A new form of scholarship is the engagement of practices in higher education that make important contributions toward civic renewal. Such scholarship provides creative links between academics and the public, reflecting public interests to work for the public good, to generate knowledge with public participation, and to deepen the possibilities for civic engagement in higher education (Barker, 2004). Results of Astin and Sax’s (1998) study indicate that “participating in service during the undergraduate years sustainably enhance the students’ academic development, life skill development, and sense of civic responsibility” (p. 251). The positive outcome for their study was that more students devoted their time to public service, and there were strong positive effects on their professional development (Astin and Sax, 1998).In sum, those researchers indicated that much can be derived from using volunteer work for educational purposes. It is the students who receive the most academic gain from their volunteering efforts because community service learning gives students more opportunities to integrate their academic knowledge and transfer to actual practice. Although it is apparent that community service benefits students in some way, before creating and maintaining service programs, policymakers would like to know how exactly students themselves benefit from participation in these activities. However, there is little research on using drama as a professional development to a community service.
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Abstract: Wang Shifu and his Romance of the West Chamber have been highly valued and concerned since ancient times, but Wang Shifu had not been included in the "Four Great Scholars of Yuan Drama". There have been many controversies among the drama writers in Ming and Qing dynasties, and the reasons deserve further exploration. Nevertheless, Wang Shifu's position in the history of drama would not be questioned, nor would it prevent the Romance of the West Chamber from becoming classic. In this paper, by means of comparative study, the author combs the process of Wang Shifu becoming a classic in the context of the history of opera development, and the causes of the classicization of The Romance of the Western Chamber.
The present research will be limited to ‘manipulation as distortion’ category and its relative strategies because English is generally known as the hegemonic language while Persian is known as an inferior language. The fact that English is the language of hegemony could be inferred from Dukate’s (2007) argumentation that “the labels attached to manipulation, i.e. 'manipulation as distortion' or 'manipulation as improvement', depend on the person who evaluates the instances of manipulation. According to Dukate’s second category, manipulation may lead to the distortion of a literary work. The present study, aims at investigating these distortive strategies in drama translation as part of literature. According to Dukate (2007), the distortive aspect of manipulation in translation covers omission, addition, substitution and attenuation. She defines distortion as the changing of meaning or purpose of something into something which does not correspond to the truth. In case of translation, it is the changing of the input information, being the content or the meaning or the message of the text in a way that makes it different from the original or may lead to misinterpretation. This can be done in various ways for example by adding or omitting parts of the message, changing the tone or meaning of the original.
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The development of drama education in Taiwan is still at an initial stage, and as such most educators have no clear idea about ‘drama education’. Normally, they will directly relate ‘drama education’ to acting and drama performances. There are too many examples of this happening while doing fieldwork in Taiwan. The most significant example, that the section administrator Cindy at YL school kindly showed me, is of a project from the superior education administration, which was about the application of drama in literacy. Cindy thought this project was related to my research and could help me cover my travelling expenses within the data-collection process. It is true that the promotion of drama education training was an aspect of the project plan. In this project, the project leader could utilise the budget to conduct learning workshops with the teachers, but at the end of the project the teachers must present a stage production in public, acted out by the students. This requirement not only provides another example of the phenomenon of ‘outcome-based education’ in Taiwan, but also depicts a misunderstanding of the application of drama education in literacy teaching, both theoretically and practically. Firstly, it is doubtful that the purpose and meaning of this project is stressed as the promotion of applying drama education as a learning medium in literacy teaching - instead, the emphasis is on teaching students how to read and perform a play. Secondly, it is questionable whether, with just 2-3 months training, a teacher without any performance experience or educational background will be capable of teaching their students to act properly on the stage and in public.
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advertising *The Indian Emperor* to be acted at ’The Queen’s Chocolate House’. Tills wa&, no doubt, near the Abbey; but the precise situation, or the date of the advertisement is not now known*” Professor Kinsley thinks that this was a special performance for the Royal party at Holyrood, since the Edinburgh audience was ^unschooled in the drama, and . unaccustomed. to artificial tragedy in rhyme.” This appears too sweeping a condemnation* when we recollect the ploys named as being given in 1672 end 1673 (which included "The Siege of Oranada", "Marriage a la Mode”, and "Sir Martin Mar-all") and consider also Lord Eomtainhall* s library of plays, in which there was, (in addition to”$he Indian Emperor”) “Tyrannic Love", "Aurengzebe", and "The Destruction of Jerusalem", all rhymed tragedies.
