Again the Appelplatz (roll call place), where you see women being beaten for “slacking.” You are chosen for a work detail at the Brezhinka, the mountain of clothing collected from victims, most of whom were gassed upon their arrival. Your job is to sort clothing. You are lucky—one can “organize,” that is, steal extra clothes from here. Should you be caught, you will probably be beaten, or worse. As you work, you watch trains arrive, the chimneys of the crematoria belching flames, the lines of people at the gas chamber, the dogs barking, women crying, children screaming and SS men shouting commands.
Chapter six is called ‘”Ordinary men”: rethinking the politics of perpetrator history’. In this chapter Lawson takes Christopher Browning's well-known study from 1992 on Order Police Batallion 101 and its murderous itinerary as the starting point. The chapter follows that on the assumed breakdown of the metanarratives in the wake of the collapse of the Communist bloc. However, it becomes clear after several pages that here too the origins are to be found in a much earlier period (the 1970s), with the emergence of Alltagsgeschichte (the history of everyday life). Lawson’s analysis in the first part of this chapter is excellent, though I would have placed it earlier in the book, precisely because this approach started in the 1970s. In a tour de force, and under the heading of ‘The politics of modern perpetrator history’, Lawson combines the historiography of the idea of political religion and – in a much too short and uncritical mode – the more recent interpretational courses of colonialism and genocide. Lawson, according to his introduction and the formulations in this sub- chapter, seems to embrace these interpretations. He writes that ‘to some scholars … comparison with colonial genocide is anathema because it seems to lessen the particularity of Jewish suffering’ (p. 225). He does not deal with what should have been pointed out in a book emphasizing the interwoven-ness of history- writing with current contexts, namely how politicized the field of genocide studies has become, and how indeed this course of explanation in fact detracts major parts of the understandings of the Holocaust so meticulously built up over decades. It therefore does not ‘lessen the particularity of Jewish suffering’, as Lawson formulates it, but lessens – or even (sometimes intentionally!) downplays the scope and enormity of the Nazi anti-Jewish project (such as for instance the importance of the Holocaust in western Europe; it also provides no convincing explanation of the Nazi obsession to deport to Auschwitz, by means of boats and trains, at a late stage such as August 1944, a remote and tiny Jewish community as the one of Rhodes). Moreover, the evolution of genocide studies since the beginning of the 1980s and its current relationship with Holocaust studies deserves a chapter by itself: genocide studies started as an offspring of Holocaust studies and so to say under its auspices, but has developed in recent years into an independent field,
This brief list of some of Reich’s musical devices does not do justice to the composition, but what I want to draw out here is the relationship between the speech fragments, the forward motion of the piece, and the issue of narrative synthesis and complexity. By treating the speech samples as musical entities, Reich creates a soundscape of great thickness, with melodies echoing between voice and instrument and the qualities of the voice being used to create a kind of trace effect. Even when there are no words spoken, or the words are hard to decipher, the outline or echo of a voice can be heard, haunting the music; and in the second movement in particular, where the Holocaust survivors are describing their experiences and where the accompaniment is full of sirens as well as whistles, the sense is of penetrating horror. Wlodarski’s (2015, p.137) commentary is again to the point: ‘When we hear these melodies without accompanying text, we experience them as conveying specific textual content; they move beyond simple mimesis to the level of linguistic communication, constituting a multivoiced expression of testimonial self.’ This question of the ‘voice’ is an important one both in testimony and in psychoanalysis. There is a considerable amount of psychoanalytic work on the rhythmicity of music and sound in general, and its unconscious impact (e.g. Schwartz, 1997; Nagel, 2013). But there is also something else about the disturbing nature of the human voice, which Mladen Dolar (2006) references and which contradicts the idea of a ‘testimonial self’ even if it allows for a broader notion of ‘testimony’ to arise. Dolar adopts a longstanding musical idea of ‘acousmatic’ sound, referring to a sound without an identifiable cause, and builds on the cinematic theorising of Michel Chion (1994) to describe the acousmatic voice as,
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Salmons (2003) argued that “The Holocaust occupies a prominent place in the collective memory of the UK” (p139). He based his assertion on a belief that the event provided a justification for Britain fighting in the Second World War, which gave us a creditable role as a ‘liberator’. However, other commentators and researchers have argued that for many years the Holocaust sat at the back of the British consciousness, as an almost forgotten event (Kushner, 2004, von der Dunk, 2002). Short and Reed (2004) claimed that this was the product of several factors. First, that during the war there was a desire by the government to avoid the implication that the war was being fought on behalf of the Jews of Europe. Second, that the victimisation of the Jews was downplayed in the media following the end of the war (a sentiment echoed by Kushner, 1989). Finally, that the events at Hiroshima and Nagasaki overshadowed debate at the end of the war and eclipsed the events of the Holocaust in the public consciousness. Lawson (2004) argued that this process was also hastened by the vested interests of the Christian churches after the war. He argued that the Church endeavoured to promote “...a specific image of the past” (p164) that obscured the Jewish suffering in an effort to highlight the Christian struggle against the universal evil of Nazism. For Lawson, the Christian churches could not recognise the primacy of the Jewish suffering because doing so “...would have challenged the basis of... the idea that Nazism was... the negation of Christianity and the denial of God” (p161). Cesarani (1996) further blamed a wave of anti-Semitism in the UK that was related to the plight of the Palestinians, while survivors such as Kitty Hart-Moxon (2007) claim to have been told firmly not “…to embarrass people by saying a word” (p2) in England during the immediate post-war years. Given these social, political and religious factors, Kushner lamented that “…both state and public ensured that the history of the Holocaust would remain marginalised and generally neglected” (1994, p277). Thus it was that the Holocaust slipped quietly into an obscuring “…aura of silence” (Gallant & Hartman, 2001, p3) for several decades.
