This thesis examines the way in which traditional accounts of gender differences in the self-concept have relied on distal explanatory factors, and have thus
conceptualised the gendered self as stable across both time and situation. This notion of a stable, gendered self has been implicated as underlying of a range of psychological gender differences (e.g., Cross & Madson, 1997), such as those in moral reasoning (e.g., Gillian, 1982) and ways of knowing (e.g., Belenky et al., 1989). As a result, these
There are several limitations to this study that are worth noting. First, the sample is comprised of a small, all-male population who are at-risk of gang membership and/or affiliation.
That indicates limited generalizability and little variability. Second, there may have been increased social desirability in answering the assessment questions, as the boys self-reported their feelings about a highly charged topic while in a classroom with other boys. For instance, several boys wondered why anyone would feel sorry they are boys after answering Gender Contentedness scale questions. One boy even asked the principal investigator if the questions were meant to find out if he was gay. Furthermore, some participants expressed Latino pride by thumping their chest and saying “Mexican” after the assessments were completed. While these are simply assessment observations, the verbal reactions produced by written questions raises the idea of conducting more qualitative research on these provocative issues.
[TABLE 3 AND 4 ABOUT HERE]
The second measure of self-employment performance is the number of employees. This measure is in the regressions transformed into a dummy variable that equals one if the self- employed have at least one employee and zero otherwise. None of the interaction terms are significantly different from zero and hence it is enough to interpret the average effect of gender and earlier employment status. Women have a 10 percentage point higher probability of having employees even when we control for industry in model 3. In model 3, however, industry is controlled for on a rather aggregate level. As a test we have estimated a model where industry is divided into more than 300 subcategories, but we still get as result that women more often have employees. One explanation may be that as women are working fewer hours, they more often have to employ people to be able to have the business open the required hours. Self-employed who have entered from unemployment and inactivity are less likely to have employees than those who have entered from paid employment. One explanation may be that those entering from unemployment or inactivity to a higher extent than those entering from paid employment are doing it only to secure a job for themselves and not for establishing and developing a new business.
hypothesized given that the constructs of self-efficacy and values are related to possible selves but are still considered to be separate constructs.
The second portion of the analysis addressed the research question of how boys and girls differ on the two factors of hoped-for and feared-for possible mathematical selves. Before conducting the main analysis, the raw scores for the students on the Grade 5 End-of-Grade (EOG) test were analyzed to determine whether there were significant gender differences and control for achievement was necessary. The results indicated that no significant differences were found for the 88.3% of the cases in which scores were provided. Therefore, analyses were completed without controlling for prior ability so that there was more power to detect gender differences for possible mathematical selves.
Specifically, since the marshalling dimension showed the lowest Cronbach’s alphas, the further revision should start from the marshalling items.
Additionally, support for the validation of the Italian version of the scale should be car- ried out exploring also the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. For example, a gen- eral measure of self-efficacy and a measure of personality could be included in the future studies in order to test the correlation of these measures to the ESE. Secondly, the entrepreneur sample involved in the study comprises owners of small business ventures. Although, this reflects the real portrait of the entrepreneurial phenomenon in a great part of Italy, the results can not be gen- eralized to other ventures of different sizes. Finally, as suggested by Mueller and Dato-on (2013), further research should take a cross-cultural perspective in order to explore the gender differences through a global lens. Future research on entrepreneurial self-efficacy in Italy can also analyze the role of other demographic variables, such as age, educational level, or background.
The main objective of the study was to find out the Gender wise relationship between Values and SelfIdentity of High School Students. For achieving the objective of the study, the investigator used Descriptive Survey Research Method on 1200 High School students, (600 male and 600 females) of Jabalpur district. The investigator administered scale of Values (by Dr. Kamla Vashishtha and Anju Jaideep) and SelfIdentity (standardized self made test). The raw score of Value and SelfIdentity were analysed with the help of Product Moment Method (Real Mean Method) and for significant difference between Value and SelfIdentity 2X2 Factorial Design ANOVA were used. The results revealed that there was significant correlation found for boys at 0.05 and girls and total at 0.01 level of significance and individual and joint difference between Value and SelfIdentity found at 0.01 level of significance.
