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Devanagari Character Recognition in the Wild

Devanagari Character Recognition in the Wild

This papers examines the issues in recognizing the Devanagari characters in the wild like sign boards, advertisements, logos, shop names, notices, address posts etc. While some works deal with the issues in recognizing the machine printed and the handwritten Devanagari characters, it is not clear if such techniques can be directly applied to the Devanagari characters captured in the wild. Moreover in the recent times a lot of research has been conducted in the field of object categorization and localization. It would be interesting to investigate if the state-of-the-art tools for object categorization can also be applied to the recognition of the Devanagari characters. The idea is to view the isolated characters as objects so as to detect them in the wild. The ability to recognize the Devanagari characters in the wild will be very useful in the Internet services like Google street view and its associated applications. So, a detailed study of the Devanagari character recognition using the state-of-the-art character recognition and object recognition tools has been carried out to compute the best performance. This serve as a baseline for the comparison for the future works.

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The gestural repertoire of the wild chimpanzee

The gestural repertoire of the wild chimpanzee

Abstract Great ape gestural communication is known to be intentional, elaborate and flexible; yet there is contro- versy over the best interpretation of the system and how gestures are acquired, perhaps because most studies have been made in restricted, captive settings. Here, we report the first systematic analysis of gesture in a population of wild chimpanzees. Over 266 days of observation, we recorded 4,397 cases of intentional gesture use in the Sonso community, Budongo, Uganda. We describe 66 distinct gesture types: this estimate appears close to asymptote, and the Sonso repertoire includes most gestures described informally at other sites. Differences in repertoire were noted between individuals and age classes, but in both cases, the measured repertoire size was predicted by the time subjects were observed gesturing. No idiosyncratic usages were found, i.e. no gesture type was used only by one individual. No support was found for the idea that gestures are acquired by ‘ontogenetic ritualization’ from originally effective actions; moreover, in detailed analyses of two gestures, action elements composing the gestures did not closely match those of the presumed original actions. Rather, chimpanzee gestures are species-typical; indeed, many are ‘family-typical’, because gesture types recorded in gorillas, orangutans and chimpanzee overlap extensively, with 24 gestures recorded in all three genera. Nevertheless, chimpanzee gestures are used flexibly across a range of contexts and show clear adjustment to audience (e.g. silent gestures for attentive targets, contact gestures

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Making sense of wild data : using visualization to analyze in the wild video records

Making sense of wild data : using visualization to analyze in the wild video records

In this paper we describe our use of information visualiza- tion to facilitate the analysis of in-the-wild video data. Video recording is often the method of choice when conducting in- the-wild studies. It results in highly rich and detailed data col- lections that can be revisited many times and analyzed from different perspectives. However, the qualitative analysis of video recordings collected in real-world settings is known as a tedious and time consuming activity, because the data can contain a large number of activity layers that have to be iden- tified and manually extracted through video coding. We have utilized customized information visualizations to create vi- sual representations of coded video recordings that consider particularly the temporal, social and spatial context of inter- actions. We describe how these visual abstractions from rich video data were valuable in various stages of our analysis process, including the cataloguing of video data, identifying research questions, in-depth analysis, and, finally, communi- cating our study results. We also point out various challenges that we identified in this process.

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Ancient pigs reveal a near-complete genomic turnover following their introduction to Europe

Ancient pigs reveal a near-complete genomic turnover following their introduction to Europe

Chromopainter and GLOBETROTTER for details about the phasing). Interestingly besides a few examples, most haplotypes (149/153) that had the derived allele formed a monophyletic group (Figure S9). This group included all ancient European and Near East domestic pigs as well as the majority of modern domestic pigs. This suggests that the allele shared by the majority of these pigs was the result of a single mutation. Interestingly, the wild boar haplotypes that were the closest to this group (besides the haplotype from the Dutch wild boar that possess the derived allele and which is most likely the result of recent introgression from domestic into wild (358)) were found in samples from both Near East (WB33U04) and Europe (WB22F02, WB22F03). Thus, while we cannot definitely ascertain that this haplotype originated in the Near East, it seems plausible, that this haplotype, on which the derived allele first appeared, originated in the Near East. Especially given that a early Bronze age Iranian (AA363, 4468-4279 BP) and a Bronze Age Armenian sample (AA119) share the exact same haplotype as many ancient and modern domestic pigs from Europe. In addition, we also found multiple domestic pigs from Neolithic Anatolia that carry the derived allele (see above; Table S1). Alternatively, it is possible that the mutation was brought into the Near East from Europe, this, however, seems unlikely as European were only brought into the Near East later during the Iron Age (163).