The War After (Karpf, 1996), a family memoir about the psycho-social effects of the Holocaust on the chil- dren of survivors, attracted considerable attention when first published. 20 years later, Karpf argues, it can be read as an example of post-postmemory. Hirsch (2012) defined postmemory as those memories of the Holocaust that the ‘second generation’ had of events that shaped their lives but took place before they were born. Post-postmemory, Karpf suggests, is the process whereby such narratives are themselves modified by subsequent events and re-readings brought about by three kinds of time – personal, historical and discursive. Although inevitable, such re-readings run the risk of encouraging Holocaust revisionism and denial. Ne- vertheless, Karpf claims, they are essential to maintain the post-memoir as a living text.
In this article, I take issue with Facebook’s policy that allows Holocaust denial on its web pages because its directors believe that Holocaust denial is not hateful per se. I aim to show that it is hateful and that Facebook and other networking sites should reconsider their position in line with their own terms of conduct. All Internet providers and web-hosting companies whose terms of service disallow hateful messages on their servers should not host or provide forums for such hate-mongering. This is of paramount importance as Holocaust denial is prevalent in Europe, in the United States, and across Arab and Muslim parts of the world. While some countries, mainly in Europe, prohibit Holocaust denial by law, other countries have no such prohibitions. The question, however, is not only legal. It is also ethical and a matter of social responsibility for Internet service providers (ISP) and Web-Hosting Services (WHS) to decide whether or not they wish to host this kind of hate speech on their servers.
This device shouldn’t be compared with the chain pulling clasp brake that is currently existing in trains. The vast majority of the world's trains are equipped with braking systems which use compressed air as the force used to push blocks on to wheels or pads on to discs which consequently brings the train to a stop. These systems are known as "air brakes" or "pneumatic brakes". This is the mechanism used in chain brakes and hence it will provide no information about the coach from where it has been pulled. Also there are some emergency alarms available in modern trains that allows the passenger to interact with the driver about any problem. However the victim during times of harassment or attack will not have the sufficient time to interact or the time delay will give the culprit a chance to escape without his identity being revealed. Also the women protection safety devices currently in existence can only provide them information regarding the nearby police stations and do not provide an aid to immediately communicate with others or intimate public immediately. There are several applications that have been developed (android) such as ‘defender’ but the connectivity and proper internet connection still remains a question. However if the ‘wireless safety system’ is implemented in railways, then, it will be tapping the GSM-R that is exclusively available for railways, hence the communication will be assured and it will be on a faster pace This wireless system is an auxiliary additional feature that can be fitted in our trains apart from the current existing air pulleys. Hence there need not be any change made to existing mechanisms in train. This product can be targeted not only at the Indian Railway System extensively
• Act 113 6/12 2000 of the Finance Committee states that DSB signed a contract with a train supplier for the supply of diesel trains of a new type (IC4). It appears from the records that DSB was of the opinion that the train sets could have been acquired on time and without any additional costs to DSB. The National Audit Office finds that the appropration should have included detailed assessments regarding the reliability of the delivery date.
Neither Call the Swallow, nor the other two novels have attracted much publicity. On one hand, this may be disappointing, but on the other, we perhaps should rejoice in the fact that a Holocaust novel does not attract public attention only because its link with the Holocaust. It may be the case that we are now getting to the point that the public perception of the Holocaust is getting more normalized. To survivors, historians, some politicians and many individuals who believe that the lessons from the Holocaust should be learned by each generation, the very word
But why to mix Mickiewicz with the Holocaust? Didn’t he die ninety years before these tragic events? Yes, he did. But what if he were born a century later, in 1898? Would he enjoy the same lifespan, that is, until 1955, or not? When the poet actually lived, the suspected Jewish origin of his mother did not raise many eyebrows, and neither did it prevent the Russian authorities from acknowledging the noble status of the poet’s family. However, the discussion raged during the 20 th century, when the Polish nation-
Crumpled newspaper was used to represent an arson fire using typical ignition fuel found on passenger trains. One kilogram of crumpled newspaper was placed on the floor, underneath and behind the end seat in the north east interior corner of the carriage. Individual tabloid size newspaper sheets were loosely crumpled into approximately 70 mm diameter balls and stacked against the bounding surfaces until the required total mass was achieved. The resulting pile size beneath the end seat was approximately 260 mm high × 600 mm × 400 mm. A gas blow torch was used to ignite the newspaper. Additional calorimetry experiments have determined that this ignition source isolated by non combustible bounding surfaces representing the under seat geometry produces a peak HRR of 140 kW with a burn duration of 260 s (see Appendix C). It is important to note that HRR of crumpled newspaper may significantly vary dependent on packing density.