Spiritual intelligence and self-identity
It comes out from the above discussions, that the development of self-identity among the adolescents may be related to their development of spiritual intelligence. Khalajani and Farhangi(2017) presented a model from meta-analysis 24 studies relating to spiritual intelligence and development of self-identity. The three phase model includes environment such as family, school, society, culture, economic issues, political issues and religious issues at the input end; spiritual intelligence as the mediating variable and self-identity at the output end. All the studied included in the meta-analysis have not addressed the issue of gender with respect to spiritual intelligence and development of self-identity. Keeping this research gap in mind and following the input output model, the present research was proposed examine gender difference in the development of self-identity and its relation with spiritual intelligence with respect to a group of adolescents who share much of their environmental factors in common. The following objectives were developed for the study.
Stereotypes of managers have consequences (discrimination, beliefs…) that may include a bias against choosing and promoting women to management positions. For example, past studies have consistently shown that the gender typicality of applicants’ faces affects hiring decisions for leadership positions irrespective of applicants’
gender (Desrumaux & Pohl, 2014 ). Being aware of biasing influences caused by genderidentity or by masculine vs. feminine appearance is very important, and managers and decision-makers need to receive training about bias and assessment. This training should focus on stereotypes, showing, for instance, the many cases of women succeeding in managerial positions. Furthermore, leadership self-efficacy doesn’t appear automatically amongst individuals (It is necessary to understand that we are not “naturally” a manager of a team but become a manager because of our abilities, and self-efficacy.
Keywords: Gender, Social construction, Physical effectiveness, Body image.
Gender is a social construction. Gender is constantly created and recreated out of human interaction, out of social life, and is the texture and order of that social life. It is a process of creating distinguishable social status for the assignment of rights and responsibilities. As a process gender creates the social differences that define woman and man. In everyday life, appearance becomes a medium with which we shape our impressions of what it means to be a male and female. Verbal labels; boy or girl, comprise the early basis for mental filing systems is used to classify and understand others and self. Culture provides a way of socially organizing our thoughts about gender categories.
The sampling frame in the study was constructed by accessing databases of social enterprise owners and employees in South Africa. Inclusion criteria were that respondents could be of any race, gender and religion, be a social enterprise that is formally registered, as well as the social enterprise being based in South Africa. Exclusion criteria included a social enterprise that is not formally registered and is operating outside of South Africa. Data was collected by means of a self-administered, adapted 30-item measuring instrument containing five-point Likert style questions. The instrument was adapted from prominent EO instruments from Miller, Covin and Slevin (1989) and Hughes and Morgan (2007). The questionnaire included scale items taken from the Miller, Covin and Slevin (1989) EO scale such as innovativeness (I1, I2 and I3), proactiveness (P4, P5 and P6) and risk-taking (R1, R2 and R3). The questionnaire also included scale items from the Hughes and Morgan (2007) EO scale which included innovativeness (I4 and I5), proactiveness (P1, P2 and P3), risk-taking (R4, R5 and R6), competitive aggressiveness (C1, C2 and C3) and autonomy (A1 – A6). The instrument was therefore structured according to five EO dimensions, namely autonomy, proactiveness, innovativeness, risk-taking and competitive aggressiveness. Section B contained the EO scales, while Section A of the measuring instrument contained demographic-related questions.
