This research examined the theory of plannedbehavior (TPB) as predictor whistleblowing intention. According to TPB, it is difficult to posit whistleblowing as actual behavior. Whistleblowing is more suited to be posited as intention. Intent means the likelihood of actual behavior occurred. We examined attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control as TPB variables. We also investigated a few control variables such as colleagues support, organizational support, and fear of retaliation. The online survey was conducted in obtaining data by a web-based questionnaire. Participants of this survey were employees of regional owned east java bank. The number of respondents was 112 employees from all departments and units. Validity, reliability, regression, and path analysis were used in testing research instru- ment and several hypotheses. The result showed that attitudes and subjective norms as TPB variables have a significant impact on whistleblowing intention. However, perceived behav- ioral control does not affect whistleblowing intention. While, among several control variables, only fear of retaliation that has a significant effect on whistleblowing intention. Furthermore, this study also found empirical evidence that knowledge and subjective norms have an indirect effect on whistleblowing intention through attitudes. This research suggests that regional owned east java bank should provide an environment and channels to support whistleblowing within effectively, especially through protection and/or reward systems, or etc.
The premise of the Theory of PlannedBehavior is that individuals make rational decisions to engage in specific behaviors based on their own beliefs about the behaviors and their expectation of a positive outcome after having engaged in the behaviors. According to Ajzen (2002), an intention to perform a behavior is determined by three components: attitude toward a behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Ajzen defines intention as “…indications of how hard people are willing to try, of how much of an effort they are planning to exert, in order to perform the behavior” (p. 113). He defines attitude toward a behavior as “a disposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to an object, person, institution, or event.” (p.4). Subjective norm can be considered the individual’s perception that other individuals important to the respondent believe the respondent should perform the behavior of interest. Finally, perceived behavioral control is the “perceived ease of performing the behavior based on past experience and anticipated impediments” (p.132). In the aggregate, these components directly influence an individual’s intention to complete a behavior, and intention in turn influences whether an individual ultimately engages in the behavior. To the extent that the individual’s perception of behavioral control is in agreement with actual behavioral control, Ajzen (1991) postulated that perceived behavioral control serves as a proxy for actual behavioral control, therefore having a direct influence on both intention and the actual behavior.
Current economic scenario is showing rough patch mainly due to acentric policies of past rulers & unequal contribution of both genders in various economic sectors. As a result, Economic growth is slower & Balance of payment deficit is increasing in turn, such situation is not allowing the government to properly fulfill the needs of public (Amnah Mohsin, 2018). Females are half of population of Sindh; better living can be promoted through female contribution. Females are contributing significantly in traditional local businesses their role cannot meet modern requirements of economy. Similarly, to predict entrepreneurial intention for formal entrepreneurship is the need of time. This study had used Theory of plannedBehavior to accurately measure ones intention. In last decade, Number of institutions is providing entrepreneurial education and ratio of female entrepreneurs in formal sectors is also increasing. Consequently, females are entering business with self – Efficacy but ratio is still small especially in semi-urban areas. Because of that reason, females of Sindh also showed significant attitude.
Theory of PlannedBehavior (TPB) provides a systematic framework to determine factors which influence a person’s decisions to accomplish behaviors such as intentional use of illicit drugs as well as alcohol consumption and smoking (24) . In relation to the use of illicit drugs, the TPB presumes that cognitions such as attitude and social norms may predict the intention to begin using these drugs.