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Applied Theatre is an inclusive term used to host a variety of powerful, community-based participatory processes and educational practices. His- torically, Applied Theatre practices include Theatre-in-Education (TiE), Theatre-in-Health Education (THE), Theatre for Development (TfD), prison theatre, community theatre, theatre for conflict resolution/recon- ciliation, reminiscence theatre with elderly people, theatre in museums, galleries and heritage centres, theatre at historic sites, and more recently, theatre in hospitals. In this paper we are positioning the application of recreational dramatic activities with older adults (55+) under Applied Theatre and we are exploring the benefits they offer to the participants. We are concerned that their health and wellbeing in western societies is not prioritized and it is clear that loneliness in particular is a current and ongoing issue. We will present research results from a drama disserta- tion study that took place in a community hall in the South East England where drama is placed at the core of their practice with old populations. Data was collected by a mixed method (semi-structured interviews and semi-immersive observations) and was critically discussed amongst the authors to conclude that attending recreational drama classes brings a cer- tain degree of happiness, social belonging and improvement of interaction with others to old people’s lives.
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while tracheal intubation was conducted by the nurse anesthe- tist. In parts of the procedure, the nursing staff worked inde- pendently with speci ﬁ c multiprofessional tasks, such as when the radiographer and the OR nurse prepared material on sepa- rate tables and partly during sterile dressing where the radio- grapher seemed to focus on covering the equipment while the OR nurse dressed the patient. Multiprofessional collaboration was evident in Act 3 where the operator and the sterile dressed radiographer performed the interventional procedure. Collaboration was evident, but different activities belonged to a speci ﬁ c staff category. Examples of that were the ultra- sound examination and skin incision, which were the opera- tor ’ s area of competence. A previous study indicated that nursing staff perceive collaboration as low despite the proxi- mity to the physicians. 29 Our study revealed that staff from different specialties (anesthesia, surgery and radiology) did not work as a cohesive unit but more in their own separate teams (see Figure S1, online supplementary ﬁ le), also during the interventional procedure itself. The work in separate groups supports results from a study conducted in Sweden in an OR where radiology staff were not involved. 30 That study argued that working in separate groups is associated with interaction and communication dif ﬁ culties. However, collaboration could be made more obvious and ef ﬁ cient through increased aware- ness of each other ’ s roles and by viewing the procedure as a whole. Identifying common tasks, around which to coop- erate, could result in more collaboration and perhaps a better, more ef ﬁ cient distribution of tasks and improved time ef ﬁ - ciency within the hybrid OR.
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C areful study of the book under review is a rew arding experience. A s Roger Garrison points out in the Forew ord (pp. iii–vii), Austrian capital-based business cycle theory has lost nothing of its relevance and timeliness. The theory identifies monetary mismanagement as a major source of economyw ide distortions in the intertemporal allocation of re- sources by focusing on the relative-price effects—and the corresponding quantity adjustments—of a monetary disturbance, as compared to tracking the movements in macroeconomic aggregates that conceal those relative-price effects. It thus gives us a superior understanding of the real coupling between the short-run and the long-run macroeconomic pictures and of the nature of business cycles. Despite the book’ s title, and although the authors treat Keynes’s ideas not unsympathetically, the outlook adopted in the book is Hayekian rather than Keynesian and the authors’ thesis is basically that “ Hayek w as right” (p. vi).
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Cultural sustainability is a very important concept. Drama can be considered in the area of cultur- al sustainability as well. Throughout the history of Turkish education, learning drama gained im- portance both in educational sciences as a teaching method and in arts education. The years of 1980s-1990s-2000s-2010s can be accepted as appropriate years to analyze the sustainability of drama. The purposes of this study are to obtain opinions of experts coming from different decades; to conduct interviews; to investigate how the transitions occurred among those decades and the reasons of this sustainability. In this qualitative research, data will be collected through semi- structured interviews and document analysis techniques. Participants will be chosen from four different decades.