‘as emotional weaklings who agonise about their own sexual desirability and performance’ (312). The speakers actively voice what the responses would be from these generic males: ‘don’t you find me attractive?’ Frith and Kitzinger (1998) note that for the young women in their sample, and by implication elsewhere, emotion work is used as a resource to maintain the presentation of self (Goffman 1959) and is useful in interaction to manage issues of identity, in particular to portray themselves as strong, young women. If the traditional analyst take to emotion work had been followed, the talk would have been taken as transparent and these specific uses of emotion work would have been overlooked. When we consider the perceived stereotypical relationships between emotion and gender, we can see that a discursive psychological approach, inspired in part by the social- constructionist movement, offers a differing perspective, one that focuses on what the invocation of emotion talk accomplishes in the local interaction. When we consider perceived relationships between gender and emotion in everyday life, an understanding of how the concepts are used discursively is crucial to see how such discourses operate in shaping, maintaining, and resisting the social order.
THE ROLE OF BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS IN DETERMINING GENDERIDENTITY
Purpose. The aim of this article is an analysis of the main versions of the biodeterminist tradition of re- solving the issue of the nature of genderidentity, as well as identification of the advantages of the new version of biodeterminism, which involves elements of social constructivism. Theoretical basis. Social norms deter- mine the extent to which a person has the right to independently determine his or her genderidentity, and even more so, to change his or her body according to such gender concepts. Social norms regulate gender relations in society and direct the gender behavior of individuals. However, social norms do not create either the human body, or those biological laws, according to which it functions. Originality. The biodetermist theories of the gender were analyzed from the position of "week" social constructivism. The role of social norms as a factor of genderself-certification, as well as a factor of control over social interference in the functioning of human cor- poreality is considered. The role of modern medicine as an increasingly influential institutional means of control over the functioning of human corporeality, and therefore, indirectly, and for the implementation of genderidentityself-identification is revealed. Conclusions. According to the "week" social constructivism the gender emerges as an integral result of biological, psychological and social construction. The role of personality in the design of the gender has historically grown, but this role can never exclude the influence of biological and so- cial factors that are increasingly becoming the nature of biological and social technologies. Personality can be- come a victim of these technologies, but he/she can program them, or at any rate selectively use, combine, or to some extent adjust existing biological and social technologies.
People increasingly log on to Social Networking Websites to remain updated with the latest News and to share their thoughts and their significant life events. Their perception of their own and others’ identities influences their self-presentation on social media. There is a mental image of the audience on the mind of online users when they share content. The extent to which individuals reveal or conceal aspects of their identities within a socio-cultural context affects the presentation of their digital genderidentity. We have explored Internet accessibility and use of social media relating to adult users for both Iranians living in the country that are experiencing filtered social media and those living outside of the country. The identified influential elements through conducting this in-depth research was an attempt to address the gap in online identity formation in the Iranian context. This qualitative case study examined online interviews (N=9) and follow-up Facebook observations (N=10) from ten Iranian male and female Facebook users. A relationship was found between the specific identity-presentation and the individuals’ gender and their level of conservatism. Regardless of the socio-cultural conservatism, individuals make themselves known via the manipulated digital images and Facebook avatars.
3. Issues related to policy design
The problem at this level is that the overall design of the insurance system does not take into account the special needs of female migrant workers. Whether it is the Social Insurance Law or the Opinions of the State Council, neither of them have incorporated a genderperspective in its’ overall design. Therefore, during the policy formulation and implementation phases, neither the interests nor the special needs of the female migrant population were adequately considered, and there is no mechanism within the current social security policy framework to deal with the unfavorable conditions of social insurance and the impact of these conditions on female migrant workers. To the extent that self-employed migrant women are not provided with corresponding channels to participate in, for example, maternity insurance, a large segment of the female migrant workers is actually excluded from the social insurance scope.
There are multiple components to a positive campus climate such as peer-to- peer interactions, classroom and co-curricular experiences, institutional structures, and the language and representations employed by the college. Educating students, faculty and staff about gender diversity and issues facing transgender communities is crucial for creating a positive climate for transgender and gender fluid students. Additionally, colleges must create institutional structures that recognize individuals’ genderself- determination and allow students to make their own informed decisions about how their genderidentity will be represented on official documents. Dedicated institutional spaces with trained staff should provide support, resources and information about campus policies to transgender and gender fluid students. Finally, the use of language and representations that reflect the actual gender diversity of its student body is central to creating a positive climate for transgender and gender fluid students.
marginalised units of their society; forced into particular roles from which they do not have the power to escape as the queen controls all of their potential movement.
