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Promotion of Entrepreneurship in West Africa, Lessons from China

Promotion of Entrepreneurship in West Africa, Lessons from China

Confronted with a China that had historical produced many important inventions, and yet had lagged behind the West economically, Weber attributed the difference to Confucianism. That is a social behavior system con- demns pure profit seeking as well as advocates group orientation, conformity, and respect authority. After the success of East Asian countries, Chinese entrepreneurs, opinion focused on the Confucian Values of persistence, diligence, thrift, and strong role played by the family as key supporting factors for entrepreneurial development. In his seminal research into the role culture, Hofstede added fifth cultural dimension, Confucian dynamism; to take into account Fast Asian growth. Kirby and Fan compared a list of sixty traditional Chinese cultural Values constructed from research surveys and a list of entrepreneurial attributes as identified by various authors to de- termine whether Chinese culture is conductive to the entrepreneurship. They found considerable overlap be- tween the two sets of values, including perseverance, diligence, resource fullness, emotional stability, integrity, intelligence and harmony. But some entrepreneurial attributes response positively (to change, initiative, profit orientation…) in conflict with Chinese values. Conclusion, Chinese values will appear to be partially conducted to entrepreneurship, while some strong barriers may exist. Such conclusion leads to low social status of entre- preneurs China. The role of traditional culture is also influenced by other factors that are political ideology, the degree of openness to foreign values, further. David conducted a more analytic study comparing traits of Chi- nese managers of SOEs, Chinese entrepreneurs, and US entrepreneurs. Based on survey responses taken from managers in province, he compared the groups along Hofstede’s dimension [22].
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Evolution of CSR Concept in the West and China

Evolution of CSR Concept in the West and China

The development of CSR research and practice in China were affected by rapid economic progress and pressures coming from oversea along with the globalization of economy. The concepts and dimensions of CSR came mainly from the results of studies in the United States and Europe. There is relatively a lack of indigenous researches on CSR in China. CSR research of China influenced by the West may find expression in the evolution of CSR concept. CSR concept in the West had a social or ethical orientation in 1950s-1960s. It was further expanded in 1970s‟ and shifted to a business-oriented concept based on the stakeholder theory in 1980s. It was not until 1990s‟ that CSR concept incorporated sustainable development notion. The CSR concept was introduced to China in 1990s. It had also undergone the changes from ethics-orientation to sustainable development. Most scholars defined CSR by using economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary (or philanthropic) dimensions suggested by Carroll (1979). There were differences between CSR concepts of the West and China. In China, legal dimension of CSR concept got more attentions than in the West. Enterprise‟s obligation is considered low-level CSR. Business-oriented CSR is medium-level CSR. Ethical-oriented CSR is high-level CSR.
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Pregnancy outcome in women with Eisenmenger’s syndrome: a case series from west China

Pregnancy outcome in women with Eisenmenger’s syndrome: a case series from west China

In conclusion, the present study examined perinatal out- comes and management of women with ES in pregnancy with aggressive PAH in west China. Timely diagnosis and treatment of these patients’ underlying cardiac le- sion in early childhood are critical for their pregnancy and delivery. Pregnancy in ES, especially complicated with aggressive PAH, is still associated with high mater- nal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Effective precon- ception counseling is essential, and termination of pregnancy in first trimester advisable. Risks will increase significantly in pregnancy continued into the third tri- mester. If the ES patient with PAH wishes to continue pregnancy, they should be monitored closely and managed in a tertiary center with collaborative efforts among obste- tricians, cardiologists, anesthesiologists, pediatricians and intensivists. There is no standardized approach to man- agement of ES in pregnancy; successful perinatal out- comes seem heavily dependent on the individualization of treatment for each patient.
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CHINA AND RUSSIA: GAMING THE WEST?

CHINA AND RUSSIA: GAMING THE WEST?

The “axis of convenience” between China and Russia has, without question, grown larger. And the positive dynamics pushing cooperation forward are largely economic. But there is also a negative dynamic, coming from the West. Both countries have a perception of regime insecurity that emerges from the international promotion of democracy, and the attractiveness of corruption-free and comparably safe Western societies for individuals, be they Chinese or Russian. But economic growth isn't the only thing drawing China and Russia together. The possible eastward extension of NATO, the high-tech superiority of the US and other Western armaments has not been undermined by the financial crises and political uncertainties of established democracies. This is why China and Russia describe their moves as reactive rather than assertive. For Russia, it means the possibility of mounting pre-emptive strikes and sudden regional escalation that leads to conflict dominance, as is the case today in the Syrian civil war. For China, it is the endless increase in military spending and
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China West Interculture

