The linkages among performance, space, and politics have recently attracted the attention of many critical geographers in “Northern” academic institutions. Interestingly, this heightened academic interest has coincided with a rise of people’s theater, especially women’s theater, in the so-called “South” where activists and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have deployed theater as a vehicle to promote an alternative vision of development, a vision in which struggles over economic and political rights of the marginalized are viewed as inseparable from the development “of awareness, of imagination, of a culture of the mind” (Bartholomew 1995, 1; Sharma and Krishnamurty 2000). Not surprisingly, then, women’s theater figured prominently in my own political and intellectual journey in 1998-1999 when I went to Chitrakoot district (in the Bundelkhand region of north India) to study two organizations that have worked to empower marginalized women by enabling their access to water, technology, and literacy. By the time I arrived in Chitrakoot women’s ongoing struggles over access to resources had paved way for a raging and all consuming street theater campaign against domestic violence, and all the organizational and community spaces echoed with its impact. This led to a shift in my own research inquiry, as I immersed myself in the campaign, accompanied the campaigners to villages where they enacted their plays, and participated in the long discussions before, after, and during the performances.
mative situations are embedded within the narrational practice, functioning as enclaves of an alternative narrative in which the Supersturcture is, never- theless, implanted. In one episode, based on a war performance described by Yizhar and structured as theater-within-theater, the soldiers are told that the artists have arrived. A long-haired artist appears, speaking gibberish, his in- tonations, sounds and pelvic movements all making it patently clear that he is telling particularly dirty jokes over the microphone, while his on-stage au- dience remains utterly impassive, unable to find comfort in this nonsensical talk. Then the stage is suddenly flooded with a pandemonium of sound and yellow lights: an air raid. During this bombardment, the shocked artist jumps into a big tire while verbally representing the action by repeating the word “fire” into the microphone. The soldiers who were unresponsive to the artist’s performance now keep yelling, with matching crude hand gestures: “We’ve screwed up a MIG” 18
Bourgeois Tragic Theater would fall beside Epic Theatre as another instance of the ideologically driven Dialectical Theater. However, in the Duflot interview, Pasolini explicitly differentiates his project from that of Brecht, precisely in terms of its ideology and effect. He clarifies that his theater’s suspension of meaning is not simply another Brechtian alienation effect: “Brecht hammers his ideological conclusion all the way down. In him, the ambiguity is only temporary, it does not refer back to the realm of existence, it often resolves itself in history […] [Mine] is a suspension of an existential character; it is theoretically something that one could define as the abstention from judgement before the mystery of existence” (“Il sogno” 1524). Pasolini argues that Epic Theatre distances the spectator to inculcate a specific ideological moral and practical attitude in him or her. And Brecht, in fact, admits this much himself: the “object of our inquiries was not just to arouse moral objections to such [barely tolerable] circumstances […] but to discover means for their elimination” (75). His great innovation lies in his approach to what Aristotle identifies as classical tragedy’s cathartic effect, in which the spectator identifies with the hero, recognizes his or her potential fate, feels fear and pity and, by the end, purifies these emotions (Aristotle 23). Stephen G. Salkever describes catharsis as Greek tragedy’s potentially open-ended pedagogy that expands the
cal value. However, its unconventionality atrophies since it often functions as an excuse for the verbal narcissism of writers. Thus, in the face of the violent turn that reality has taken in the West, which in the 90s has brought concern for social and political issues back to the fore, the playwright is called up, once again, to reassemble the fragments of the “external,” to clarify its ethical orientation. As is affirmed by the French interest in so- cialist playwrights, like the British Edward Bond, whose work dominated the Parisian stage in the 90s, theater writing seems once again to be interested in “participating in the social process,” in “speaking about politics and not about turning to the self” (Bond 125). This does not mean sanctifying Truth anew, but suggests the playwright’s need to re-commit him-herself to the search for it, since “if there is language, if there is art, it is because there is the other” (Steiner 169). Perhaps the re-evaluation of the dramatic today means, in fact, the re-evaluation of the Other, the transcendence of the (now worn out) fascination with self-reference—and that certainly applies not only to France, but to most European countries where theater is searching for a more active social role.
To provide support for the documentary exposition made in line with the objective of the study, a content analysis of some columns (the editorials, features, politics and business) of the most popular daily Ghanaian newspapers, the Daily Graphic and the Chronicle. It was undertaken for the three months, October – December 2008 to find out whether Ghanaians use inclusive terms (to designate both men and women) or gender neutral language. The choice of the months, October- December 2008 was because during that period, the Ghanaian society was more active in preparation for the Christmas festivities and the 2008 general elections and these conditions might have given rise to more comments by people in the papers. The information in the papers represent to a very large extent the use of language in the intra and the inter–personal relationships within the families, public places, the churches, the academia and the Ghanaian community as a whole. In this study the concept of inclusive terms (both men and women) or gender neutral language involves the use of words, which indicate no male or female differentiation and could be for a man or woman e.g. Chairperson or police officer. On the other hand, gender inequality language involves the use of words which portray the meanness of women and the superiority of men e.g. policeman, spokesman.
