The rhetorical question is a visible notion that exists in all languages spoken by people. According to Siemund (2001, p.1015), “arguably, rhetorical questions can be found in all languages of the world, and they also appear to be function- ing in a comparable manner.” Moreover, Hackstein (2004, p.167) emphasizes rhetorical questions as a across-linguistic phenomenon in both written and oral discourse. The rhetor- ical question is generally seen as a non-seeking information question. Larson (1984, p.257) explains that “the label, rhe- torical questions, has often been used to indicate interroga- tive grammatical forms which are used with a non-question meaning”. Further, Larson states that the speaker makes use of a grammatical form which its basic use indicates that it’s a question, but the speaker’s purpose is not seeking infor- mation; rather, he/she might want to command, request, em- phasize and etc. Larson (1984, p.257) then concludes that such a grammatical skewing is called a rhetorical question. According to Abioye (2011, p.291), the rhetorical question is a figure of speech that comes in the form of a question used for its persuasive effect. Rhetorical questions thus seem to have a great role in languages so that they have taken great attention from scholars. In Arabic, rhetorical questions are extensively studied due to their widely occurrence in the Qu- ran. The “rhetorical question” in Arabic is called “istfham balagi” which means the interrogation that deviates its basic meaning and indicates another one. Ranganath et al. (2016, p.1) remark that rhetorical questions do not give the message or meaning in an explicit way. Rather, their messages are implicitly understood from their contexts. This is also con- firmed by Bhattasali et al. (2015, p.743), where that state that the question is deemed rhetorical by considering its context of situation.
terms, so where structure is not respected, neither is meaning. In the ACME approach, the structure of the tenor and vehicle domains dictates the structure of the constraint network that is especially constructed for the interpretative task at hand; the conceptual structure of the tenor and vehicle is thus the major source of constraints upon the mapping process. In the Sapper approach, the conceptual structure of the tenor and vehicle domains not only provides the evidential basis of the triangulation and squaring rules, but also defines the pathways along which activation energy will flow to awaken new cross-domain bridges. And in the SME approach, the hierarchical structure of the tenor and vehicle domains is used to constrain, in a top-down fashion, the combinatorial possibilities of cross-domain entity mappings. Each model therefore, in its own way, looks to the structural make-up of the tenor and vehicle to indicate what partial mappings support other partial mappings, and which partial mappings are irreconcilable with each other.
One of those techniques is a poetic method that is subtly at work in much of Shakespeare’s dramatic writing. I call it “fractional inference.” In essence, it is a method of scattering fragments of sound throughout a passage of a text and then combining the fragments to produce a recognizable word. The fragments provoke the subconscious to seek a resolution that at first eludes the ear (and eye, if the text is being read) until it finally finds completion in some word or phrase that combines an audible sense with the intended literal (dictionary) sense of the tar- get word. I call this target word the “tenor” word. The term “tenor,” with its ob- vious musical overtones, is actually borrowed from the vernacular of literary cri- tique in which it describes the meaning or sense carried by the “vehicle” of a metaphor (in the phrase “love is like a red, red rose,” love is the tenor and rose is the vehicle). In a case of “fractional inference,” the tenor word combines the scattered sound fragments into a pleasing whole. The satisfaction of the res- olution can be heightened by postponing the express presentation of the tenor word by using homonymic or homophonic forms of the word. Homophones tease the subconscious to within tantalizing proximity of the tenor word so that the final presentation of the true tenor becomes all the more pleasing. Occa- sionally the tenor word never appears, but is left to the imagination to create. By way of illustration, I will repeat, in brief, an example of the phenomenon that I discuss in Shakespeare’s Acts of Will. (A further, new, example is presented later on in this paper). Set out next are four lines from Shakespeare’s Julius Cae- sar which feature in Antony’s rhetorical effort in the funeral scene to stir the mob against Brutus. I have curtailed the passage for present purposes at the word “stir.” “Stir” is the tenor word, and the reader will note how sound fragments of the word are scattered through the four lines and on two occasions the sound sense (but not the dictionary sense) of the word appears homophonically in “ye-ster-day” and “ma-ster-s,” thus the culminating appearance of the word “stir” is the rhetorically satisfying third iteration in the tricolon “ster” – “ster” – “stir.” I have underlined and bracketed the relevant sound fragments to show how Shakespeare sometimes encloses one fractional version of the word within another to produce a layering or amplification of sound effect:
The 1990s heralded shifts in various areas of music towards a more serious engagement with the use of silence. Such diverse localities as, for instance, the Chicago Free Jazz scene, the Tokyo Improvisation scene and the Wandelweiser group of composers based mostly in Europe 69 , all saw a renewed interest in reduced and minimal approaches towards music making. In tandem with this global move, progressive electronica artists in the mid-1990s, spearheaded by the lowercase movement, began working with a reductive approach towards new digital technologies. The term ‘lowercase’ was coined by artist Steve Roden to describe “a certain sense of quiet and humility; it doesn’t demand attention, it must be discovered...It’s the opposite of capital letters - loud things which draw attention to themselves”. 70 Roden never intended the term to become a description for a kind of music, but was his own way of articulating a personal philosophy based around silence,
The overwhelming experience comes to an end with a vote of thanks to the committee of the XXVII International Economics Convention for having given us an opportunity and a beautiful experience that we hope to cherish all our lives. Not only did participation in this convention with the theme ‘Human Capital Development through Higher Education – Lessons for India’ give us a chance to explore the challenges of Indian higher education system, but also to explore ourselves and thereby know our strengths and weaknesses and work on them. We learned team spirit while working on the Research project “Evolving Minds and Nurturing Development -The Danish Way” by shouldering responsibilities and many more qualities which will certainly help us in our future.