There is no doubt that frequency of contact is a key factor in effective foreign language learning. Singleton and Ryan (2004) underscore that “Exposure time per se is widely recognised as a crucial factor in differentiating levels of language proficiency” (p. 201) Nevertheless, opinions are polarised on whether to increase the hours of English lessons or not. Those who are not in favour of adding more sessions in English teaching assert that it will place too much learning burden on children. In response to the growing sense of Taiwanese identity, pupils have been required to study at least one local language (i.e. Taiwanese, Hakka, and Aboriginal languages) under the new Nine-Year Curriculum of Junior High and Elementary School Education since 2001. The emphasis on both “internationalization” and “indigenization” in the present language-in-education policy has been embodied in the implementation of English curriculum and vernacular education (M. Scott & Tiun, 2007). At the present time, children need to learn at least three different languages at the same time at school. All the language courses are competing for the limited teaching hours available. As the Taipei Times article "Lawmakers worry about a `decline' in Mandarin" (Lin, 2006) reported, concerns are being raised about students falling short in their Mandarin abilities, resulting from the Ministry of
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A minute comparison of speciﬁc areas of language choice of a number of Slovene translations of plays often reveals the absence of a more systematic approach to the study of individual levels of language and a pronounced emphasis on the use of one register in diﬀerent literary and pragmatic contexts. This complies with the assumption of Toury who ﬁnds that “translator’s behaviour cannot be expected to be fully systematic. Not only can his/her decision-making be diﬀerently motivated in diﬀerent prolem areas, but it can also be unevenly distributed throughout an assignment within a single probem area” (Toury 1995, 67). Toury’s assumption certainly proves true in the above examples. In our case it also points to an ideologically and stylistically tinged approach to translation, one which dismisses a more “scholarly” approach as unnecessary and not worthy of a true artist. The latter, however, often results in the lessening of that same true artistic value of the original it proclaims to preserve in translation.
Innes, Moss and Smigiel, (2001), describe how drama can support and transform students understandings. They describe two projects undertaken with pupils to identify their learning in drama. The categories the pupils responded to were: Learning about Drama; Learning about Personal Growth and Capacity; Learning about Others and the Self in Relation to Others; Learning about the World; Implicit Understandings made Explicit. The second project undertaken in the study interviewed children identifying how drama had supported their learning within the following categories: Learning that Supported Literacy; Learning Critical Thinking Skills; Learning Cooperative Group Skills; Understanding Theatre Skills and Forms; Developing Knowledge of the World.
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Formatting remained a practice confined to the fringes of the TV industry and, with a few notable exceptions, was restricted to a single genre: game shows. Most of them flew from the USA to the rest of the world and no more than a handful of firms were involved in this trade. In the late 1990s, the scheduling needs of fledgling TV channels and broadcasters across the world, the emergence of an independent TV production sector, and the global success of four ‘super-formats’ (Who Wants to be a Millionaire?, Survivor, Big Brother and Idols) all combined to make the trade explode. The number of formats in circulation grew exponentially, as did the number of countries they travelled to and the number of companies that distributed and produced them. The format business became a multibillion-dollar industry, growing to an estimated €2.1 billion per year between 2002 and 2004, and €3.1 billion between 2006 and 2008. The 2002/04 study counted 259 formats leading to 1,310 adaptations and 31,397 hours of formatted programming, while 445 formats led to 1,262 adaptations and a total of 54,383 hours in 2006/08 (Bisson et al. 2005, 11; Chalaby 2012a, FRAPA 2009, 8-13; Moran 1998, 2006, 2013a).
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Another, larger category of writing referring to the body and bodyliness in drama and performance, presenting a more fully discussed and theorised approach, comes from practitioners working in drama with marginalised groups. This has included work with refugees, people disaffected with and alienated from the mainstream – people in war zones, people with disabilities, those who were dealing with issues of gender and sexuality and so forth. In these papers, adherence is largely to phenomenological frames of reference, through which bodily experience and activity are connected with thinking and feeling, pain and beauty. In other words, the making of meaning in communication and perception, thinking and feeling are strongly integrated in and with bodily presence and co-presence (e.g., Thompson, 2006, McNamara, 2007). Katie Beswick, on the other hand, explicitly focuses on the body and its role in making place and space, asserting that “it is through the body that one comes to know the world” (2011, 428). The question that remains for me, however, is how do we come to know what is known about the world except through material exteriorities, that is, how the body signifies feeling, thinking and knowing? What frames of analysis and explanation might bring the socially organised, dramatized body into sharper focus?
