Moreover, it seems that as a characteristic of the long-term home and care environment not only sounds but also silences prompt action. In some cases—as the caregiver’s reaction to the absence of an expected morning call—this phenomenon indeed connects to the more permanent care environment. In other cases, however – such as the relatives’ urge to ask for background music when experiencing a silent breakfast, the silence of residents sitting together without interacting – this phenomenon cannot be explained within the argumentation of the present article. Participants’ often deep and controversial experiences around the silence of elderly residents’ hint at a central role of silence in my research fields more generally. Further research seems needed that addresses (the absence of) human vocalization within elderly homes. Research that goes beyond an understanding of silence as a healing environment for the vulnerable and sick and instead attends to the complexity of this acoustic event within the context of eldercare homes. Amanda Cachia’s (2015) perspective on silence as “a space of richness rather than a void or vacuum where nothing happens” (336) might be a useful starting point. Her work responds to work by Friedner and Helmreich (2012) which sets out to bring together Sound Studies and Deaf Studies, arguing that deaf people are not only people of the eyes but do experience both sound and the “unsound” in diverse sensory forms. What these authors share with the present article is an attempt to open up sensory anthropologists’ and Sound Studies scholars’ focus on sound to also attend to the experiences of the “unsound,” or the richly filled and speaking silence.
On the other hand, the Zone’s soundscape—often inaccurately described as “near silen[t]” and “[an] absence of sound”—is formed by layers of organic sounds, the most prominent ones being rushing waters, the chirping of birds, and the buzzing of insects (Smith 2007: 46). As the trio journey from the city to the Zone, the mechanical clanking of the railcar they are riding on morphs into strange electronic whirring. When they enter the Zone, the sound is replaced immediately with familiar ambient sounds. This acoustic juxtaposition is visually emphasized in (and visually emphasizes) the abrupt jump from sepia to color. The cut from the sepia-toned, blurred, static-camera railcar sequence to a slow, colored, tracking shot effects a transition from the frenzied urban ruins to the tranquil Zone. The prominence of organic sounds underscores the lack of extrinsic sound, this in turn forms an impressionist silence which, when pitted against the noise of the city, is perceived as familiar and infinitely comforting. A point of view shot places the audience within this visually lush natural world brimming with trees, overgrown grass, and rotting wood. The mise-en-scène is acoustically reinforced by a combination of rushing waters from offscreen lakes, animals that are heard but never shown, and insects that are too small to be visible. Such use of offscreen sound highlights spatial positivity, suggesting a space not empty and desolate but a place brimming with organic presence, with life. Andrea Truppin argues that Tarkovsky, through such use of offscreen sound, demanded leaps of faith from his audience in “accepting that a sound proves the existence of an unseen object [and] believing in the existence of an invisible spiritual world” (1992: 236). The immanentist belief that the divine is embodied in the natural leads Tarkovsky to conceive the organic sounds of the natural world as a confirmation of the spiritual. Truppin continues, “learning to hear the world is akin to coming into contact with the spiritual realm”(1992: 237).
failed to realize that use of the ‘talk to my lawyer’ statement as substantive evidence of guilt might be unconstitutional, counsel still should have objected to the statement on evidentiary grounds.”); State v. Moore, 965 P.2d 174, 181 (Idaho 1998) (“The constitutional right against self-incrimination is not absolute, however, and applies only when the silence is used solely for the purpose of implying guilt.”); State v. Leach, 102 Ohio St.3d 135, 2004-Ohio- 2147, 807 N.E.2d 335, at ¶ 34 (Ohio 2004) (“A defendant’s pre[custodial] silence is inherently ambiguous and, therefore, not probative of guilt.”); Hartigan v. Commonwealth, 522 S.E.2d 406, 408–10 (Va. Ct. App. 1999); Spinner v. State, 75 P.3d 1016, 1025 (Wyo. 2003) (“[I]ndeed, the substantive use of ‘silence’ is generally of minimal probative value.”).