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Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

reading human communicative signals [48]. Contrary to this, wolves outperformed dogs, when they were reared with daily interactions with humans [49], although it was suggested that this effect might be due to wolves being more willing to participate in the trials [50]. Be that as it may, overall it can be concluded that differences between domesticated and wild ancestral forms might as well be explained by procedural details in favour of either the domesticated or the wild form. Indeed, the domestication of the guinea pig certainly has brought about a variety of changes in several behavioural domains [35] that might also have affected procedural details of testing spatial memory. Especially the motivation for exploratory beha- viour is dramatically reduced in domestic guinea pigs compared with wild cavies [36]. Therefore the use of dry mazes might have revealed even contrary results (see [51] for an example comparing wild and laboratory reared house mice). Temperament, on the other hand, is known to differ between domestic guinea pigs and wild cavies. It is argued, that reduced alertness, nervousness, and sensi- tivity of the domestic form is causally related to a reduc- tion in the reactivity of the stress axes [36]. Such a reduction in stress reactivity is known to also influence learning and memory processes in animal studies [52,53]. As a consequence, the reduced stress reactivity of domes- tic guinea pigs along with their overall more relaxed atti- tude possibly constituted a distinct advantage for domestic guinea pigs in the water maze.

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Characteristics of the Soils with the Bacillus thuringiensis Entomopathogenic Bacteria Formed in the Belt of Wild Fruit Forests of the IlI and Zhetysu Alatau

Characteristics of the Soils with the Bacillus thuringiensis Entomopathogenic Bacteria Formed in the Belt of Wild Fruit Forests of the IlI and Zhetysu Alatau

The objects of research are dark grey forest soils of the northern slopes of the Ili and Zhetysu Alatau. The Ili Alatau is the most northern ridge of the Tian Shan mountains and stretches the length of 260 km from east to west. The highest point is 4973 m; it is situated near the city of Almaty. On its northern slope, vertical belts of natural areas are clearly seen from the desert-steppe foothills to the mountain tundra. In one of the belts, a belt of deciduous forests is formed at a height of 1300- 1600 m. Here, wild apple trees grow among aspens, birches and spruces. Under these apple trees, dark grey soils are formed 13 . The wild apple tree occupies

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FOLFIRI plus panitumumab in the treatment of wild type KRAS and wild type NRAS metastatic colorectal cancer

FOLFIRI plus panitumumab in the treatment of wild type KRAS and wild type NRAS metastatic colorectal cancer

After 8 weeks of therapy, the evaluation of the response rates indicated that a complete response (CR) was achieved in 3 patients (4.7%), 50 (78.1%) showed a partial response (PR), 5 had stable disease (SD) (7.8%) and 6 (9.4%) had progressive disease (PD) (Table 2). The median PFS of the wild-type KRAS and wild-type NRAS mCRC patients was 13 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.6 – 16.4] months (Fig. 1), with 77.3% 6-month, 50.1% 1- year, 16.9% 2-year and 3.4% 3-year survivals (Table 2). FOLFOX-bevacizumab was administered as second-line chemotherapy in 40 (62.5%) of the 50 (78.1%) patients with disease progression during the follow-up period of 18.9 months (Table 1). The median OS was 26 (95% CI = 23 – 29) months (Fig. 2), with 90.4% 6-month, 79.5% 1- year, 53.7% 2-year and 31.1% 3-year survivals (Table 2). The median PFS was 4 (95% CI = 1.5–6.5) months for the patients with right colon tumours. In contrast, it was 14 (95% CI = 10.8 – 17.2) months for the patients with left colon tumours, and the difference was statistically significant ( P = 0.02). The median OS was 18 (95% CI = 5.3 – 30.7) months in the patients with right colon tumours and 26 (95% CI = 23.1–28.9) months in the patients with left colon tumours (Table 2) (Fig. 3). This difference was also statistically significant ( P = 0.02).