Abstract: This study aimed to determine the factors associated with exercise behavior based on the theory of plannedbehavior (TPB) among the sarcopenic elderly people in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 65 subjects with mean ages of 67.5 ± 5.2 (men) and 66.1 ± 5.1 (women) years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups: 1) exercise group (n=34; 25 men, nine women); and 2) the control group (n = 31; 22 men, nine women). Structural equation model- ing, based on TPB components, was applied to determine specific factors that most contribute to and predict actual behavior toward exercise. Based on the TPB’s model, attitude ( β= 0.60) and perceived behavioral control (β=0.24) were the major predictors of intention to exercise among men at the baseline. Among women, the subjective norm ( β= 0.82) was the major predic- tor of intention to perform the exercise at the baseline. After 12 weeks, attitude (men’s, β=0.68; women’s, β= 0.24) and subjective norm (men’s, β= 0.12; women’s, β= 0.87) were the predictors of the intention to perform the exercise. “Feels healthier with exercise” was the specific factor to improve the intention to perform and to maintain exercise behavior in men ( β= 0.36) and women (β=0.49). “Not motivated to perform exercise” was the main barrier among men’s intention to exercise. The intention to perform the exercise was able to predict actual behavior regarding exercise at the baseline and at 12 weeks of an intervention program. As a conclusion, TPB is a useful model to determine and to predict maintenance of exercise in the sarcopenic elderly. Keywords: theoryplannedbehavior, aging, elderly, sarcopenic, exercise
Ajzen (1991) explains that the model of the Theory of PlannedBehavior is a model that is very open to coupled with other predictor variables for memperdiksi intentions and behavior of the object under study, no exception for research tax compliance. Benk (2011) adds that the Theory of PlannedBehavior is an important theory in the sphere of social psychology that attempts to explain human perliaku. Gangl (2015) explains that at the level of individual tax compliance framework is distinguished by the behavior of some motivation, among others, the motivation to comply with the tax law, the motivation to adhere to the policy and attitude of volunteerism pay. Further Gangl (2015) adds that the individual in a different country in the motivation to behave honestly based on the intensity of knowledge (knowledge) on the legal and tax rules as well as their understanding of the procedural aspects. The lower the higher the level of knowledge they are to avoid tax avoidance and finally non-compliant behavior so that the knowledge factor is one very important factor in motivating people to voluntarily comply with tax laws. Therefore, in this study adds a variable tax knowledge as a determining factor for taxpayer compliance.
Several theories have been borrowed from different disciplines to be applied in the information systems discipline such as Theory of PlannedBehavior (TPB), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and many others. The information systems discipline is particularly concerned with how information systems are developed and used the real-world . The need to understand complex issues in information systems have resulted in borrowed theories from established disciplines to assist in understanding individuals as they interact with technology and processes in organizations. One of the most popular theories for understanding human behavior in information systems discipline is the theory of plannedbehavior. This paper therefore discusses the TPB theory in the context of information systems discipline. The rest of the paper is structure as follows: section 2 discusses a brief overview of Theory of PlannedBehavior, Section 3 Application of Theory of Plannedbehavior in information systems, Section 4 competing theories section 5 the criticisms of Theory of PlannedBehavior and lastly section 6 discussion and conclusion of the paper.
McDearmon (2013) assessed how college and university alumni view their role with their alma mater and then followed with how that perception related to behavior and support. The study drew on previous research on alumni in terms of factors contributing to willingness to donate, but there was no evidence to conclude actual alumni opinions, beliefs, and preferences. This raises the question of moral norms expressed in the revised theory of plannedbehavior research (van der Linden, 2011) and how those play into the perceived alumni role expectations (McDearmon, 2013). McAlexander et al. (2006) investigated how relationships with the university play a role in loyalty-related behaviors, such as planned giving. Most notably they concluded that the opportunity for universities to build lasting relationships with their alumni for future financial support is the strongest while they are still students on campus. This knowledge is crucial in understanding how best to build relationships with students while still on campus and to actually shift the culture of student perceptions of their university while they are enrolled in school. Students can get involved in events, whether as guests or as student volunteers, that give them insight into why alumni or other donors choose to give back to the university and invest in the future of the university. Ultimately, any gift to the university is adding value to the university and in turn adding value to the degree held by alumni of that university. This change in culture could affect moral norms for the students as future alumni,
This theory have been applied in many disciplines, includes finance and investment. One early research that use the theory of plannedbehavior in finance and have many citations, is from East (1993) focused on individual behavior in doing investment and apply the model to test the antecedents (Southey,2011). Using three cases in three private company in England, East (1993) got result that in each case, behavior to invest accurately can be predicted by the measured intention and the intention affected by attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control and past behavior (East,1993). East also found that influence from friends and family is very strong and also the importance access to financial information such as profit and security of the investment (East, 1993). Other research, conducted by Alleyne and Broome (2011) that aimed to determine individual’s factors that affect investment decision of potential investors. They found that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived controlled behavior are significant predictors toward the intention to invest. In the context of developing country, Gopi and Ramayah (2007) conducted research to identify factors that affect the intention to trade stock online among investors in Malaysia. Their findings also support the theory of plannedbehavior, where the three variables- attitudes, subjective norms and perceived controlled behavior – have positif influence towards the intention to trade stock online (Gopi and Rumayah, 2007).