The magic of the world—the demons—are in this way utilised as a more tangible, externally visible representation of mankind’s internal demons. In this light, the rigid hierarchy of the demon hive serves to demonstrate the flaws in the patriarchal system of the humans of Thesa. The demons represent the dark results of being entirely determined by one’s context, demon drones do not think independently, a flame demon can be nothing but a flame demon. Much as the magiscape offers us a more visible socially constructive flow of power, the demons of Thesa highlight the flaws and dangers of a prescriptively gendered society. It is a hyper-exaggeration, in the mode that fantasy adopts, that draws attention to the flaws of the human society; in this case, the contrast between a patriarchy and a matriarchy supports a queer perspective by demonstrating that a strict reversal of power would only support the underlying, problematic structures of the society. A queer perspective is that which calls into question ‘the assumptions that—intentionally or otherwise—inhere in the mobilisation of any identity category, including itself.’ 36 The magic of Brett’s world is ultimately self-defeating and in this way supports this queering of society, this change achieved through subversion of norms as
Christian theological and moral reflection on matters of genderidentity must note the trajectory indicated above and its basis in the 1973 decision of the APA. An underlying assumption of those who press for changes in the church’s understanding of homosexual behavior has been that one’s embodiment should not be a determinative factor in moral behavior. In other words, simply because one is physically male, he should not have to accept that the natural and God-pleasing sexual expression appropriate to him should be toward females. And, if one is physically female, she should not feel morally compelled to restrict any sexual desires for women. Similarly, one who has sexual desire for both men and women, should not seek to deny such desires or feel compelled to restrict his or her sexual contact only to the opposite sex. And, lastly, just because one has male genitalia, one should not be encouraged to seek treatment for the fact that one feels more like a female.
In apparent manifestation of in-group identity salience, both religions oppose interfaith union in clear terms. However, the religious disapproval of interfaith marriages has not deterred the practice in the South-west. Often, interfaith marriages overlook the concepts of religious conversion, religious assimilation, cultural assimilation, religious disaffiliation, and apostasy, yet, they are not immune to religious disillusionment (Dickson & Schaefer 2013). Should disillusionment arise, then, interfaith marriages would be confronted with a religious identity clash, rejection from in-laws and friends, religious intolerance, lack of spiritual compromise, confusion from raising the children in two different faith systems and violation of women’s rights. Therefore, the need arises to investigate why despite constraining circumstances; interfaith marriages are prevalent in the South-west. Does religious identity play a prominent role in interfaith marriage? What accounts for the preponderance of interfaith marriages in the South-west? Thus, this study is intended to investigate the impact of religious identity on interfaith marriages in Lagos State, given the strongly internalised religious identities: Christianity and Islam. In addition, the research intends to investigate the disposition of adherents of the two religions towards interfaith marriages.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Gender equality,, Compared Gender, Genderperspective
The development of a country is not just the responsibility of the government, every citizen plays a role to realize social welfare and improve the quality of life of the community, as well as the progress of the nation and country.One of the parties who play a major role in the development of the country is the business environment that has a role to encourage the development and healthy economic growth by considering also the environmental factors The business environment has a great influence because it employs many people with interdependent relationships, where the company is a profit-oriented business entity and its workers with nature as human beings who need income to meet their daily needs. The interdependence relationship between the company and the worker is one-sided, in other words there is a conflict of interest between the parties who want to expend the minimum capital for maximum results with those who want to get maximum reward with what they have done. But with the development that occurred, now the business world is no longer just pay attention to the company's financial records alone (single bottom line), but already covers the financial aspects, social aspects, and environmental aspects, commonly called the triple bottom line.The synergy of these three elements is key to the concept of sustainable development