What this debate by the participants in and around the staging of the WSF highlights is the naïveté, perhaps somewhat insidious, of presuming that the open space is a space without struggle, devoid of politics and power (also see De Angelis, Dowling and L. Sullivan, this issue). In fact, it is a space, or rather an openness, which must be struggled for. The continual and repetitive desire for fixity amid the motion of politics, of people, of discourse and the world means that one cannot define the boundaries of a space (itself a function of power), declare it open and expect it to remain so. The open space is not a space without movement, it is a space within and amid movement, never static but part of the perpetual motion of social life. The WSF, as its critics and counter-spaces reveal, is part of the struggle to define exactly what the struggle is. Is it a struggle against corporate-led globalisation, all forms of globalisation, capitalism, the domination of one state by another or the entire imperialist system of states? Is it a struggle for the reform, overthrow or transformation of existing institutions and organisation and according to whose interests? These are precisely the questions which are up for grabs and why the WSF must be situated as endemic to the crisis in signification: not outside of it, or occurring as its redress. The alternatives offered depend entirely on how one is framing the question and what is being struggled for is what is at stake in the WSF. It is a difference in emphasis between postmodernism, that emphasizes plurality without foregrounding structural inequality, and a post-structuralist perspective which brings the question of foundations to the centre of its inquiry (Young, 1990). This means that what becomes important, and what we have to be vigilantly mindful of, is not simply that the space exists, but how and to what ends the space for mobilisation and resistance is used. This is a question I feel we should ask tirelessly of ourselves and others: it bears both the mark of politics, i.e. as the struggle for meaning and power, and the mark of personal responsibility. How are we, each of us going to engage, how we are obliged to engage, or where exactly is the space for our engagement? These questions do not end with the closure of the Forum, but carry over into all the networks and political activity engendered and participating ‘there’, and this is especially so given the diversity of positions and movements involved.
Inquiring into teams through performativity theory is rarely seen in healthcare literature. Discussing healthcare performativity, Tim FREEMAN and Edward PECK (2010) effectively use Judith BUTLER and Jacques DERRIDA's views to describe "performative misfire" (p.34) in transformational cultural change in the National Health Service in England. Catherine MILLS (2013) describes the performativity of personhood in discussing ethical considerations in abortion. Jane GILMER, Paul MacNEILL and Tan Chay HOON (2013) are scheduled to present a workshop about techniques useful in "training the 'performativity' of doctors and healthcare professionals" at a conference in early 2014. Using applied theater inquiry methods of performance (forum theater) to explore ways of being a team (performativity) advances the idea that healthcare cultural conventions can neither be stripped nor endorsed in the pursuit of gaining
The main U.S. adversary in the Asia- Pacific theater was Japan. Japan lacked many of the natural resources needed to drive its economy; it was forced to look for territory outside Japan to get them. Japan was also driven by the ambition to replace the United States as the dominant power in Asia, and to establish a Japanese empire which would be self-sufficient and able to resist any attempt by the Americans or anyone else to retake captured territories. The U.S. Merchant Marine, along with U.S. Navy and Army ships, would play an integral role in helping wrest control of the Asia-Pacific away from Japan and back to the Allies.
Conventional ammunition unit commanders must ensure that all ammunition and explosives operations and activities are performed according to safety regu- lations, directives, and theater policy. Because of their destructive nature, ammunition and explosives demand constant safety awareness on the part of all personnel responsible for them, including the combat user. Carelessness, faulty equipment, hazardous work- ing conditions, and unsafe practices may result in the loss of life, injury, or property damage. In wartime, these factors disrupt ammunition support. They could affect the success of a battle. After the battle of DS/S was over, the US lost more vehicles in one ammunition-related accident than it lost to enemy forces. This accident occurred when the ammunition and explosives in one vehicle ignited, and the result- ing fire spread to adjacent vehicles that were parked too closely together. Many people were injured in the incident, and two soldiers were killed in the cleanup of the area afterwards.
In deciding how much to spend overall, we can give you only this advice: Your home entertainment system is probably one of the most-used parts of your home. It helps define your family, social life, business relationships, and so on. It’s important, but spend within your means. You also want to save something for the future. Building and growing a home theater is fun, too. One of the great things about home theater is that it is modular, so you don’t have to buy the whole thing all at once. If you really want a great TV display, get it, and go cheaper on the other components. And when you are ready to trade up, figure out what you want next. The better stereo stores have a trade-up policy that gives you credit toward getting something better. And then there’s always eBay (www.ebay.com) or similar auction sites, where you can get all sorts of gear in great condition — everyone is always trading in stuff to move to higher levels, so don’t feel pressured to do it all at once. Realize that, even if you are installing home theater wiring and speakers into the walls and such, you’re not likely to ‘get that money back’ when you sell the house. People are leery of other people’s home-grown solutions — even the professional ones — and equipment becomes outdated quickly in this industry. So if you are going to do some remodeling and spend some money, recognize that you are doing it for yourself first, everyone else second, and by all means not for the money.