The objective of this study was to employ the theory of plannedbehavior in examining the inclusion of Islamic religiosity in predicting Islamic ethical work behavior. Islamic religiosity was included as Islam plays a dominant role in Brunei’s society. Participants consisted of 370 Malay Muslim teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to test three proposed models. While Model 1 was based on the theory of plannedbehavior, it does not take into consideration the distinctive Islamic context of the Bruneian society. Hence, Model 2 was proposed to include Islamic religiosity. To better reflect the population, a model with Islamic religiosity was further augmented leading to Model 3. Results showed support for only two models: Model 1 and Model 3. Model 3 was revised by removing non-significant paths. Model comparison indicated that the revised Model 3 (AIC = 100.82; BIC = 103.55) is a better model than Model 1 (AIC = 141.88; BIC = 143.98). This suggests that the predictive power of the theory of plannedbehavior can be improved by including dominant cultural factors, such as religiosity, that affect a person’s belief. In conclusion, it can be said that religion is indispensable in exploring and understanding how the people in Brunei think and behave in their workplace and society.
In this section we have looked at whether, when and how attitudes predict behavior. From early studies like that of LaPierre it was apparent that there is not a clear link between the attitudes and opinions that people hold and the way they behave. Subsequent research has identified five key factors that determine whether attitudes will correlate with behaviors: specificity, time, self-awareness, attitude accessibility and attitude strength. However, attitudes do not predict behavior on their own, and for a complete understanding of how they impact on behavior we need to see how they interact with other antecedents. The theory of plannedbehavior specifies three factors that interact to determine behavioral intention, which in turn determines behavior: attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. This theory accounts well for reasoned, rational, logical decision making (and is a good example of how people can be naïve scientists), but it does not account well for habit- ual or spontaneous behaviors. The latter are accounted for much better by cognitive miser explanations, such as the way accessibility affects the attitude-behavior relationship.
Referring to the fraud triangle (Cressey, 1973) there are several factors that influence it, namely pressure, opportunites, rationalization. By adopting Dorminey et al. (2012) stating that there are psychological and social aspects can be antecedent variables rationalis as this study explores social construct variables as antiseden rationalization which is proxied by perceived attitude variables, norms, and behavioral control (Cohen et al., 2010). Furthermore, these three variables were tested for their influence on corrupt intentions and behavior. This research examines the attitude and behavior corruption/fraud using the social construct by using the theory of fraud triangle, theory of plannedbehavior and social psychology. This is done by paying more attention to the possible effect of social construction on attitudes, subjective norms, and control of individual or group behavior, which in turn affect the intention to commit corruption.
Curbside recycling has been a very successful neighborhood-level intervention designed to maximize waste containment, but many communities have specific limitations on what products can be recycled within their community bins and must rely on depots for recycling these specialty items. The purpose of this study was to examine an extended theory of plannedbehavior (TPB) that included both affective and instrumental attitudes and a planning construct to predict depot specialty recycling in a community sample across one month. Participants were 176 residents of detached homes who completed baseline measures of TPB and self-reported behavior one month later. Structural equation modeling identified a modest fit of the TPB, and 48% variance of depot recycling behavior was explained with the constructs of intention, planning and perceived behavioral control, yet these constructs did not perform as well in predicting change in behavior across four weeks. While proximity to the recycling depot did not relate to behavior, it significantly moderated the planning-recycling behavior relationship, whereby those who lived closer to the depot had larger planning-behavior relations than those who lived further away. Developing plans to recycle may help in addition to motivation, but these are still contingent on there being an easy commuting distance to a depot.
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the predictive factors of oral health be- havior among preschool children based on the theory of plannedbehavior (TPB). Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study included 833 mother-child pairs referring to twenty health centers in Tabriz, North-West Iran, from August 2014 to November 2015. The participants were selected by multi-stage stratified random sampling. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires completed by the participating mothers. The questionnaire consisted of demograph- ic characteristics, oral health behavior, and TPB structures (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention).
The data are collected via the survey questionnaire method. The questionnaire consists of two parts. In the first part, there are six multiple choice questions to determine the descriptive characteristics (age, gender, etc.) of the students. In the second part, a 5-point Likert-type plannedbehavior scale consisting of 12 items (1 = totally disagree, 5 = totally agree) organized by Turan (2011) is present to test the theory of plannedbehavior. Factor dimensions of Turan (2011) are used in the study without performing factor analysis regarding the scale. The scale consists of five dimensions. Both dimensions of behaviors/attitudes and intention toward purchasing behaviors include three items, and two items take place in each dimension of social pressure, perceived behavioral control, and actual use. Reliability analysis of the scale is repeated in the study, and it is determined that the alpha values of reliability for purchasing behavior, the intention toward purchasing behaviors, behaviors/attitudes, social pressure, and perceived behavioral control dimensions are calculated as 0.802, 0.842, 0.815, 0.831 and 0.823, respectively. In other words, the scale is reliable.
