands Forum

measures, a later provision in Annex A states there must be “a suf- ficient degree of consensus on the resolutions by those that have to implement them” including local players, donor-states and out- side agencies. A wide interpretation of this agreement signals con- flict-prone states may have a minimalist role in responses to inter- nal conflict undertaken within their own borders, a narrower in- terpretation of the provisions may point towards a form of pro- cess-design that moves away from government authorities and to- wards more local-level participation. Either way, Biketawa’s con- struction and application provides insight into the transformation of Pacific states’ democratic systems, illustrating the creation of a meaningful point of reference for South-Pacific interstate political responsibility. The role of a regulatory structure need not extend to entire responsibility for a particular decision for it to be useful, as is seen in Asia with ASEAN, and NATO in Europe. Although the PIF is a useful point of reference when examining political re- sponsibility in the region, its authority does not subsume the re- sponsibilities or impact of middle power states such as Australia. As Haacke and Williams have stated regional arrangements may have a “local hegemon or a state that is perceived to harbour heg- emonic ambitions” (Haacke and Williams 2009: 6) such as in the case of Australia and the PIF. In this vein academics have argued Australia views the Pacific Islands region in three distinct ways: as a threat, an opportunity and as a special responsibility (See Schultz 2014; Wallis 2012). Australia’s dominance in the region is particularly evident in the case of RAMSI wherein the host state, and the PIF, provided little guidance in the design of the Solomon Islands response that was predominantly constructed by Australi- an Government representatives (Evans 2015).
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The Effectiveness of the Role of Universities in Building the Entrepreneurial Community in Indonesia

The Effectiveness of the Role of Universities in Building the Entrepreneurial Community in Indonesia

With more and more residents into self-employment, then their economy will be independent, not to be dependent on the capitalist economic system, in this case the Government has to be pro active provides capital for entrepreneurs in order to be truly productive with flowers competitive, and not destroy the entrepreneur or the Government, the results of their business profits will be deposited in banks in the country, so the smoother turnover, with it their capital will be increased so that it is able to penetrate the share global markets, that would raise the import-export balance and will add to the foreign country as a significant, then it is very clear, that entrepreneurship has a very important role to raise the dignity the dignity of a nation at the international stage.
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The role of the pharmacist in the management of type 2 diabetes: current insights and future directions

The role of the pharmacist in the management of type 2 diabetes: current insights and future directions

Funding to deliver pharmacy-based cognitive services is a contentious issue, and whilst they can be funded through a user-pays model, government-funded or third-party payer models are likely to be needed for widespread implementa- tion of such services. For example, depending on the level of remuneration, one would envisage that a limited number of community pharmacies specializing in diabetes would offer extended services. Legislative change to allow pharmacists to manage patients’ diabetes therapy either in consultation with their primary health provider or independently, which has occurred in some jurisdictions, will allow pharmacists delivering such services to have greater impact.
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The Role and Functions of the Implementation Committee of the School in Improving the  Quality of Education

The Role and Functions of the Implementation Committee of the School in Improving the Quality of Education

Synergistic relationship building with the community education is the shared responsibility of parents, the Government, schools and communities. The four elements have significant influence towards the educational process of the child. The responsibility of parents to education is obvious. Even the old man is the first person in charge of the child to education. Parents who got child mandate from God Almighty. So it is mandatory to educate her children as best as possible. After parents give children, education will be given help from prep school to such complexity in educating children, but not that already escape the responsibility of parents.
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<p>Analysis of the Government Health Expenditure in the First Decade of Chinese New Medical Reform (2009&ndash;2018): Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region as an Example</p>

<p>Analysis of the Government Health Expenditure in the First Decade of Chinese New Medical Reform (2009&ndash;2018): Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region as an Example</p>