China West Interculture

Let us now go a step further. China thinks actuality-thinking body-thought, where bone-logic is hid invisible. Logic hid, China tends subtle and even imprecise, in need to learn from the West. The West is analytically pre- cise, having abstracted itself from cluttered actuality to turn analytical, universal, and exclusive of differences to turn neatly exact even into a “fake” reality. The West needs be grounded and earthed; it needs China to embody thinking to be actualized. This essay on China-West interculture is informed by the West analytical to a fault, to “a fake”. But, fake or no fake, Western precision serves as a convenient plumb-line to help steer thinking in China toward exactness of concrete operation.
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Dry Ports in China and West Africa: A Comparative Study

Dry Ports in China and West Africa: A Comparative Study

The dry port concept was first adopted in Europe and North America, fol- lowed by Asia, South America and then Africa. Since then, the development of inland cargo distribution facilities has been an active approach to support the hinterlands of maritime gateways among other functions. Dry ports can be developed in the hinterland based on different approaches, involving dif- fering functions, actors, motivations and logistical models. They can be clas- sified as close, mid-range or distant, with respect to the seaport. Dry port de- velopment can be carried out by port authorities, port terminal operators and transport providers such as third-party logistics providers or rail operators or by public bodies: local, national or regional. One of the design strategies for these facilities is rail-based which promotes economies of scale on high ca- pacities and long distance links. The other strategy is the road-based short-distance satellite terminals aimed at decongesting the port or facilitat- ing faster custom clearances. This paper carries out a comparative analysis of dry ports in China and the West African countries using a descriptive ap- proach and providing case studies for each parameter used in the compara- tive study. This study is based on motivations for dry port development in these regions, as well as the development and management models applied in the dry port sector. In addition, a discussion on the merits and demerits of the management and development models applied on dry ports in these re- gions are also included in this study, from which conclusions and recom- mendations are drawn to support policy formulation and future studies. This paper not only serves to contribute to the existing academic knowledge on dry ports, but also provides the policy makers and practitioners in the logis- tics and trade sectors with an invaluable opportunity to compare the practices in the two regions for application to appropriate scenarios.
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Making it in China : Internationalization of West European transnational entrepreneurs in China

Making it in China : Internationalization of West European transnational entrepreneurs in China

Since SCG did not yet reach the implementation phase of the internationalization process during the research period the conclusion is less based on seen problems and more based on the findings from interviews with customers and firms previous experiences in Switzerland. During this phase the firm has to start receiving and handling orders and thus making production and quality control become more important. The costumers that showed interest in doing business with SCG were mostly concerned about the payment terms on the contract. SCG‘s financial resources stops the firm from making contracts with other payment terms and thus shifting more risk to their customers. The physical resources of SCG shows to have a positive and negative influence on the phase. Customers were very interested in the fact that SCG had full-control over a production facility in China and they showed to be interested in visiting the site in the near future. However, for the smaller customers the distance of the facility and thus SCG‘s delivery time seems to be a problem. These customers are not eager to keep large amounts of stock and do not want to wait longer than two week for their order to arrive. SCG has to make the decision to either exclude these smaller customers or find a storage facility located in Europe. Furthermore, the resources mentioned in the exploratory phase also shows to have again a positive influence on the implementation phase.
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A novel fibrillin-1 gene missense mutation associated with neonatal Marfan syndrome: a case report and review of the mutation spectrum

A novel fibrillin-1 gene missense mutation associated with neonatal Marfan syndrome: a case report and review of the mutation spectrum

At the age of 8 months, the patient presented to the Department of Medical Genetics, West China Hospital, Chengdu, China. Her mother stated that no disease or con- dition had potentially affected the pregnancy, including hypertension, diabetes, thyroid disease, infection, medica- tion, or toxic exposure. Moreover, the parents are not con- sanguineous and there is no family history of unexplained disorders or hereditary disease. After informed consent had been obtained, peripheral blood samples of the patient and her parents were collected for genetic testing to identify the causal FBN1 mutation. All 65 exons of FBN1 and their splice sites in the patient were sequenced by Sanger se- quencing. This identified four variants, including a homo- zygous synonymous variant in exon 15 (c.1875 T > C, p.Asn625Asn) (rs25458), two heterozygous missense vari- ants in exon 26 (c.3331 T > C, p.Cys1111Arg) (Fig. 1) and exon 27 (c.3442C > G, p.Pro1148Ala) (rs140598), and a het- erozygous intronic variant (c.3464-5G > A) (rs11853943).
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<p>Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Ezetimibe as the Add-on Treatment to Moderate-Dose Rosuvastatin versus High-Dose Rosuvastatin in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases in China: A Markov Model Analysis</p>

<p>Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Ezetimibe as the Add-on Treatment to Moderate-Dose Rosuvastatin versus High-Dose Rosuvastatin in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases in China: A Markov Model Analysis</p>