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Ancient pigs reveal a near-complete genomic turnover following their introduction to Europe

Ancient pigs reveal a near-complete genomic turnover following their introduction to Europe

Chromopainter and GLOBETROTTER for details about the phasing). Interestingly besides a few examples, most haplotypes (149/153) that had the derived allele formed a monophyletic group (Figure S9). This group included all ancient European and Near East domestic pigs as well as the majority of modern domestic pigs. This suggests that the allele shared by the majority of these pigs was the result of a single mutation. Interestingly, the wild boar haplotypes that were the closest to this group (besides the haplotype from the Dutch wild boar that possess the derived allele and which is most likely the result of recent introgression from domestic into wild (358)) were found in samples from both Near East (WB33U04) and Europe (WB22F02, WB22F03). Thus, while we cannot definitely ascertain that this haplotype originated in the Near East, it seems plausible, that this haplotype, on which the derived allele first appeared, originated in the Near East. Especially given that a early Bronze age Iranian (AA363, 4468-4279 BP) and a Bronze Age Armenian sample (AA119) share the exact same haplotype as many ancient and modern domestic pigs from Europe. In addition, we also found multiple domestic pigs from Neolithic Anatolia that carry the derived allele (see above; Table S1). Alternatively, it is possible that the mutation was brought into the Near East from Europe, this, however, seems unlikely as European were only brought into the Near East later during the Iron Age (163).

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Wild cherry (Prunus avium Wild cherry ( Prunus avium Wild cherry ( L.) breeding program aimed at the use of this tree in the Czech forestry

Wild cherry (Prunus avium Wild cherry ( Prunus avium Wild cherry ( L.) breeding program aimed at the use of this tree in the Czech forestry

of many valuable individuals in the sixties. During 15 years this situation contributed to extinction of wild cherry in stands. Cherry plantations were established on agricultural lands by use of planting machines. It led to a great extension of artifi cial plantations of this type. At the beginning the quality of the used material was very low. Sometimes plantations were established by distilling sorts. 102 stands for seed collection were se- lected in the northeast of France and only 10 stands in other regions by 1996. During 20 years INRA selected about 400 plus trees. These trees were tested by clonal tests at many sites. 20 clones were selected and they were grafted to slowly growing rootstocks in 1995 in order to reach early fl owering of grafted trees. In spite of this information a recent supply of wild cherry reproduc- tive material has been unsatisfactory. Only 21–35 stands

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Wild attractors and thermodynamic formalism

Wild attractors and thermodynamic formalism

occurs on exactly a single interval. The existence of a dissipative σ-finite acim when there is a wild attractor was shown by Martens [34], see also [10, Theorem 3.1]. Within interval dynamics, inducing schemes have become a standard tool to study thermodynamic formalism, [14, 15, 39, 43, 4]. One constructs a full-branched Gibbs- Markov induced system (Y, F ) whose thermodynamic properties can be understood in terms of a full shift on a countable alphabet. However, precisely in the setting of wild attractors, the set

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Leonora Carrington: “wild card”

Leonora Carrington: “wild card”

prominent, “pregnant” belly in the etching. Such clusters of animals become recurrent motifs for Carrington during this period, exaggerating her well-known reliance on the horse as an alter-ego, towards a sense of unpredictability, of going wild. Arcq has suggested that Carrington’s insistence on this fantasy bestiary could be related to some form of witchcraft in dialogue with Kurt Seligmann (29) who appeared with Carrington in the aforementioned Exiles portrait. In the upper right- hand corner of the etching are two further clusters of creatures: a double-headed dog body, an ouroboros scenario of the animal that consumes its own tail, and a hound- like, furry bat hanging horizontally and defying the laws of gravity alongside the sum “9 + 2 + 1 = 13,” a total that is potent with meaning for the superstitious. 

