Theories and Practices of Development

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The MPA Curriculum Development in China: Learning from American Theories and Practices

The MPA Curriculum Development in China: Learning from American Theories and Practices

While widespread agreement exists among scholars of public administration that public managers should not study for the same degree or take the same courses, many believe that the master’s degree is the central element of academic public administration’s efforts to help educate public managers. The answer to the general question about for what students are being educated has been consistently stated as for professionally expert work in public bureaucracies devoted to public service (Ventriss, 1991). Needed are administrators with competence in the techniques and methods of organization and management and who understand the political, social, and economic environments in which they operate (Cleary, 1990). Therefore, the MPA curriculum has traditionally been characterized as an applied field oriented to the development of theory for practice. This requires the field to focus its research efforts on what practicing public administrators actually do. Waldo characterizes public administration as a necessarily multi-disciplinary field, given the variety and complexity of the public’s business (Waldo, 1975). MPA education must introduce into its curriculum the substance of individual public service areas such as criminal justice, public health, environmental policy, education administration, and so on, in order to reflect the activities in which public administrators are actually engaged. The broad coverage of public administration determines that every program has its own curriculum emphasis on its specific area such as personnel, budgeting, financial management, organizational theory, and so on. However, there are some common parts applicable to most of programs. From the author’s personal experiences and research, there are at least four important areas that need to be discussed for the MPA curriculum development in China. The following section will discuss the four areas of theory development, quantitative skills, technology training, and case study. For each area, the theories and practices in the United States will be discussed followed
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Demystifying the developmental state: a critique of the theories and practices of the state in the development of capital relations in Korea

Demystifying the developmental state: a critique of the theories and practices of the state in the development of capital relations in Korea

Tracing the formation of the Korean state in the context of the development of capital relations in Korea from the colonial period to the 1970s, chapters six and seven will present the K[r]

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e Agriculture revisited : a systematic literature review of theories, concept, practices, methods, and future trends

e Agriculture revisited : a systematic literature review of theories, concept, practices, methods, and future trends

After reviewing various literatures and the evidences from them it is evident that farmers in the developing countries have faced many challenges such low literacy, poverty, low agricultural education, little capital, high interest rates, lack of agricultural input, high interest rates, social influences, lack of advisory services & market information which has highly affected the adoption of ICT solutions, their farming activities and most importantly their output. Various evidences from the literature reviewed also showed that ICT has offered a lot to agriculture and the penetration of mobile devices over the world has provided a large means of developing new solutions for farmers in terms of providing advisory services, monitoring the farm, providing market information, managing records, weather information and other benefits which impact the knowledge of farmers, welfare and technological adoption. It also brings development to the rural areas which are often neglected in many low income countries. These developments occurred through many E-agricultural projects that have been initiated by government, NGOs and private investors. The sustainability of such programs after deployment of the solution has tend to be problematic in many cases because of lack of funding from the government and other stakeholders, it leaves farmers helpless. In the case of diffusion & extension of technologies many organisations tend to ignore adoption analysis, which is very important for understanding the impact, perceptions and social structure of an area & technology used before deploying new ones. This study has provided a framework for the diffusion and extension of technology which stresses on adoption analysis. In terms of methodologies used in the various literature reviewed researchers have used Quantitative, Qualitative, and mixed approaches in their methodologies. Many researchers tend to stress the use of questionnaires to gather data in areas which are not fully literate and might end up obtaining data roughly or incomplete and therefore, questionnaires should be accompanied with interviews in local dialect to obtain better data from participants. It is recommended to use a mixture of data collection techniques when conducting field investigations to eliminate the weakness of each technique and to obtain a broader data for better analysis.
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The evolution and development of African management theories and colonialism: an exploration

The evolution and development of African management theories and colonialism: an exploration