institutions has been continuously strengthened, which have been accounted for 70.22% of the total government expenditure in 2018. And the average annual growth rate was also as high as 16.16% during the 10 years, far higher than the average annual growth rate of 5.65% in the fi eld of public health. These data indicated that the universal health insurance model plays an important role in the government ’ s health care expenditure. However, the pro- portion of medical institutions in Xinjiang compared to the national level was relatively high, the overall national level was about 45%, which was far lower than the level of 70.22% in Xinjiang. The primary reason was that there was a large number of farmers and herdsmen in Xinjiang, whose medical insurance reimbursement ratio was much higher than that of the general population. Secondly, a series of medical insurance reimbursement policies for the elderly issued by the Autonomous Region Government have improved the reimbursement ratio of the elderly. Finally, because of the relatively backward medical and health conditions, the prevalence of major diseases and chronic diseases in Xinjiang was higher than the national level, thus leading to a heavier burden on health care. All of these reasons lead to the government health expenditure concentrate on major hospitals, thereby reducing the gov- ernment fi nancial expenditure in public health. 12 Because the government public health expenditure has been com- pressed, many diseases could not be effective in prevent- ing, which leads to the incidence of various major diseases and chronic diseases can not effectively reduce, and thus forming a vicious cycle. That was to say, because the proportion of government public health expenditure was reduced, it could not do better in disease prevention, and could not effectively enhance the concept of universal health. This was why the incidence of various diseases is so high. The more money needed for personal health care, the more the government will invest in personal health care, which leads to a further squeeze on public health funds. In order to break up this vicious circle, a reasonable plan of government health expenditure must be estab- lished, balance the proportion of medical institutions and public health expenditure, and appropriately increase the annual growth rate of public health expenditure, so as to reach a reasonable proportion of expenditure as soon as possible.
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The Role of the Landscape Architect in the 21st Century Fight against Climate Change

The Role of the Landscape Architect in the 21st Century Fight against Climate Change

When addressing the limitation faced in the generation of the guide, the environmental agency focuses on the building such as the inability to address structural damage due to high-velocity flows and the costs associated with construction materials. The guide further recommends design strategies for adoption by professionals. The strategies include the assessment of potential flooding sources, predicted flood levels and frequency of floods. The guide states that incorporating these approaches will result in more resilient buildings (Department for communities and local government , 207).
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The Role of the Arab World in the Liberation  War of Bangladesh

The Role of the Arab World in the Liberation War of Bangladesh

which published the event of Mahmud Qasem gravely. Because it wanted to make the Arabs fear of ghosts and finally get the concrete support of the Arabs. On July 20, it rapidly spread a rumor that Israel supplied canon, machine gun and missile on a large scale to the so-called “Bangla Desh” government operating from Calcutta under the cover of daily commodities. But, the reality was lies in the opposite polar. However, due to the Pakistani campaign, the Arab countries were very enthusiastic about Mahmoud Qassim. According to the Daily Al-Bilad, a Saudi Arabian daily, “It is a great honor for Pakistan that of all the countries Mujibur Rahman’s secessionists contacted Israel for assistance.” 67 After that, it threatened East Pakistanis. It
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The role of the acrosomal matrix in fertilization

The role of the acrosomal matrix in fertilization

ABSTRACT Mammalian sperm must have properly formed acrosomes to be fully functional in the process of binding and penetrating the zona pellucida (ZP), the extracellular matrix surrounding the egg. There is much evidence to raise doubts about the old “bag of enzymes” paradigm of acrosomal function, although this is the model that seems to prevail. We concur with other scientists that acrosomal exocytosis is not an all or none event where the acrosome is either “intact” or “reacted”. As determined by transmission electron microscopy of human sperm undergoing acrosomal exocytosis, six stages can be identified, with the intermediate ones involving loss of acrosomal matrix material. In the mouse, there is a temporal relationship among four stages of acrosomal exocytosis. Numerous evidences suggest a more complex role for the acrosome in fertilization in which the acrosomal matrix is a scaffold for sperm-ZP interactions that self-regulates by a controlled disassembly mechanism.
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The role of the Eph ephrin signalling system in the regulation of developmental patterning

The role of the Eph ephrin signalling system in the regulation of developmental patterning

Eph protein signalling occurs predominantly via phosphoryla- tion of critical tyrosine residues in the highly conserved juxtamembrane loop (Wybenga-Groot et al., 2001). The phospho- rylation of this loop enables binding of second messenger proteins which initiate the signalling cascade. However, a body of evidence is emerging which shows that this is not always the case. The finding that in EphB6 the kinase domain has critical mutations which render it non-functional (Gurniak and Berg, 1996) suggested either that EphB6 uses alternate signalling pathways or has a purely adhesive role. Similar conclusions came from analysis of the binding of EphA7 splice variants to ephrin A5 during neural tube closure (Holmberg, Clarke, and Frisen J., 2000). Expression of kinase defective splice variants switched the EphA7-ephrin A5 response from repulsion to adhesion in this developmental pro- cess. Whilst it was proposed that this was the result of a dominant negative effect of the truncated splice variants, it is possible that this switch involved kinase-independent functions of the cytoplas- mic domains. Such a mechanism has now been described for EphA8 in the switching of its activity from cell repulsion to cell adhesion (Gu and Park, 2001). In this situation the EphA8 activa- tion triggers phosphorylation-independent binding of the p110 γ isoform of PI-3 K in the juxtamembrane region, resulting in trans- duction of a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K)-dependent sig- nal, which enhances integrin adhesion to fibronectin.
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The role of resilience in the recovery of the burn-injured patient: an integrative review