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Wild at heart? : differential maternal investment in wild and domesticated zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

Wild at heart? : differential maternal investment in wild and domesticated zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

ensuring that such findings were not an artefact of domestication. This study provides the first evidence that wild zebra finches adjust maternal resource allocation in response to male attractiveness. Our technique for manipulating male attractiveness was similar to that used by earlier researchers, in that we used colour bands to adjust perceived male quality and tested corresponding within female variation of resource allocation. In domesticated birds these types of experiments have shown that females paired with red banded males will; a) increase yolk T concentration (Gil et al 1999), b) increase relative concentrations of antioxidants across the laying order (Williamson et al. 2006), c) increase egg size (Rutstein et al. 2004a; Gilbert et al. 2006), d) increase the relative yolk concentrations of antioxidants to androgens (chapter 2) and e) produce offspring that have faster growth and development (Gilbert et al. 2006). Our data did not find any variation in female allocation of yolk T to clutches after their partner has been manipulated to appear unattractive. This would be in direct contradiction with both Gil et al. (1999) and Bolund et al. (2009) two studies that have demonstrated opposing allocation patterns in domesticated zebra finches. Our data are highly limited by the small sample sizes obtained and the environmental variations imposed by conducting such a study in the wild. Females were found to positively allocate both yolk T and egg size in response to certain sexually selected male traits, providing some evidence that wild birds are following similar allocation patterns to domesticated ones, but again, future work would benefit from more controlled investigation of these questions

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The River Wild: Towards a Global Assessment of Wild Rivers

The River Wild: Towards a Global Assessment of Wild Rivers

The work presented here uses global datasets to identify the wildest rivers in the world. The datasets used here are the Human Footprint version 2, Hydro1K 30ArcSecond global DEM, and the Global Reservoir and Dams database (GRanD). Using a nested multi-scaled approach, it is possible to sequentially identify the wildest rivers at a global level, in each continent and then in each country, though for many smaller countries (e.g. Belgium or Belize) the limited resolution of the global datasets could easily present a problem requiring substitution of national level datasets. The basic model proposed links wilderness quality within a catchment to its river using a weighted flow accumulation model to create a classification of rivers and their catchments similar to that described by the Australian Wild Rivers Project, from pristine to heavily modified. This works by totalling the level of upstream human impact based on the assumption that catchments with greater upstream impacts will exhibit corresponding impacts on the wildness of the river including modifications to natural flow regimes, sediment loads and pollution.

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Response of grain yield of wheat and seed production of wild mustard and wild oat to nitrogen application and weed density

Response of grain yield of wheat and seed production of wild mustard and wild oat to nitrogen application and weed density

The reduction of grain yield in single weed competition of wild mustard and wild oat was less than mixed weed densities. The grain yield was decreased by 37.7 and 35.8% when 15 plants of wild mustard and 75 plants of wild oat were grown separately. However the reduction of grain yield was 52.7% in the combination of these two densities. Also, it showed that the negative effects of wild mustard on grain yield were decreased in the presence of wild oat and vice versa (Table 2). Regarding additive series of this experiment, increasing weeds density increased the total number of plants in the certain area, decreased the growth space and increased inter and intraspecies competition for limited resources. Therefore, increasing competition decreased the grain yield of wheat mostly through decreasing the tiller number, spike number and increasing unfertile tillers. Barker et al., (2006) revealed that increasing crop loss due to interspecific competition of weed in high fertility can be a result of higher plasticity characteristics of weeds in the response to available resources. Moosavi et al., (2004) noted that there was a negative correlation between wild mustard, Sinapis arvensis L., density and wheat grain yield. Increasing N level from 150 to 225 kg/ha in the presence of S. arvensis, increased the wheat yield

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Indian hedgehog couples chondrogenesis to osteogenesis in endochondral bone development

Indian hedgehog couples chondrogenesis to osteogenesis in endochondral bone development

their dramatically shortened, deformed limbs (20). When chicken limbs are infected with an Ihh-producing retrovirus, bone collars are induced, despite suppression of hypertrophy of chondrocytes (19). Further, Ihh stim- ulates osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cell lines in vitro, and Shh induces ectopic bone formation in vivo (22, 23). These data suggest that Ihh may be involved in bone collar formation. However, it is still unclear whether Ihh, expressed locally in physiological amounts, determines the site of bone collar formation. We have hypothesized that Ihh synthesized by prehy- pertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes may be responsible both for signaling the relative position of these cells to the periarticular growth plate and for locally signaling the induction of bone collar forma- tion in the adjacent perichondrium. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we have isolated embryonic stem (ES) cell lines homozygous for a null mutation in both the PPR and Ihh genes, and generated chimeric mice containing both wild-type and Ihh –/– ;PPR –/– cells. Com-

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