One of the most important activities of human beings is management. Imagine an army with no commander, a team with no coach, or a nation without a government. This can be likened to the proverbial “sheep without shepherd”. The ultimate end of such situations is failure. Therefore, as long as there are economic activities and human endeavors, there must be procedures, people and system to take charge, to plan, organize, staff and control the work. According to Weihrich and Koontz (1983), management is the process of designing and maintaining selected aims. Management is a core area of human responsibility and as a process drives economic development and activities. It is as old as human civilization or history. Most of management theories have military origins, probably because efficiency and effectiveness are essential for success in warfare. The concepts of unity of command, line of command, staff advisors, and division of work can be traced back at least to Alexander the Great, or even earlier, to Lao Tzu. However, the industrial Revolution has created a need for new thinking and the refinement of old thinking in terms of management principles and practices. Management theories can also be said to have roots in antiquity. However, modern theories have evolved in response to increase in the complexity of the work environment resulting from the industrial revolution, the growth in high technology, and the development of global transportation and communication systems. African has existed for several decades and has her own unique ways and her distinct cultures which have for long
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Gynecology and Gynecological Nursing Theories and Practices in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Review on the Ancient Literatures

Gynecology and Gynecological Nursing Theories and Practices in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Review on the Ancient Literatures

Objective: the study is aimed to introduce the developing history of gynecology and gynecological nursing in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Study Design: the development of gynecology and gynecological nurs- ing consists of six periods in Chinese history. They are: 1) budding stage represented by the inscriptions of Nü (female) on oracle bones; 2) physiological development stages of women; 3) specialized chapters of gynecol- ogy in TCM; 4) features of gynecological nursing; 5) monograph of gynecology and gynecological nursing; 6) integration of ancient gynecological nursing perceptions. Results: TCM has a profound understanding of gy- necology and gynecological nursing. For period one, the inscriptions of Nü (female) on oracle bones is the symbol of the budding stage. For period two, physiogenesis stages of women are recorded in The Yellow Em- peror of Classics of Inner Medicine. For period three, the specialized chapters of gynecology appeared, repre- sented by Golden Chamber, Woman. For period four, the features of gynecological nursing were elaborated in Essential Prescriptions Worth A Thousand Gold including menstruation, depression, yin-dampness, and menopause. For period five, monographs of gynecology and gynecological nursing represented by Good Comprehensive Woman Formulae appeared. For period six, Integrative studies of gynecological nursing per- ceptions were carried out with the representation by Integrated Ancient and Modern Books. Conclusion: TCM gynecology and gynecological nursing harbors a long history of treating and nursing gynecological dis- orders. With therapeutic and nursing modalities, they are effective systems of understanding and managing woman health as proven by medical literatures, clinical benefits and basic research studies.
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The Integration of Cognitive and Sociocultural Theories of Literacy Development: Why? How?

The Integration of Cognitive and Sociocultural Theories of Literacy Development: Why? How?

underrated. Au’s point is key to this discussion. The cultural factors of diverse backgrounds have persistently been related to underachievement. Traditional instructional approaches have underserved students who have already been disadvantaged with respect to social and economic capital. These approaches typically represent the values of the dominant in society concurrently disad- vantaging some groups (Finnegan, 1999). One might argue that schools have been agents in fostering and maintaining the status quo regarding power and privilege. Fortunately, from a sociocultural view, educators have begun to reflect critically on the values, expectations, and social pressures that are ex- pressed in traditional school settings. There is increased concern about the universal process of teaching reading and writing. Rogers (2000) challenged educators to critique present literacy practices in order to create new teaching and learning situations that support equality, social change, and justice. Sociocultural theory suggests that educators seek to understand the cultural and social contexts in which children have grown and developed (Pérez, 1998). Concern for diverse languages and backgrounds is brought to the fore when teaching practice embraces this theory. “The challenge is to value and build on what the child brings to the classroom” (John-Steiner & Mahn, 1996).
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Italians posing between public and private. Theories and practices of Social Heritage

Italians posing between public and private. Theories and practices of Social Heritage

technological progress over the past two centuries, but at the same time express the ways of communication between different subjects, and characterize the main forms of human relations in the political, sociological, economic, anthropological of contemporary’s societies (Mignemi 2006, 735). Therefore, with the New Sources, we can study the connections between “Heritage-Memory-Identity” according to the new theoretical and historical approach. In particular, first the family photos, and by extension Family Albums, are a specific important referent point for conservation, transmission and development of a community Social Heritage, as can be seen for instance in some research projects in progress in Italy (Calanca 2010). As an example, we can consider three cases. The first is Paesani in posa, a research on family representations in a rural area of Southern Sardinia between 1900 and 1970 (Ravenna 2010). The research was carried out between 2003 and 2004 on behalf of XXV Mountain Community of Sa Jara, that includes the municipalities of Tuili, Gesturi e Stzu in Cagliari province. Analyzing the photographic heritage preserved in the families living in three municipalities the object is form a representative digital photo archive of the traditions and communities of the territory. From the methodological point of view 43 families were selected, especially in Tuili municipality, on the basis of the willingness shown by each group to display images of their albums and to allow duplication for its inclusion in the photo archive. In the case of Gesturi municipality were acquired only images of the Association “Reduci e Combattenti” on the First and the Second World War. The area of research includes the Marmilla region in Southern Sardinia, characterized by farming and breeding sheep and wild horses
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Concept of Decision Support Systems in relation
with Knowledge Management – Fundamentals,
theories, frameworks and practices