The role of resilience in the recovery of the burn-injured patient: an integrative review

The search criteria for this integrative review incorporated peer-reviewed primary research published in English that explored the role of resilience in those rehabilitating from a burn injury across the life span continuum. No parameters concerning year of publication were imposed so as to capture the depth and breadth of data. Papers that focused on health care personnel were excluded as they did not focus on the burn survivor. Reviews, conference proceedings, theses, editorials, and secondary sources were also excluded.

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The role of plant species and soil condition in the structural development of the rhizosphere

The role of plant species and soil condition in the structural development of the rhizosphere

in increasing hydraulic contact and connectivity between neighbouring aggregates. Hence, understanding how plants influence the precise arrangement of soil around a root in terms of densification, gap forma- tion, and the resulting impact on water and nutrient flow towards roots is very important from a plant developmental perspective. Ascer- taining the role of root growth on the structure of the rhizosphere is challenging due to the fragile nature of soils. Previous attempts to address this have employed thin ‐ section microscopy through resin impregnation, to “ fix ” and preserve the root and soil systems prior to analysis (Mooney, Morris, Craigon, & Berry, 2007; Veen, Vannoordwijk, Dewilligen, Boone, & Kooistra, 1992). However, these techniques are very laborious, still allow for substantial root and soil disturbance, and do not readily enable the study of the system in 3 ‐ D. Non ‐ invasive imaging such as X ‐ ray computed tomography (CT), X ‐ ray radiography, neutron radiography, and magnetic resonance imaging are now accepted methods that are assisting us overcoming these limitations having been successfully employed in studies of plant – soil interactions over the last decade (see reviews by Helliwell et al., 2013; Mooney, Pridmore, Helliwell, & Bennett, 2012; Pires, Bor- ges, Bacchi, & Reichardt, 2010; Taina, Heck, & Elliot, 2008). Recent advances in X ‐ ray detector efficiencies, X ‐ ray source power, and image analysis methodologies have also highlighted X ‐ ray CT as an exciting tool for mapping microscale alterations to root architectures and soil structures (Helliwell et al., 2013; Mooney et al., 2012), with previous limitations of coarse resolutions and poor image quality greatly reduced.
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The Role of the UN Secretariat in light of th...

The Role of the UN Secretariat in light of th...

According to Article 97, the Secretariat is composed of the Secretary-General and the staff 49 , and as the latter is appointed by the former 50 and as the Secretary-General is alone responsible to the UN for the work of the Secretariat, the Secretary-General appears as one of the organisational elements shouldering and sharing the responsibility for the behaviour of the Secretariat. 51 The style and manner of operation of the Secretariat differed under each successive Secretary-General as each viewed the organization in dissimilar ways given their ethical framework, work ethics and perceptions of the office. This gave rise to the trend to structure the role of the Secretariat around the traits of the Secretary-General holding the office. 52 For instance, “Leave it to Dag” had become the mantra during the tenure of Hammarskjöld. The mantra was a tribute to the influence of his impeccable record of maintaining a morally, religiously and ethically right stance and to his personality. 53 This personalization of the Secretariat‟s role was probably far from the founders‟ minds when they set out the requirements and functions of the office, but, intended or not, the personality and ethical framework of each secretary-general has shaped the role expectations from the Secretariat‟s office. 54
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The Role of the ESP Practitioner as Business English Teacher

The Role of the ESP Practitioner as Business English Teacher

To further explicate, the way the purpose of learning the target language is defined and the manner in which ESP instructions are implemented distinguish ESP from EGP in general (Ennaji,1997). To draw a clear line between ESP and EGP, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) state that “in theory nothing, in practice a great deal” (p. 53). The reason is that specific purpose and special language are two strikingly different notions (Mackay and Mountford, 1978). With this in mind, teaching ESP necessitates “methodologies that are specialized or unique” (M. Johns and Dudley-Evans, 199, p.305), which raises the question of the role of teachers within such a discipline. According to Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998), ESP practitioners perform the role of a course designer and material provider, a researcher, a collaborator, an evaluator and a teacher.
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The role of the polarizing zone in the pattern of experimental chondrogenesis in the chick embryo interdigital space

The role of the polarizing zone in the pattern of experimental chondrogenesis in the chick embryo interdigital space

)"t J De\' BioI 35 63 67 (1991) 63 Shurl CUIII rilil/liull The role of the polarizing zone in the pattern of experimental chondrogenesis in the chick embryo interdigital space DOMINGO MACiAS' and YOLA[.]