Besides, the participants also responded to a survey given by the researcher in reflecting their attitude and perceptions towards English drama in a classroom. The purpose of the questionnaire was to gauge the students‟ perceptions on their personal language performance, self-confidence as well team working styles. These aspects are crucial to be cultivated in Foundation students as „survival‟ kit in pursuing their Bachelor‟s programme. The students should be able to have confidence in communicating in English language and be able to active team players in accomplishing educational tasks in a university. Based on the survey conducted, the majority of students agreed that drama performance helped them in improving their spoken language. Referring to Table 1 below, 91.7% of the students felt that they were given an opportunity to communicate frequently with their team members upon the preparation for drama activity. They believed that drama could increase their fluency in English language speaking as mentioned by Hamilton and Mcleod (1993) in the earlier review that drama encompasses all kinds of talks and languages – to explain, complain, praise, disagree, request, etc. for learners to practice. This familiarizes them with correct pronunciation, fluency and manners.
that there are"many plays where the content of the dumb show is repeated in the dialogue" but that "inall these the dumb show is allegorical or symbolic and does not exactly anticipate theparticular plot of the play"; and he adds that in Hamlet "dumb show and play [being] themselves parts of a very complex drama" an allegorical pantomime here "might have detracted too much from the actual play and puzzled the spectators unnecessarily." But the dumb show in Hamlet may lack a familiar allegorical form and still not lack a figurative disguise. Shakespeare's technique here, one that is remarkably accommodates two audiences. If he had used his dumb- show characters in a conventional allegorical or symbolic fashion, his moral comment would tend to be confined, pointed at the play within the play and at the stage audience (as it would be if he had used a conventional presenter). And no theory of Hamlet is tolerable that does not face this fact and offer a rational explanation of it." In any case, while Greg supposes it was planned to demonstrate to the observers of Hamlet that Claudius did not murder his sibling by emptying poison into his ears, since he could view a portrayal of this unaffected, I trust that the idiotic show was embedded to demonstrate the Globe Theater crowd (not the Danish court gathering of people) that Claudius knew, before the talked play, that Hamlet was completely educated by the conditions of the murder.
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There are number of benefits that including drama in education. It produce creative dramatics qualities among students and help to develop interpersonal skills in the student. At the end 20 th century and the beginning of 21 st century we have seen a remarkable growth in the research on drama in education. Many researches are published in journals like, Applied Theatre Researcher, Drama Research Journal, Research in Drama Education, and Youth Theatre Journal, etc. It has brought a variety of methodologies in the classroom teaching learning process.
only took on literary form in the course of the fourteenth century.4 They were often used for satirical or polemical purposes. The language took the form of rough 'Knittelvers' or doggerel.the characters usually entered one at a time and spoke to the audience rather than to each other. This type of theatre, too, is clearly dif ferent from what we would describe as *i11usionistic1 theatre, where the audience is encouraged to believe in the reality of what it sees and to allow itself to be caught up in another world. However, here, once more, steps towards a greater degree of illusion may be traced. By the time this genre reached its high-point in the plays of Hans Sachs (1494-1576), the characters spoke more to each other and the presentation tended to be more realistic. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, elements of the secular 'Fastnachtsspiele' mingled with liturgical drama, although the two streams of liturgical and secular drama also continued separately.
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But Joe, also recognises that every drama ‘lesson’ should be an artistic as well as an educational journey – his playing of Antigonus in a darkened candle lit studio, clutching a baby in a basket, is intended to create an authentic and felt theatre experience for the students. They are motivated to engage with Shakespeare’s language through their existential engagement with the dilemma of the cruelly abandoned child. Joe’s work is influenced by the RSC Education Department’s ensemble and rehearsal room based approach to teaching Shakespeare, summarised on the RSC web site as:
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Abstract:- The construction plays a key role and importance for the economic development of each country, but on the other hand, its development is primarily a consequence of the general economic development of the country. Construction activity is carried out cyclically, with constant ups and downs (function of the cyclical development of the economy), which are influenced and determined by the expectations of the business and households, from their confidence in income stability, employment, from the level of interest rate and government programs and opportunities for construction of large infrastructure sites. Given the volatility of the construction market and the strong macroeconomic effect of its development it is subject to a specific macroeconomic policy. The following questions arise in this connection, which are the subject of study: what is the influence of macroeconomic policy on the development of construction, how they should be combined fiscal and monetary policy to reduce cyclical fluctuations in the construction market and ensure long-term sustainable development?
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