In the SLA, educators model this interruption by developing classroom routines that reflect students’ needs for food, space, sound, silence, and breaks; using their own identity and experience to model key projects (e.g., by creating and sharing verbal and artistic renderings of their own multiple identities before asking students to do the same); and positioning students’ languages, families, cultural traditions, and artwork as authoritative “texts.” Students work collaboratively to define, customize, and complete final projects, determine how to share their work with other classes and their families, and make recommendations to improve teaching and learning during the academic year. Thus, the SLA engages students as key stakeholders within the classroom and community at large, while simultaneously challenging educators to unlearn and reconstruct their approach to teaching, learning, and culturally responsive classroom leadership (Fraise & Brooks, 2015).
A need for silence Fiona Pacey MAR July 2014 I devised For eight or more following the performance in a Cerenem seminar (described elsewhere) of ein ton. eher kurz. sehr leise (Beuger, 1998). For eight or more was given a run through by Edges one Friday morning in Cerenem and also by a group of Quakers one evening in March, 2014. I was interested to know how each group would respond (a summary is found below), which turned out to be contrary to my expectations. It was the musicians who found tension within it, and the Quakers who found insufficient tension. It was evident, from both comments and from body language, that for the Edges’ members, listening to silence was a similar experience to that of Quakers in a Meeting. The silence was to be broken only by a sound or a word that would “justify making it.” As such, it was quite a deal to do so and actions were taken very seriously and sensitively.
Noise is a disturbing and unpleasant sound and refers to subjective definition of sound. A sound can have a series of different physical features. However, it becomes noise when it has negative physiological or psychological impact on a human being, e.g. causes health impair- ments and behavioral disorders. In the animal kingdom the high levels of noise may inter- rupt natural cycles, such as animal eating habits, coupling, and migration paths, or even cause the extinction of animal species living in noise polluted environment. Undoubtedly, modern forest operations cause noise in the forest. The goal of this research is to study the level of noise pollution as well as stand and terrain conditions influencing noise spreading in forest environment. It was established that the total chain saw noise power equals the wind noise at the distance of 140 m, whereas the sound levels up with that of forest silence at 252 m. The chain saw noise is similar to background noise at distances of 60–80 m and fre- quencies below 80 Hz and above 12.5 kHz. Consequently, this means lesser impact on natu- ral environment in these frequency bands. The hypothesis was not confirmed, i.e. that verti- cally screened forest attenuates noise spreading more successfully than vertically non- screened forest: the difference emerges due to sound reflections in vertically screened forest, causing less sound absorption. However, the differences were confirmed at the distance of 80 m regarding noise attenuation in different seasons: winter – summer (difference of 11.92 dB), spring – summer (difference of 6.89 dB), and insignificant between winter and spring.
After 8 h imbibition, maize seeds were subjected to 10 h sound treatment (white noise, 80 dB). Then, the sound was turned off and the seeds were left germinate in silence. The germination percentages were determined every 12 h for 7 days. Sound treated seeds germinated at the same time as those keep in silence reaching the maxi- mum germination between 3 and 4 days (Fig. 1). How- ever, the percentage of germinated seeds was significantly higher after sound treatment (93.5% ± 1.0) than the observed in untreated seeds (84.0% ± 1.2).
During our observation, the programmer we shadowed fell deeply in love (with a person having no ties to the company). This had a strong and obvious impact on his behaviour as all his thoughts and actions tended to drift towards the person he was in love with. He spent much of the time in the office using an Internet messaging program to communicate with her – silently, via a text-based interface. At one point, a colleague asked him if he were ‘chatting,’ and, after receiving a positive answer, did not try to include him in any conversation, talking instead to other people present in the room. In this scene we see another way of carving out one’s own private space – the protagonist is treated as a person engaged in conversation, albeit a silent one, and therefore excluded from the office soundspace. People talking on the phone were treated similarly: various conversations were taking place around them, but they were not expected to get involved. The difference here is obviously the silence – the programmer’s Internet chat does not involve sound – as well as the high emotional engagement (and the accompanying wish for privacy). Also, while the protagonist himself tries repeatedly to start working on some other project, it is obvious that the silent conversation occupies most of his mind. Is there really silence at work here and, if so, what does it have in common with the silences presented in the other vignettes?