Concept of Decision Support Systems in relation with Knowledge Management – Fundamentals, theories, frameworks and practices

PDSS were successful systems which was an important difference between MIS and PDSS (Alter, 1980). The major contribution to IS theory of PDSS is evolutionary systems development (Arnott, 2004). The notion that a DSS evolves through an iterative process of systems design and use has been central to the theory of decision support systems since the inception of the field. Meador and Ness (1974) first hinted the evolutionary development in decision support and Ness (1975) as part of their description of middle-out design. This was a response of the debate on the top-down versus bottom-up methodology concerning time to the development of transaction processing systems. Courbon et al. (1978) mentioned the first general statement of DSS evolutionary development. An “evolutive approach” is termed as the development processes which are not implemented in a linear or even in a parallel fashion, but involves significant user participation in continuous action cycles. As and when each evoluative cycle completes the system gets closer to its final or stabilized state. For understanding the dynamics of decision support systems evolution, Keen (1980) building on Courbon’s work, developed a framework or model. The Keen’s approach which is shown in Figure 1, was termed adaptive design, although we can say adaptive development is a more accurate term for it, as the approach comprises development processes other than design.
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The Knowledge Management Theory Papers A series of papers on the theories, processes and practices behind Knowledge Management

The Knowledge Management Theory Papers A series of papers on the theories, processes and practices behind Knowledge Management

The framework also adds value to supporting analytical, design, development and deployment activities by guiding the analysis of knowledge flows and construction of a usefully comprehensive picture. The framework provides a mechanism for developing a balanced, high-level view that can be used to set the stage for deeper analysis, identifying the compelling and critical issues that warrant more careful examination. Once the picture is complete, the framework can be used to identify the specific needs that can be met with off-the-shelf technology, localized customizations or change-management programs.
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The Comparable Nuance of Complicity and Resistance in the Development of Postcolonial Theories

The Comparable Nuance of Complicity and Resistance in the Development of Postcolonial Theories

In addition, akin to Spivak, Bhabha further interrogates whether representation derived from Western theory might also be another power strategy to produce discourse over the „other‟. To find out the answer, Bhabha scrutinizes whether there is a new language of the developed critical theory (following the poststructuralist‟s notions) that can facilitate the shifting limitations of cultural displacement. In fact, Bhabha discovers that the new language does exist; it commutes in-between the binary opposition of the colonizer and the colonized identity. Furthermore, he asked what the function of this committed theory might be. Bhabha then utilizes Stuart Hall‟s theory on „imagination‟ to unearth the recognition of relation between theory and political practices that ruins traditional divisions between „authentic‟ sense of „national‟ culture or an „organic‟ intellectual. Bhabha observes that the „true‟ is always marked and informed by „ambivalence‟ since its emergence process is going within the negotiation of oppositional and antagonistic elements. From this, Bhabha formulates the enunciation of a language of critique, which is different from pure teleology and traditionalist narrative. This language, Bhabha said, opens up a place of translation that is there will be opportunities to interpret the language as a place of „hybridity‟, which is „neither the one nor the other‟. Hybridity then, Bhabha (1994) explains:
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Theories and Methods of Urban Development Programming: “Identifying Urban Development Programming Methodologies”

Theories and Methods of Urban Development Programming: “Identifying Urban Development Programming Methodologies”