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Non-Collagen Protein in the Dentin Tissue – the Role in the Process of Dentinogenesis

Non-Collagen Protein in the Dentin Tissue – the Role in the Process of Dentinogenesis

Even though the role of bone sialoprotein in the tissue mineralization has not been clearly stated, it was proven that BSP induces creation of hydroxyapatite crystals in the system of agarose gel, when low concentrations of calcium ions and phosphates are present²³. Some facts from literature suggest that BSP can have an initiation role of growing hydroxyapatite crystals in mineralized tissues²¹.

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The role and structure of the multidisciplinary team in the management of advanced Parkinson&rsquo;s disease with a focus on the use of levodopa&ndash;carbidopa intestinal gel

The role and structure of the multidisciplinary team in the management of advanced Parkinson&rsquo;s disease with a focus on the use of levodopa&ndash;carbidopa intestinal gel

Caregivers also play an important role in the team of indi- viduals supporting people with PD. While offering assistance with activities of daily living, they are also involved with the management of PD-related tasks (appointments, medication) and treatment decisions. At all stages of the disease, treatment decisions should be made jointly between the person with PD, their caregiver, family, and health care practitioners. 28 Greater

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The Role of Intelligence and Locus of Control to Improve the Competence of Employee Individuals

The Role of Intelligence and Locus of Control to Improve the Competence of Employee Individuals

Statistical test results obtained p-value value of 0.000 <0.05 (cut of value), and the critical ratio (t-count) value of 4.884> 1.9. That is, there is a positive and significant contribution of intelligence in improving employee competence with the assumption that other factors that affect competence are stated to be constant. Based on these results, it can be concluded that increasing intelligence has a contribution to increasing competence. The role of intelligence in improving competency based on the estimated value (coefficient) of 0.775 or 77.5%. This value indicates that an increase in intelligence has an impact on increasing competence by 77.5%. Referring to the results of this study, the empirical intelligence variable plays a significant role in increasing competence. Path coefficient values found between the two variables are statistically significant. Direct contribution of intelligence variables to competence is relatively very large and significant, so intelligence is a good predictor of employee competencies in state-owned cement companies in Indonesia.
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The Role of Isopropyl Alcohol in the Properties of Sudanese Reformat Gasoline

The Role of Isopropyl Alcohol in the Properties of Sudanese Reformat Gasoline

The role of isopropyl alcohol in the properties of Sudanese reformat gasoline (produced by the refinery located at Algily, Khartoum North city, in Sudan) was studied. The properties of the reformat gasoline which were investigated include , distillation, sulfur content, density, vapor pressure, oxidation stability, copper strip corrosion, gum existence, lead content, and the octane number . The addition of isopropyl alcohol (5 and 10% (v/v)) improved the properties of the Sudanese reformat gasoline to the limits assigned by American Society For Testing And Materials (ASTM) and Khartoum refinery. The motor octane number (MON) of the reformat gasoline was determined initially by the Cooperative Fuels Research engine (CFR engine), MON was found to be 88.5. Results revealed that the addition of isopropyl alcohol 5 and 10 % (v/v) to the Sudanese reformat gasoline shift the value of the (MON) to 94.1 and 96 respectively.
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The role of drug therapies in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a review of the literature

The role of drug therapies in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a review of the literature

bo-controlled study the authors explored whether the ad- dition of olanzapine versus placebo increased weight gain and improved psychological symptoms in 20 underweight female adolescents with AN-R type, who were participat- ing in a comprehensive EDs treatment program. Fifteen out of 20 enrolled females (average age, 17.1 years; range, 12.3-21.8 years; mean BMI, 16.3) completed this 10-week pilot study. Change in average body weight did not differ between the treatment groups at midpoint or at the end of the study. Both groups gained weight at a similar rate and had similar improvements in eating attitudes and be- haviours, psychological functioning and resting energy ex- penditure. A trend of increasing fasting glucose and insulin levels was found only in the olanzapine group at week 10. The conclusion of this study was that the findings do not support a role for adjunctive olanzapine in underweight adolescent females with AN-R types who were receiving standard care in ED treatment program.
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