This study aimed to normalize and examine the validity and reliability of the optimism questionnaire based on the theory of plannedbehavior among the first-grade high school male adolescents. The study was conducted on 170 male students in the first grade of high school. The data were gathered using a researcher–made questionnaire containing 49 questions. In order to determine the validity of the questionnaire structure, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were performed using the SPSS-19 and SAS (version 19) software. High internal consistency values were obtained for all the subscales. The results of factor analysis showed that 14 significant factors had eigenvalues greater than 1.0 and 71.22% of the variance were explained by these factors. In CFA method, four factors were considered for the 45 questions of the questionnaire based on the theory of plannedbehavior, which explained 39.98% of the variance. The results indicated that the optimism questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument to be used among the students in the first grade of high school.
Guo, Q., Johnson, C.A., Unger, J.B., Lee, L., Xie, B., Chou, C.P., Palmer, P.H., Sun, P., Gallaher, P., and Pentz, M.A. (2007). Utility of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of PlannedBehavior for Predicting Chinese Adolescent Smoking. Addictive Behaviors, 32 , 1066-1081.
The aim of this paper was to apply the theory of plannedbehavior to the new context of online labor platforms in order to gain a deeper understanding of why customers participate in feedback provision, which is simultaneously voluntary, yet crucial to the success of online labor platforms. The two classifications of attitudes resulting from the principal component analysis on attitudes toward customer feedback provision, being instrumental attitudes and hedonic attitudes, highlights the relevance of distinguishing between different types of attitudes when analyzing behavior. Whether a customer interprets providing feedback as valuable (high in instrumental attitudes) or fun (high in hedonic attitudes) bears different effects on their willingness to provide feedback. This is evidence that conceptualizing “attitudes” as one general dimension fails to truly encapsulate the various nuances of attitudes as a construct. Interestingly, hedonic attitudes was the single significant predictor of intention to provide feedback, as seen in Model 2 (Table 5). In simplified terms, this shows that customers’ intention to provide feedback can be predicted by how pleasant and enjoyable they find it to be, and not by how beneficial/useful/good they perceive it to be. Therefore, in order to capitalize on this finding, online labor platforms could strengthen intentions to provide feedback by making feedback provision more pleasant and enjoyable for customers. Generally, all online labor platforms could do this by ensuring that their feedback mechanisms are intuitive and straightforward. Making the feedback provision process quick, visually appealing, and well-designed/-distributed should increase how pleasant and enjoyable it is perceived by customers. Further, in order to make feedback provision
In the last decades, researchers have used several theoretical models to predict and figure out the behavior of physical activity where the Theory of PlannedBehavior (TBP) has taken much attention and its prediction has been shown to be valid in different populations of adolescents [7,8]. According to the TBP, people assess a behavior positively and do it if they believe that important persons think that the behavior is to be done and also doing that behavior is under their control. In this theory, it is assumed that attitude, subjective, and control norms are determined by the underlying ideas of these constructs. The theory constructs often predict 40-50% of the variance of activity in different meta-analyses .
The increase of marketing strategy improvement is ability to predict the consumer behavior in the future. Thus, it is very significant for marketer to understand and impact the consumer behavior. There are numerous theories that used to predict the purchase behavior of the consumer in the purchasing method. In addition, as an extension of theory of reasoned action, the Theory of PlannedBehavior (TPB) clarifies the human decision making method (Azjen 1985, 1991; Azjen and Fishbein 1980). Theory of PlannedBehavior assists the study in clarifying behaviors over which individuals have incomplete voluntary control. Furthermore, factors included in the theory contain a) perceived behavior control, b) behavior, c) attitude, d), subjective norm, and e) intention. More specifically, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is used for a prediction of the information, which is related to the technology such as online purchasing. Additionally, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) can describe the acceptance of information technology and an individual’s attitude among applying that technology. To describe the information system acceptance, there are two fundamental variables which are perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Davis et al., 1989). It was supported by Nasri & Charfeddine, 2012, Sinha, 2010, McKechnie et al., 2006; O’Cass and Fenech, 2003.