DOI: 10.4236/cus.2018.64029 545 Current Urban Studies is no complete comprehensive process and strategies for urban development programming, even if there is; the process is inefficient. In other words, lack of a systematic and comprehensive framework for identifying and communicating applications/users and developer/authorities with design team (Kelly et al., 2003; Shen & Chung 2006; Bogers et al., 2008 cited by Hussanian & Juaim, 2013). Fur- thermore, according to Yu et al. (2006), Bogers et al. (2008), “current program- ming practices are still considered to be inadequate”. In other words, there no educational system for urban programming in most of the educational institu- tions. Furthermore, the procedure between project establishment and architec- ture design, the policy of charging, and also the pressure of the deadline in pro- gramming turned to a big challenge (Su, 2002, cited by Li & Xu, 2011; Hussanian & Juaim, 2013).
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Concepts, theories, and approaches to management practices for sustainable businesses

Concepts, theories, and approaches to management practices for sustainable businesses

Moreover, to achieve sustainability, these authors (Hoopwood, Mellor, and O’Brien, 2005) analyze the status-quo approach; the reform approach and the transformatory approach; and eco-feminists’ and eco-sociologists’ attitudes towards sustainable development. Although a reform in the beliefs of the people who maintain the status quo is necessary for change, it must be acknowledged that they work within the economic and power structure of the society, because they believe in an adjustment policy without any fundamental change. Conversely, reform approach is critical to government and businesses but they do not consider the fundamental change needed to prevent the collapse of the ecological or social systems. They do not see the root of the problem. Transformationist approach believes a human relationship with the environment is necessary to avoid environmental crisis and the future collapse of sustainability. They (Hoopwood, Mellor, & O’Brien, 2005) emphasize social and political actions for indigenous groups, the poor women and the working class. However, these transformationists are not directly concerned about sustainable development (p. 45). So this tranformatory approach has a strong commitment to social equity (access to livelihood, good health, and resources).
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Financing practices on the JSE - an empirical test of the trade-off and pecking order theories of capital structure

Financing practices on the JSE - an empirical test of the trade-off and pecking order theories of capital structure

The key point to note here is that although Modigliani and Miller’s (1958) theorem would appear to strongly suggest the irrelevance of the capital structure decision, it is subject to strict, and in many ways unrealistic, simplifying assumptions. Of course, the reality is very different from the perfect, frictionless capital markets model used in the development of the theory. But indeed, the authors explicitly state (pg. 296) that “these and other drastic simplifications have been necessary in order to come to grips with the problem at all. Having served their purpose they can now be relaxed in the direction of greater realism and relevance, a task in which we hope others interested in this area will wish to share”. A popular defence of the theorem, according to Frank and Goyal (2008), is that “while the Modigliani–Miller theorem does not provide a realistic description of how firms finance their operations, it provides a means of finding reasons why financing does matter”.
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Financial Instability in Indonesia: Theories and Practices

Financial Instability in Indonesia: Theories and Practices

99 exchange rate in this study follows Clark et al. (2004) that defined exchange rate volatility as the standard deviation of the first difference of the exchange rate natural logarithm. In this analysis, the exchange rate volatility is calculated using 12-quarter rolling standard deviation. The independent variables to be included in this study consist of the inflation rate, the real interest rate, the stock market index and the FLI. The inflation rate (𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛) is argued as having a positive impact on the overall volatility of the exchange rate. One variable that can influence the decision of foreign investors in investing their funds into the domestic market is inflation. The higher the inflation rate, the more reluctant investors are to invest their funds. Another variable that may affect investors’ decision is the domestic interest rate (𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒). Most developing countries have a higher rate of interest compared to developed countries. The change of interest rate from its previous period may affect the volatility of the exchange rate. A country’s financial reforms can be portrayed by the development of its stock market. A higher return of stock market index (𝑖𝑑𝑥𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛) may attract domestic and foreign investors to make the domestic equity market more active and liquid. It is expected that the change of stock index will cause impacts on the exchange rate volatility. Moreover, when investigating the impacts of financial liberalisation on the dependent variable, this study adds variables with regards the implementation of financial liberalisation, such as the credit to the private sector and the financial liberalisation index (𝑓𝑙𝑖), for example. These data are expected to represent the macroeconomic condition and the implementation of financial liberalisation in the country. There is another variable that was intended for use in this analysis—the terms of trade—but, considering the presence of multicollinearity, this variable was excluded from the estimation. The observation period for this analysis ranges 1990–2015, using quarterly data. A list of the variables can be seen in Table 5.2.
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Adult Learning Theories and Practices 1

Adult Learning Theories and Practices 1

• Kolb asserts different people prefer a single learning style, influenced by various factors in their personal development. The style emerges through a process of child and adult experiences which results in preferences regarding whether we wish to “do” or “watch” and at the same time whether we wish to “think” or “feel.” This results in learning styles that differ re: how we wish to approach a particular task (i.e., the “grasping experience”) and our emotional response to the experience (the “transforming experience”) by either thinking or feeling.