Ezetimibe, which inhibits cholesterol absorption in the intestine, has been widely used and recommended by the current guidelines as the second-line lipid-lowering agent in the secondary prevention of CVD. 4,5 Although several Chinese and international trials con fi rmed its ef fi cacy in low- ering LDL-c level and reducing the risk of future CVD, 10–15 it is still unclear if ezetimibe is cost-effective in the Chinese context. A study conducted by Ran and colleagues is one of the featured trials comparing the ef fi cacy of ezetimibe plus moderate-dose rosuvastatin versus high-dose rosuvastatin in the secondary prevention of CVD in China. 16 Based on the data of the costs of patients in West China Hospital, Sichuan University (a tertiary hospital in China), we investigated whether ezetimibe plus moderate-dose statin, when compared with its alternative, high-dose statins, is cost-effective in the Chinese patients in healthcare perspective with inadequately controlled blood lipid level by moderate-dose statin alone for the secondary prevention of CVD.
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Musculoskeletal complication in kaposiform hemangioendothelioma without Kasabach&ndash;Merritt phenomenon: clinical characteristics and management

Musculoskeletal complication in kaposiform hemangioendothelioma without Kasabach&ndash;Merritt phenomenon: clinical characteristics and management

From January 2006 to February 2017, a descriptive study was conducted across three tertiary medical centers in China. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the West China Hospital of Sichuan University, the study site of the principal investigator, and by the local institutional review boards at each participating site. Patients were included if they 1) had verified KHE by pathological examination; 2) showed decreased ROM; 3) had no history of KMP; 4) had given written informed consent or patients’ parents had given the consent for their clinical records to be used in this study; and 5) had a minimum of 6 months of follow-up.
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Fiscal expenditure and traffic sector growth: Evidence from panel
error correction model and panel vector autoregression in China

Fiscal expenditure and traffic sector growth: Evidence from panel error correction model and panel vector autoregression in China

Our main objective is to analyze the spatial diversity of fiscal expenditure on traffic sector growth in this paper. Base on the different level of economic growth and geographical location, we split 31 provinces and cities in China into two samples, and analyze the difference. We refer to these two groups as ‘the east china’ (developed regions) and ‘the west china’ (developing regions). The east china includes Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong, shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Fujian, Liaoning, Hainan, Hebei, which are located in the east china. The west china includes Jiangxi, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Heilongjiang, Guizhou, Yunnan, Gansu, Guangxi, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Sichuan, Shanxi, Hunan, Shannxi, Chongqing, Xizang, Ningxia, which are located in the west china. All data of China’s 31 provinces from 2007 to 2012 are available in the National Statistics Bureau of china, China Compendium of Statistics (2008-2013), China Statistical Yearbook (2008-2013). Data analysis and model operation are completed by using Eviews6.0 and Stata10.0 software. Summary statistics for the data are given in Table 1-2.
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Review Article Platelet to lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

Review Article Platelet to lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

1Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China; 2Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children S[r]

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Civilizations_Chapter02-ClassicalCivilizations-China.pdf

Civilizations_Chapter02-ClassicalCivilizations-China.pdf

 The Silk Road was a trade route that linked China with the West.. Han era servant in terra cotta Section.[r]

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EU and US safeguards against Chinese textile exports: What consequences for West African cotton producing countries?

EU and US safeguards against Chinese textile exports: What consequences for West African cotton producing countries?

Coupling the figures both of the retraining extent of the MoUs on Chinese exports to the EU and the US and the elasticity between these exports and Chinese cotton imports from West Africa reveals that the MoUs could impede the extra growth of West African cotton exports to China, due to the removal of ATC quotas, by about 45%. And, according to a report of the French Embassy in Beijing, China was responsible for all the growth of African cotton exports over the last three years (Mission Economique de l’Ambassade de France en Chine, 2006). This is to say that, limiting the region’s export possibilities to China in fact pretty much means limiting the region’s production growth perspective. In absolute terms, this implies, for example that, because of the MoUs, in 2006, Benin’s cotton exports would grow only by 59 to 67% instead of 73 to 89%.
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The association of elevated circulating endocan levels with lung function decline in COPD patients

The association of elevated circulating endocan levels with lung function decline in COPD patients

Blood samples were collected from subjects the morning after enrollment. All subjects fasted from 9:00 pm the night before. Venous blood was collected from the median cubital vein and plasma was separated and stored immediately at − 80 ° C until analysis. The endocan, Fas and Fas ligand (Fas-L) levels in the plasma were measured using the Magnetic Luminex Screening Assay (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA) on a Bio-Plex 200 (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA) in the Division of Laboratory of West China Hospital. The detec- tion sensitivity of endocan, Fas and Fas-L were 1.08 pg/mL, 3.23 pg/mL and 1.23 pg/mL, respectively.
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<p>Unexpected uterine sarcomas after hysterectomy and myomectomy for presumed leiomyoma: a retrospective study of 26,643 patients</p>