is axiomatically devoid of Enlightenment grand narratives (of which, we might remind ourselves, the meeting, the psychoanalytic session and the romantic dyad are but pragmatic instantiations). Put another way, Beckett is preoccupied with how to express silence through sound, or of how to escape the inescapable signification that accompanies the words he wants to use abstractly. According to Finney “[h]is fictions are the progressive record of his fight to subdue language so that the silence of the Real might make its presence felt” (1994: 842). For instance, the male lead in Assumption (1929) is locked in a self-imposed silence, while Belacqua, the anti-hero in More Pricks than Kicks (1934), aspires to stasis and silence. Beckett’s attempt to escape from the representational nature of words is mirrored in his subversion of the ‘rules’ of theatre, characterisation, plot and narrative; what is ‘important’ is routinely dismissed and the trivial becomes the momentous (pages of a script can be devoted to ‘mundane’ activities like making a sandwich). And Beckett possibly originated the postmodern fashion for puns, paradox, allusion, repetition, and inversion, as a (hopeless) attempt to disrupt the predictable semantic effects of language and as a way of marking the primacy of effect over intelligibility. In Beckett’s bleak view of human existence – as encapsulated in the opening sentence of Murphy (1938): “The sun shone, having no alternative, on the nothing new” – we delude ourselves into thinking that things are changing in order to avoid the harsh truth that life is fundamentally repetitive. Moreover, many if not most of the characters in his novels and plays believe in an illusion – that they are making progress; an illusion that Beckett lures his readers and audience to share and then recognise.
Toop first takes an extended look at art across the centuries; modernist in chapter six, seventeenth-century Dutch in seven, and contemporary in chapter eight (though the nature of the writing is such that the subjects are kept broad within the underlying principal theme). Marcel Duchamp forms the primary focus in chapter six, particularly his works Sonata, ‘Musical Sculpture’ from Green Box, and Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2. Toop explores these works’ curious (implicit) multi-sensory content, showing how Duchamp was ‘in search of another dimension, and in that search was contained a refusal of the partition of arts into sensory categories’ (70). Duchamp’s concept of the ‘infra-slim’—a category that embraces things like ‘the sound or the music which corduroy trousers … make when one moves’ (70)—is mentioned also as correspon- dence with Roads’s microsounds. This multi-sensory approach is expanded to three dimensions in chapter nine, where the sculptor Juan Munoz’s pieces A Listening Figure and A Conversation Piece, and his Raincoat Drawings, are shown to reveal and toy with tensions of audition, silence and spectacle with similar depth to the Duchamp works. George Seurat’s ‘enharmonic flood of high-frequency silence’ (112) is also touched upon with sharpness. The discipline accrued in preceding chapters is somewhat spurned here, though the prevailing thesis is still vibrant enough that the easing of momentum is forgiven somewhat.
The peaks in the high-frequency part o f the spectrum in Figure 2 consist of the engine parts' natural frequencies. Besides the block's and the sump's natural frequencies the frequencies o f the crankshaft, the flywheel, the connecting rods, the oil pumps and other parts were also recorded. These frequencies were included in such a way that, after the impact from the zone of the stroke, primary sound waves spread with frequencies equal to the natural frequencies o f the parts directly involved in the impact. All of these frequencies together represent the natural part o f the spectrum o f the unified sound-pressure level from 1 to 8 kHz. Therefore, additional testing is necessary in order to study in detail the mechanism o f the origin of the sound in the structure o f such a complex mechanical system, i.e., the analysis o f the motion o f disturbance waves through engine parts by applying the final-element method, which is not included in this work. Another
Depending on the sound frequency, the iso lation materials as well as the interior elements’ damp ing characteristics vary as shown in Table 3. There fore, the calculations were performed by varying both the agitation frequency in terms o f the internal geo metric frequencies o f the octave bands and by ac cordingly changing the damping coefficients o f the param eters defining the sound-energy damping sur faces o f the model.
Microsoft Word ITPC 2003 doc Volume 4, Issue 1, January – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology ISSN No 2456 2165 IJISRT19JA98 www ijisrt com 261 MSC The Bridge betw[.]
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