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THEORIES AND PRACTICES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

THEORIES AND PRACTICES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

Past has proved that there is endless evolution of theories or models of corporate governance. One of the reasons is due to the very essence of social consciences that is minimal and profit making took center stage. All over the world, companies are trying to instill the sense of governance into their corporate structure. With the surge of capitalism, corporation became stronger while governments all over the world had to succumb to its manipulations and dominance. Hence, this article attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the corporate governance debate. The review of various corporate governance theories enhances the major ob- jective of corporate governance which is maximizing the value for shareholders by ensuring good social and environment performances. The theories of corporate governance are rooted in agency theory with the theory of moral hazard’s implications, further developing within stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolving at resource dependence theory, transaction cost theory and political theory, Hence, it is suggested that a combination of various theories is best to describe an effective and good governance practice rather than theorizing corporate governance based on a single theory. Various theories and philosophies have provided the foundation for the development of alternative forms of corporate governance systems around the world. Furthermore, as economies have evolved through time it appears that corporate executives have deviated from the sole objective of maximizing shareholders’ wealth. Owners of the capital have responded to these forces for the purpose of preserving their wealth and earning a reasonable return on their invested capital.
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Language Theories Donation through Materials Development   A case study in Jordan

Language Theories Donation through Materials Development A case study in Jordan

This research evaluated Jordan Opportunities materials i.e. Students' books, Workbooks, Teachers' books which were used for grades eleven and twelve. These materials were adapted and used by the Ministry of Education in Jordan for the secondary stage. The materials for grade eleven were first prescribed by the Jordanian Ministry of Education in the academic year 2006/2007 and were prescribed for grade twelve in 2007/2008. Based on the researcher’s best knowledge, the Jordan Opportunities materials of grade ten were evaluated by a Jordanian researcher; however, the materials of this research were not evaluated and developed before conducting this research. The key issue is not only the materials themselves, but it is also the professional development, applied linguistics training, and insights that can be gained through principled and rigorous materials evaluation and development which this research did. (See 1.3 the rationale of the research and 1.4 related case studies in Jordan).
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Modeling Theories and Model Transformation Scenario for Complex System Development

Modeling Theories and Model Transformation Scenario for Complex System Development

Models are representation of reality in the form of abstractions which indicates essential aspects of the system while suppressing the others for the time being. The software development process models heavily rely on models for better understanding of the complex systems. Models are the medium to convey system’s properties which are desired by its stakeholders as a set of services. Models focus on multiple views of a system and can integrate multiple concepts along with allied notational semantics that can efficiently demonstrate multiple views of the system depending on the context of the problem. These models can be organized in to various levels of abstractions by applying transformations on them. The abstract views of the system can elaborated into concrete views by adding relevant details to it as applicable. The correspondence between structural and behavioral properties of the system elements must be correlated and balanced to visualize systems architecture. In model-centric approach, models of the system drive implementation of the system from the models whereas in model-only approach,
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Personality: Theories 429. Chapter: Personality Theories

Personality: Theories 429. Chapter: Personality Theories

We spend this entire chapter analyzing the most important of a vast array of personality theories that have been developed in the century since Freud's earliest works. These theories are organized and presented in the Table roughly in the order in which they initially appeared, with the self-growth theories of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow being the last to appear. In the last two decades, theories based on factor analytic statistical techniques have advanced challenging new views as to the primary components of personality, regardless of the theory being

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Model Theories of Set Theories and Type Theory

Model Theories of Set Theories and Type Theory

We are quite far from having fully exploited the potential of Leonard’s definition of an existence predicate. The present pa- per gives a limited account of that potential within first-order logic. The system that we have presented here does not suffice for the derivations that we made in our (Jones, 1964). There we assumed the full type theory of Principia Mathematica (White- head, 1910). Many, if not most, of the results proved there could have been obtained with a simple version of type theory. We hope to explore this possibility in a future publication. We mentioned several directions which a further development of the consequences of Leonard’s definition of an existence pre- dicate might take in (Jones, 2013: pp. 3-4).
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