<p>Unexpected uterine sarcomas after hysterectomy and myomectomy for presumed leiomyoma: a retrospective study of 26,643 patients</p>

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of West China Second University Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Southwest China, and was carried out following the principles of the Helsinki Declaration. Informed consent was waived due to the retrospective of the study which involves only data analysis of existing medical records, patients ’ privacy was not breached and the patient ’ s informed consent is not required. The records of uterine sarcoma patients who under- went surgical treatment for presumed leiomyoma from March 2009 to December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. All cases of incidentally discovered LMS, ESS, and adenosar- comas were included. The diagnosis of uterine sarcoma was con fi rmed by gynecologic pathologists in West China Second University Hospital at the time of surgery. A tumor is diag- nosed as LMS rather than smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential STUMP if it had either: 1) geographic necrosis; 2i) ≥ 10 mitoses per 10 high-power fi elds plus diffuse or multifocal atypia (moderate – severe). Relevant information was extracted including age at diagnosis, gravidity, parity,
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The Economic Development of China

The Economic Development of China

From a military standpoint, the Chinese were not prepared to go to war with the British. The Industrial Revolution that had taken place in the West severely handicapped the Chinese navy. The British naval ships had been seriously overhauled and the upgrades would swiftly overwhelm the Qing fleet. The Chinese fleet was largely a coastal navy which was used primarily to ward off local marauders and defend against pirates (Elman 2005, 193). The success of the British was predominantly attributed to superior naval technology. The aggression and imperialist nature of the British had led them to utilize technology to develop weapons capable of conquest. The British had superior ships, artillery, rifles, and they were fueled by greed. Jeffery Needham pointed out in Science and Civilisation in China that the Chinese had discovered paddle-wheel boats and ships as far back as the first century (Needham 2004, 218-219). That specific technology had not been recorded in Europe until many years later. Low and behold, it was the shallow draught iron paddle-steamer, named the Nemesis that would end up terrorizing the Pearl River delta. The iron hulled Nemesis destroyed Chinese fortifications and naval vessels at will. The British fleet simply overwhelmed the Chinese. A discovery contributed by the Chinese centuries earlier had been improved upon by the Europeans and used as an instrument of war. By the end of the First Opium War it had become obvious to the Qing Emperor that the technological advances made by the Western military had somehow managed to quickly surpass his country’s defensive capabilities.
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Incidence of acute diarrheal illness in Chinese communities: a meta-analysis

Incidence of acute diarrheal illness in Chinese communities: a meta-analysis

Results: We estimated that the pooled 2-week prevalence of ADI in China was 2.04% (95% CI: 1.48 – 2.79) and that the corresponding incidence rate was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.38 – 0.73) episodes per person-year. The ADI rate was highest among children aged < 5 years (1.43 episodes per person-year), and it was slightly higher in males than in females (0.58 vs 0.52 episodes per person-year). From 1980 to 2012, there was a significant decrease in the incidence of ADI, from 0.82 to 0.48 episodes per person-year, but the ADI incidence was consistent over the last two decades. Additionally, the incidence of ADI was higher in rural areas and in west China and peaked in the summer months. Conclusions: The current study indicates that ADI caused a substantial disease burden in China in the last 30 years, especially in rural areas and west China, where sanitation conditions were relatively poor. These findings highlight the importance of further investigation of the specific causes of and effective preventive measures for ADI.
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Original Article Establishment of rat models for screening slow-acting drugs of hyperuricemia

Original Article Establishment of rat models for screening slow-acting drugs of hyperuricemia

1West China School of Public Health/Food Safety Monitoring, Risk Assessment Key Laboratory of Sichuan Prov- ince, Chengdu, China; 2Analytical and Testing Center of West China School of P[r]

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An empirical study on the influence of family background on the employment of College Students

An empirical study on the influence of family background on the employment of College Students

Sciences Research Institute published the "2002 China Social situation analysis and prediction ", the book on occupational classification based, organization resources, economic resources and cultural resources to share as the standard to divide the social class theory framework, Chinese social stratum divided by the high to low order for ten classes according to: state and society will management class, manager class, the stratum of private enterprise owners, professional and technical personnel class, work personnel class, a Body industrial and commercial households, commercial service employees, industrial workers, agricultural workers and urban and rural unemployed unemployed persons. This research according to this classification, parental occupation is divided into manual workers, general staff, management personnel, professional and technical personnel, self employed several, according to the classification of Land and Resources of China West Normal University employment data, combined survey of 350 senior students from different family backgrounds were investigated. To explore different family backgrounds employment of college students, and put forward countermeasures and suggestions on this basis.
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