rely on different language resources to make meaning. To analyze the mode of written discourse, linguists focus on features such as conjunction, Theme and Rheme and repetition (Brisk, 2014; Halliday & Matthiessen, 2014; Schulze, 2011). Theme refers to first part of the message in the clause (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2014). Rheme is described as what remains in the clause after the Theme. Though the Theme is frequently found in the subject position of the clause, it does not always take this role. Rather, various clause constituents can serve as the Theme, and thus create a marked theme that allows the author to emphasize varying aspects of the clause. As writers begin to develop control of written language, they also typically use patterns of Theme and Rheme to advance ideas throughout a text coherently and cohesively. For instance, writers typically introduce new information in the clause’s final position. As the text unfolds, novel information is situated in the Theme position of the subsequent clause (Christie, 2012). The skillful manipulation of Theme and Rheme in a quasi-zig zag pattern is a fairly common way to bring what writers call “flow” to lengthy passages of texts .
These difficulties warrant a much fuller treatment than is possible here. A very preliminary response somewhat ironically lies in the quite substance- specific history of Rule 23(b)(2). Abstracted away from desegregation and the early 1960s, its story suggests a principled way to mediate the substance- procedure boundary in Rule 23. What likely distinguished desegregation litigation from other substantive areas to a progressive lawyer in the 1960s was not just the obvious rightness of the plaintiffs‘ cause. In addition, private litigation was the sole enforcement mechanism for the rights at stake, and the failure to let this litigation proceed in the aggregate stymied its effectiveness. Class treatment, in other words, seemed essential to the vindication of substantive rights. A standard rooted in this distillation of the lessons of desegregation might inform class certification decisions going forward. If substantive rights would go unenforced absent class treatment of claims, a court may relax the class certification requirements. This proposal would support a dual approach to adequacy that, while remaining consistent with the trans-substantive ethos of the Federal Rules, facilitates class
The amount of fertilizer to apply to a garden depends on the natural fertility of the soil, the amount of organic matter present, the type of fertilizer used, and the crop being grown. The best way to determine fertilizer needs is to have the soil tested. Soil testing is avail- able through your local Extension agent, through pri- vate labs, and with soil test kits which can be purchased from garden shops and catalogs.
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The Cryptococcus neoformans Transcriptome at the Site of Human Meningitis The Cryptococcus neoformans Transcriptome at the Site of Human Meningitis Yuan Chen,a Dena L Toffaletti,a Jennifer L Tenor,a A[.]
The best way to see how companions interact with each other is first follow the given guidelines. Secondly, and most importantly, keep careful records of your successes and failures. Learn the basic combinations and then experiment with your own. Just as every person is different , no two gardens are alike. That is why personal observation is so important.
Data for this component of the study was analysed using a descriptive analysis of context. Halliday  (p.12), talks about three features of context, the field, the tenor and the mode. These three features, broadly speak- ing reveal; what is happening (the field), who is taking part (the tenor), and what is being achieved (mode). In order to disclose these contextual features, we chose to examine a number of key elements of the discourse re- lating to the construction of breastfeeding in public. The chosen elements included: descriptions of the event of breastfeeding in public, descriptions of the mother, ac- tions and locations relating to breastfeeding in public, and feelings about breastfeeding in public. Some of these elements were then examined more closely. For actions we specifically looked at the ‘ mothers ’ actions ’ , ‘ the ac- tions of others’ and for feelings, the ‘feelings of the mother’ and the ‘feelings of others’. Key concepts were then identified within each of these elements. Finally, the concepts were drawn together to identify an over- arching dominant ideology. For the purposes of this ana- lysis, we refer to Hasan ’ s definition of ideology ‘ as a socially constructed system of ideas’  (p. 256).
What becomes evident in our results is that while the sum of the RMSE of each tenor for p = 10 is higher for the full data set, it is lower out-of-sample for all datasets where some tenors are missing, indicating that our proxy version can model yield curves that are better fitting to the actual data when we leave out some data. This encourages us to believe that when data cannot be observed in the market, out proxy is a meaningful addition to the regular Nelson Siegel estimation process. We also observe that the total fit (sum RMSE) drastically reduces when tenors are removed from the dataset. The scenarios in which data is removed have a total RMSE which is about 50 to 100% higher. This is however expected since these are out of sample results.
In Booth’s view, states and implicitly governments must no longer be the primary referents of security because governments which are supposed to be the guardians of their people’s security have instead become the primary source of insecurity for the many people who live under their sovereignty, rather than the armed forces of a neighboring country (Booth, 1994). This approach challenges the idea of a state as an effective and adequate provider of security to its people. Booth’s approach attempts to address the non-military threats to human security and the fundamental difference lies in the way these analyses point to action. The broadening of security to conceive of more than just military threats raises the contentious question of what really is to be made secured. As a result, the ongoing security debate centres on the identification of a primary referent or unit of security has been central to an ongoing security debate.
us to attend to how diagnostic practices are temporally and spa- tially complex, and have effects at different scales. Psychiatric diagnosis is not best thought of taking place in a single moment in a single place; it is often not something that ‘ matters ’ for a diagnosed person in the same way in all the spaces in which she lives her life. Certain psychiatric diagnoses can usher in pro- found and traumatic events carrying potentially irrevocable con- sequences (eg, in many countries in Central and Eastern Europe, a diagnosis is used as a ‘ status ’ ascription (see Szmukler 20a ) in order to deprive people of their legal capacity,